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Full text of "Official and statistical register of the state of Mississippi"

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REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



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THE 

Official and Statistical Register 

OF THE! y 

STATE OF MISSISSIPPI 



CENTENNIAL EDITION 
1917 



BY 

DUNBAK T?OWT^ AND, T^L. D. 

"director ^' 

Department of xVrchives and History; Member American Historical 
Association; Secretary Mississippi Historical Society. 




Madisox, Wis. 

Democrat Printing Company 

1917 



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TO THE MEMBERS 

OF THE 

Senate and House of Representatives 

OF THE 

State of Mississippi 
Sessions of 1916-1920 

This Register is Rf:spectfully 
DEDICATED. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 

Part I ix 

The Meaning of Mississippi 1 

Mississippi Indian Tribes 2 

Pierre Le Moyne De Iberville 15 

Fort Maurepas, Old Biloxi .' 19 

Biloxi—poem ' 22 

The First White Settlers in Mississippi 24 

The Making of Mississippi 37 

Territorial Government 40 

Biographies of Governors of Mississippi Territory 47 

Pabt II 53 

• 

Mississippi Boundaries 55 

Inhabitants of Mississippi in 1816 66 

Statehood 153 

Part III .* 163 

State Government of Mississippi, 1817-1917 165 

Lists of Officials of the Executive Department 165 

Lists of Officials of the Judicial Department 166 

Biographies of the Governors of the State of Mississippi 280 

Supreme Court of the State of Mississippi 323 

The Judiciary of Mississippi 330 

An Outline History of Mississippi 348 

Part IV ....'. 379 

History of Mississippi's Old Capitol 381 

The Movement for the Preservation of Mississippi's Old Capitol 406 

The New Capitol 408 

United States Senators from Mississippi 413 

Mississippi Congressmen 420 

Confederate States Congressmen from Mississippi 427 

Mississippi's State Flag and Coat of Arms 429 

Federal Officers In Mississippi 434 



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Vi TABLE OF CONTEXTS 



Part IV — Continued Page 

if Congressional Districts of Mississippi 438 

I Counties of Mississippi 441 

I * Indian Names of Mississippi Counties. . . ; 446 

Popular Vote for Governor .> 448 

Election Returns 456 

• Executive Departments, Ofacers and Boards 494 

Senators and Representatives in Congress 588 

Part V '. r 603- 

State Institutions 605 

The University of Mississippi 605 

Mississippi Industrial Institute and College 631 

The Mississippi A. & M. College 644 

The Mississippi Normal College 647 

The Alcorn A. & M. College 652 

The Magnolia — State Flower of Mississippi 655 

History of First Mississippi Infantry 659 

Statistics for Mississippi 718 



Part VI 741 

Lregislatlve Department 743 

Sketches of Senators 756 

Sketches of Members of the House 825 

The City of Gulfport 969 

County Qovernment 971 

County Officers 977 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



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state Flag of Mississippi .Frontispiece 

Fac Simile of First Page of Journal of Gov. Winthrop 

[ Sargent , Facing 40 

Gov. Winthrop Sargent '* 47 

Gov. William C. C. Claiborne " 49 

Gov. Robert Williams -... " 50 

Fac Simile Signatures of Governors of Mississippi Territory " 52 
Seal of Department of Archives and History of the State of 

Mississippi " 54 

Fac Simile of First Page of First Constitution of Mississippi " 153 

Gov. David Holmes " 280 

Gov. George Poindexter , " 282 

Gov. Gerard Chittocque Brandon " 285 

Gov. Hiram G. Runnels ." . . . " 288 

Gov. John Anthony Quitman " 290 

Gov. Alexander Gallatin McNutt " 292 

Gov. Albert Gallatin Brown ** 295 

Gov. Joseph W. Matthews " 297 

Gov. John Isaac Guion " 298 

Gov. James Whitfield " 299 

Gov. Henry Stuart Foote ** 300 

Gov. John Jones Pettus " 302 

Gov. John.J. McRae '* 304 

Gov. William McWillie " 305 

] Gov. Charles Clark '* ~ 306 

Gov. William Lewis Sharkey ♦* 308 

Gov. Benjamin Grubb Humphreys '* 310 

Gov. James Lusk Alcorn .' " 312 

G^ov. John Marshall Stone " 314 

Gov. Robert Lo wry " 316 

Seal of the Province of West Florida attached to the British 

Patents '* 348 

Mississippi State Flag " 369 

Old State Capitol, 1839-1903 « 380 

. First Mississippi Capitol, 1822-1839 " 385 

Group Picture of Senate Chamber and Hall of Representa- 
tives, Old Capitol - ** 388 

Group Picture of Church, Columbus; Calhoun Institute, 

Macon ; jCourthouse, Columbus ** 394 

New State Capitol , " 409 

Main Entrance of Capitol " 410 

Mississippi (State Song), words and music — insert....... " 412 






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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

East End of Capitol Facing 414 

Central Rotunda Under the Dome — New Capitol " 416 

State Institution for the Blind, Jackson, Mississippi " 420 

Coat of Arms of Mississippi •« 429 

Pictures of Theo G. Bilbo and L. M. Russell " 494 

Pictures of Joseph W. Power, Robert E. Wilson, J. P. Taylor 

and T. M. Henry «« 497 

Pictures of Rosser A. Collins, Frank Roberson, Earl N. 

Floyd and L. F. Easterling : . . " 499 

Pictures of W. A. Montgomery, L. Q. Stone, J. F. Thames and 

M. A. Brown " 517 

Pictures of W. F. Bond, Stokes V. Robertson, William H. 

Smith and F. M. Sheppard *. " 521 

Pictures of E. F. Anderson, S. S. Harris, W. J. Buck and 

Mrs. W. F. Marshall " 528 

Pictures of Sidney Smith, Sam C. Cook, J. M. Stevens and 

George H. Ethridge " 534 

Pictures of J. B. Holden, Clayton D. Potter, E. O. Sykes and 

George C. Myers " 537 

Pictures of A. J. Mclntyre, J. G. McGowen, G. C, Tann and 

R. W. Cutrer " 544 

Pictures of Oscar B. Taylor, J. A. May, A. Y. Woodward and 

D. M. Russell " 546 

Pictures of Rowland W. Heidelberg, H. H. Rodgers, J. F. 

Guynes and E. D. Dinkins " 548 

Pictures of J. H. Neville, J. L. Bates, J. D. Carr and Frank 

E. Everett " 552 

Pictures of Robert Edgar Jackson, Paul B. Johnson, W. H. • 

Hughes and Thos. B. Carroll " 559 

Pictures of S. G. Salter, Guy J. Rencher, Toxey Hall and 

Richard Denman '* 572 

Pictures of Julius E. Berry, Jno. F. Allen, J. M. Foreman 

andJ. H.Howie " 576 

Pictures of Martin Van B. Miller, George F. Nobles, R. S. 

Hall and Hugh V. Wall " 580 

Pictures of Ezekiel S. Candler, Jr., B. G. Humphreys, H. D. 

Stephens and Thomas U. Sisson " 592 

Pictures of Byron P. Harrison, Percy E. Quin and J. W. 

Collier " 594 

Industrial Institute and College, Columbus, Miss " 631 

Music Hall — Industrial Institute and College " 632 

Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes — 

Chapel Building " 652 

Magnolia — State Flower of Mississippi ** 655 

Executive Residence, 1842 .' ** 659 

The Cotton Plant " 718 

East Mississippi Hospital for the Insane, Meridian ^ " 970 



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PART I 



The Meaning of Mississippi. 
i Mississippi Indian Tribes. 

Pierre Le Moyne De Iberville. 
Fort Maurepas, Old Biloxi. 

The First White Settlers in Mississippi. 

t 

I The Making of Mississippi. 

i 



Territorial Government. 

Biographies of Governors of Mississippi Territory. 



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INTRODUCTORY NOTE 



This, the fourth issue of the Mississippi Official and Statistical 
Register, has been prepared with a view to making it a memorial 
volume in honor of the admission of the State into the Union, De- 
cember 10, 1817. Under ordinary circumstances, this issue of the 
Register would have appeared in 1916. In view of the fact that 
December 10, 1917, will be the one-hundredth anniversary of Missis- 
sippi's entrance into "the Union, as the seventh State to be admitted 
under the provision of the Constitution for the admission of new 
states, it is the plan of the State Department of Archives and His- 
tory to distribute this Centennial issue at that time, in honor of 
Mississippi's birth-day as a State. 

In keeping with its purpose, the contents of this volume have been 
prepared with a view to giving to the people of Mississippi, in a 
readily accessible form, historical and statistical data concerning the 
economic, educational and political progress of the State from De- 
cember 10, 1817, to December 10, 1917. In the preparation of this 
issue of the Register, much devoted and faithful effort to secure ac- 
curacy in every statement and detail, has been expended by the 
author and by his assistants. Since November, 1915, the labor of 
preparation has filled the minds and time of the entire staff of the 
Historical Department, and no effort has been spared to make it 
worthy of the Centenary which it celebrates. In dedicating this 
volume to the Legislature of 1916-20, the Centennial Legislature in 
the State's history, it gives me very great pleasure to thank its 
faithful, patriotic andt siate-loving niembers for the appropriation for 
its publication, and for their sympathetic and helpful interest in the 
progress of the work. The State is most fortunate in having at this 
time a Legislature in every way worthy of its best traditions. 

To my faithful assistants, my wife and Miss M. L. Shelton, I wish 
to offer a sincere appreciation of their constant and valuable serv- 
ices in connection with the preparation of this volume, as well as in 
the general historical and literary work of the Department. 

For the excellent articles on the State's institutions for higher edu- 
cation, I am indebted to Dr. Alfred Hume of the State University, 
Dr. Dabney Lipscomb of the Industrial Institute and College, Dr. 



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viii INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

B. M. Walker of the Agricultural and Mechanical College, Prof. T. P. 
Scott of the Mississippi Normal College, and \V. H. Lanier of the 
Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College. Special acknowledge- 
ments and thanks are due to INIr. W. L. Austin of the Census Bureau 
for the invaluable statistics which he so accurately and courteously 
prepared for this volume. 

Dunbar Rowland. 
Department of Archives and History, 
Jackson, Miss., September 21, 1917. 



Tl^ 



THE MEANING OF MISSISSIPPI 



The derivation and meaning of Mississippi have been variously 
given. Peter Pitchlynn, who had an extensive knowledge of Indian 
languages, in a letter to the ColumMis Whig, in 18 61, traced the 
derivation of the word to the Choctow, mish sha sippukrie, which 
he translated "beyond age," and this translation is in conflict with 
the translation "father of waters," which is generally accepted. 
Du Pratz sought to explain the name Mechasipi as a contraction of 
Meact Chassipi, meaning "the ancient father of waters." It ap- 
pears, however, that the southern Indians did not give the river 
such a name when the earliest explorers reached the coast. The 
name given by the gulf coast Indians was written by the French as 
Malabouchia. 

Meechee Seepee, or something sounding like that, was the name 
given the river by the Indians of the northw^est, visited by La Salle 
and Marquette. The mechee or "Missi" is the same in meaning as 
the Micco of the Creeks and other Muscogees, meaning great as an 
adjective, and chief as a noun. The Michi of Michigan is the same 
word, and possibly the Massa of ^Massachusetts has a like derivation. 
Mississippi means great water or great river. It would be more ac- 
curately spelled Missisippi, the French orthography, or Misisipi, 
the Spanish form, both pronounced Meeseeseepee, which is probably 
close in sound to the Indian spoken words. 

The river was known to the Spaniards in the fifteenth and sev- 
enteenth centuries chiefly under the name of the Rio del Espiritu 
Santo, or the river of the Holy Ghost. It was also called by them 
the Rio Grande del Florida, the Rio del Espiritu Santo, or simply 
the Rio Grande. 

By the French it was given the title of La Palisade, on account 
of the numerous cotton-wood trees found on the bar and passes at 
the mouth. After its exploration by La Salle, it was called the Col- 
bert, in honor of the great minister of Louis XIV. Subsequent to 
the founding of the French colony by D'lberville in 1699, at Fort 
Maurepas, it was named the St. Louis, for the King, But these 
names all yielded in time to the ancient Indian name. 



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MISSISSIPPI IXDIAJT TRIBES 



The primitive possessors of the greater part of the present do- 
main of Mississippi were the three historic and powerful tribes 
of the Choctaws, Chickasaws and Natchez. In addition to these 
three important tribes, a number of smaller Indian tribes orig- 
inally held considerable portions of the soil of Mississippi. Ac- 
cording to the enumeration given by the eminent authority, H. S. 
Halbert, there lived in the southern part of the State the BIloxls, 
the Pascagoulas. the Chosettas, the Mactobys, and the Chatos; along 
the Yazoo river dwelt the tribes of Chocchumas, the Tunicas, the 
Yazoos, the Ofogoulas, the Coroas, the Tapouchas, and the Ib*^tou- 
pas. The great central expanse of the State was the home of the 
Choctaws; to their north lay the country of the Chickasaws, reach' 
ing far up and Into western Tennessee; the Natchez Indians oc- 
cupied a territory of moderate extent, on the Mississippi river, in 
the vicinity of the old town which has preserved their name. 

Scholars assign the Choctaws and the Chickasaws to the Masko- 
klan (also termed the Muskhogean. or Choctaw-Muskhogean) fam- 
fly of tribes, while the Natchez are assigned to a distinct linguistic 
, family — the Natchesan — in which many of the best authorities 
such as Powell Includes the Taensas: some of the authorities also 
unite with the Natchesan family, the tribes of the Pascagoulas, Co- 
laplssas. and Biloxis Halbert. however, argues that the BIloxIs, 
and probably the Pascagoulas. are properly assigned to the North- 
western family known as the Slouas. or Dakotan. and Powell takes 
the same view. Speaking In general terms of the Muskhogean, or 
Choctaw, Muskhogean family. It may be said to have occupied for 
many centuries prior to the coming of the white races, all that 
vast area of land extending from the Savannah river and the At? 
lantic west to the Mississippi river, and from the Gulf of Mexico 
north to the Tennessee river, with the exception of certain small 
areas In the possession of the YuchI, Natchez, and some small set- 
tlements of Shawnl. (Seventh Annual Report, Bureau of Ethnology, 
p. 94, J. W. Powell). On page 119. Archaeologia Americana, Gal- 
latin terms this linguistic family, Choctaw-Muskhogee, and makes 
It Ipclude the Muskhogees proper, or the Creeks, who lived on the 






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MISSISSIPPI INDIAN TRIBES 3 

Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers; the Hitchittees, living on the Chatta- 
hoochee and Flint rivers; the Seminoles of the Peninsula of Florida; 
I and the Choctaws and Chickasaws of Mississippi and Tennessee. 

V As given by Powell, the principal tribes of the family were the Ali- 

I bamu, Apalachi, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek or Maskoki proper, 

t: ■ Koasati, Seminole, Yamacraw, and Yamasi. Gatschet has thus de- 
I scribed the Maskokian family: "Among the various nationalities of 

I the Gulf territories the Maskoki Family of tribes occupied a central 

h and commanding position. Not only the large extent of the territory 

held by them, but also their numbers, their prow^ess in war, and a 
certain degree of mental culture and self esteem, made of the Mas- 
(. koki one of the most important groups in Indian history. From 

> their ethnologic condition of later times, we infer that these tribes 

Ci have extended for many centuries back in time from the Atlantic 

|v to the Mississippi, and beyond that river and from the Apalachian 

l' ridge to the Gulf of Mexico." (A, S. Gatschet, Creek Migration 

\;i Legend, 1, 50, 1884.) He further asserts that they caused much 

fC trouble to the English and French colonies, and some of the tribes 

1; constantly wavered in their adhesion between the French and the 

|- English cause. The American Government, after the Revolution, 

\- • overcame their opposition easily, when necessary (Seminoles ex- 
I' cepted), as the various tribes were never able to successfully unite. 

1 The two main branches of the stock, the Creek and Choctaw In- 

|_ . dians, were constantly at war, the circumstantial proof of which is 
^ embodied in their folk lore. From the main people the Choctaws 

settled in the middle portions of the present State of Mississippi, 
and by process of segmentation, the Chickasaws and several smaller 
tribes became separated from the parent tribe. The strongest evi- 
dence for the community of origin of the Maskoki tribes is furnished 
by the fact that their dialects belong to one linguistic family. The 
{ English spoke of them as Creeks because the English traders, in 
entering their country from Charleston or Savannah, were compelled 
; to cross a large number of creeks and streams. Gatschet further 

says, "In the southern part of the Choctaw territory several tribes 
represented to be of Choctaw lineage appear as distinct from the 
main branch, and are always mentioned separately. The French 
colonists called them Mobilians, Tohomes, Pascagoulas, Biloxis, 
Mougoulachas, Bayagoulas, and Houmas (Oumas). AH have dis- 
appeared except the Biloxis, of whom scattered remnants live in the 
forests of Louisiana, south of Red river." (Halbert locates both the 
Biloxis and the Pascagoulas as living tribes). 

Said Gallatin, writing of the Southern Indian tribes in 1830: 
"We find the nominal dignity of chief, sachem, mingo, or king, to 
have been, but with few exceptions, amongst all the Indians — not 
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MISSISSIPPI INDIAN TRIBES 



only for life, but hereditary. But another institution, belonging to 
all the southern, and of which traces may be found among the north- 
ern nations, deserves particular consideration. Independent of po- 
litical or geographical divisions, that into families or clans has been 

established from time immemorial. At what time and in what man- j 

ner the division was first made, is not known. At present or till -^ 

very lately, every nation was divided into clans, varying in the sev- -J 

era! nations from three to eight or ten, the members of which were t 

dispersed indiscriminately throughout the whole nation. It has ] 

been fully ascertained that the inviolable regulations by which \ 
these clans were perpetuated amongst the southern nations, were - j 

first, that no man could marry in his own clan; secondly, that every I 

child belongs to his or her mother's clan. Among the Chocta.vs ^ 

there are two great divisions, each of which is sub-divided into a 

four clans; and no man can marry into any of the four clans be- I 

longing to his division. The restriction among the Cherokees, the \ 

Creeks, and the Natchez, does not extend beyond the clan to which ? 

the man belongs. . . . According to ancient custom, if an of- | 

fence was committed by one or another member of the clan, the "} 

compensation to be made on account of the injury was regulated in i 

an amicable may by the other members of his clan. Murder was f 

rarely expiated in any other w^ay than by the death of the mur- 1 

dered; but the nearest male relative of the deceased was the exe- A 

cutioner, but this was done under the authority of the clan, and there | 

was no further retaliation. . . . The aristocratical fea- ^ • 

ture of the institution of clans appears to have been general. It ? 

is among the Natchez alone that we find, connected together, a i 

highly privileged class, a despotic government, and something like ^ 

a regular form of religious worship. They were divided into four i 

classes or clans, on the same principal and under the same regu- { 

lations as those of the other southern tribes. They worshipped the ^ 

sun, from whom the sovereign and the privileged class pretended ^ 

to be descended; and they preserved a perpetual sacred fire in an ^ 

edifice appropriated to that purpose. The hereditary dignity of > 

Chief, or Great Sun, descended as usual by the female line (equally .\ 

true among the Hurons); and he as well as all the other members 4 

of his clan, whether male or female, could marry only persons of I 

an inferior clan. Hence the barbarous custom of sacrificing at J 
their funerals the consorts of the Great Sun (or Chief), and of his ^'^ 

mother. Her influence was powerful, and his authority apparently j 

despotic, though checked by her and by some select counsellors of | 

his own clan." The common people among the Natchez were j 

called "Stinkards" TMiche-Miche-Quipy), and were in a high degree f 
submissive to the Suns, nobles and men of rank. • { 



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MISSISSIPII INDIAN TRIBES 6 

• As the powerful tribes of the Choctaws and Chickasaws are prom- 
inently identified ^vith the region composing the State of Mississippi 
down to, and, including, the decade, 183 0-184 0, further extended 
reference to these tribes is reserved for the conclusion of this arti- 
cle. Little is known of the various minor tribes of the State, above 
mentioned, and they may be first briefly disposed of. Of the Natchez 
Indians, who were finally dispersed and destroyed as a separate 
people by the French in 1730—32, much has been recorded elsewhere 
in the Encyclopedia of Mississippi History, in the articles entitled 
"Natchez Indians," "Natchez Massacre, 1729," "Port Rosalie," 
"Charlevoix," and the various subjects covering the French colonial 
period, and but little more need be said. 

Mr. H. S. Halbert has this to say of the small Indian tribes of 
Mississippi: "The Bilosis, when first known by Iberville, 169 9, were 
living near Biloxi Bay; but they afterwards removed north-west- 
ward to Pearl River. In 17 64, they crossed the Mississippi and 
settled in Louisiana. In Rapides parish there is now living a 
small remnant of this tribe, the larger portion having again mi- 
grated within recent years, some to the Choctaws, and others to the 
Alibamos of eastern Texas. A study of their language has shown 
that they belong to the Siouan or Dakotan family, they having sep- 
arated from the parent stem in some remote prehistoric time. In 
their native tongue, they called themselves Taneks, and refuse to 
be known as Biloxis. Taneks haya, "the first people." 

"The Pascagoulas lived on the river now bearing their name. 
Nothing is known of their language; but as they were always as- 
sociated with the Biloxis in their vp.rious migrations, they may have 
spoken the language of the latter, or one closely related thereto. 
Their tribal name is of Choctaw origin, and signifies, "Bread Peo- 
ple." Paskola bread, and okla, people. In 1764, this tribe emi- 
grated to Louisiana, and located near the Biloxis. The census of 
1830 gives their number as one hundred and eleven. But little 
is known of their later history. It is thought that the remnants 
of the tribe are now among the Alibamos of Texas." Halbert de- 
clares that the familiar legend which purports to recount the sad 
story of the extermination of this tribe is only pleasing fiction. 

The Chozettas and Mactobys, when found by the French, w^ere 
living on the Pascagoula, and may have been absorbed by that tribe, 
or the Biloxis. The Chatos once lived on the coast, and their ethnic 
affinity is unknown. Choctaw tradition asserts that they were ab- 
sorbed by the Six Towns Choctaws. Their name survives in a creek 
near Mobile, which the Choctaws call by their name. 

The Chocchumas were once a tribe of considerable importance, 
and in their latter days lived on the Yazoo, between the Chickasaws 



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6 MISSISSIPPI INDIAN TRIBES :i 

and the Clioctaws. They spoke the Choctaw language, and their 
name signifies "red craw-fish. " The Indian tradition says that they 
came from the west with the Choctaws and Chickasaws. They 
seem to have warred constantly with the last named tribes, whose 
tradition accuses the Chocchumas ot many hostile acts and horse- 
stealing inroads. The allied tribes of the Choctaws and Chickasaws ] 
finally almost exterminated them in their stronghold on Lyon's ) 
Bluff, on the south side of Line Creek, about eight miles north of J 
Starkville. This was about 17 70 when the Chocchumas were oc- ' 
cupying a narrow strip of territory extending from the month of the > 
Yalobusha on the west to the vicinity of where West Point now \ 
stands. What remained of the tribe was merged in the Chickasaw ^ 
nation in 1836. Haibert locates one of their villages six miles west 
of Bellefontaine, on the old Grenada road. One of their powerful : 
chiefs, Chula Homma, Red fox, lived here and was slain with all . 
his warriors at the time of the war, while all the women and chil- ; 
dren were enslaved. Adair, in his account of the Choctaw nation, ■; 
p. 305, mentions that a Choctaw and a Chocchuma w^arrior came to 
him for presents in 1747. He makes frequent mention of the tribe, ; 
and says the Chocchumas w^ere forced by war to settle between the '■ 
Choctaw and Chickasaw nations. 

At the first coming of the French, the Tunicas had some of their . 

settlements on the Yazoo river, one on the Mississippi, a few miles 
below the mouth of the Red river, and one in Tunica County, whiclj "" 

takes its name from the tribe. The tribe is famous for the severe i 

defeat administered by it to Major Loftus on the Mississippi in 
1763. Says Haibert, "In 1817, ^he entire Tunica tribe emigrated to ^ 

Louisiana, one section now living near Marksville, and another ,-^ 

near Lake Charles City. Their language has no affinity with any | 

other Indian tongue. Their tribal name. Tunica, signifies in their ^^ 

language, 'the people.' " i 

The Yazoos, of the several tribes who lived on the river of that 1 

name, made their home nearest the mouth. Haibert inclines to -| 

the belief that the word Yazoo signifies "leaf," and that it is a -s 

Uchee word, as Yazoo has no significance in the Choctaw tongue "• 

and there is evidence that the Uchees lived in Mississippi in pre- ] 

historic times. The Yazoos seem to have followed the example of "? 

the Natchez in 1729, and massacred the French in their midst. In I 

the latter part of the 18 th century they were a small people, living | 

in about 100 cabins. At the same period of time, the number of ' 

cabins belonging to the other small tribes on the Yazoo are given : 

as follows: The Ofogoulas, or "Dog People," lived in about sixty; » 

the Coroas in forty, and the Tapouchas in twenty. The Ibetoupas j 

were neighbors of the Tapouchas, but the number of their cabins is j 

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Mississippi indian tribes . 7 

unknown. Nothing is known concerning the languages of these 
tribes on the Yazoo, except that it was quite distinct from the 
Choctaw. In 1836, they were incorporated in the Chickasaw nation. 
The migration of the Biloxis, Pascagoulas, Tensas, some of the Six 
Towns Choctaws, a part of the Coshattees and Alibamos, and pos- 
sibly that of a part of the Yowanni band of Choctaws, according to 
Halbert, is explained by their attachment to the French. When 
the French power gave way in 17 63 to that of the English, these 
tribes resolved to follow the French into Louisiana, and after a 
great council held in Mobile in the spring of 17 64 to consider the 
subject of expatriation, proceeded to carry their resolve into effect. 
As previously stated, prior to 1730, the Natchez tribe of Indians 
occupied a region of moderate extent on the Mississippi in the vicin- 
ity of the present city of Natchez. Their villages lay along St. 
Catherine's Creek. Father Charlevoix states that the Natchez, in 
their external appearance did not differ from the other Indians of 
Louisiana or Canada. He estimates the number of their warriors in 
1721 at about 2,000, though this would appear to be an exaggera- 
tion, judging from the details of their wars with the French a few 
years later. Onl>'* a few years before this period, the Natchez had 
claimed some 4,000 warriors. Says Schoolcraft, "This numerical 
decline of the Natchez may be ascribed to the oppressive power of 
the chief, and the consequent decline and extinction of the external 
rites of the sun-worship in the country. Tradition represents the 
last Sun of the Natchez to have been an inflated man, "»?^vho with a 
high notion of his descent, office and position, appears to have neg- 
lected the means of preserving his peaceful relations with the 
French, with whom he waged war. The French under Louis XIV. 
had other notions of political power, than to yield to a forest king. 
They extinguished his idolatrous fire, attacked the nation with ir- 
resistible impetuosity, killed the greater number of them, and finally 
drove the remainder to a place of refuge on the Washita river, where 
monumental evidence of their residence still exists. They were com- 
pelled to take shelter in the Creek confederacy, of which they yet 
constitute an element." An early writer. Adair, thus explains the 
causes leading up to the massacre of 172 9, and the destruction of 
the tribe by the French. "Some of the old Natchez Indians who 
formerly lived on the Mississippi, two hundred miles west of the 
Choctaws, told me the French demanded from every one of their 
warriors a dressed buck-skin, without any value for it, i. e., they 
taxed them; but that the warriors' hearts grew very cross, and loved 
the deer-skins. As those Indians were of a peaceable and kindly dis- 
position, numerous and warlike, and always kept a friendly inter- 
course with the Chickasaws, who never had any good will to the 



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8 MISSISSIPPI INDIAN TRIBES 

French, these soon understood their heart-burnings, and by the ad- 
vice of the English traders, carried them white pipes and tobacco 
in their own name and that of South Carolina — persuading them 
with earnestness and policy to cut off the French, as they were 
resolved to enslave them in their own land. The Chickasaws suc- 
ceeded in their embassy. But as the Indians are slow in their 
councils on things of great importance, though equally close and 
intent, it was the following year before they could put their grand 
scheme in execution. Some of their head-men, indeed, opposed the 
plan, yet they never discovered (revealed) it. But when these went 
a hunting in the woods, the embers burst into a raging flame. They 
attacked the French, w^ho were flourishing away in the greatest se- 
curity and, it is affirmed, they entirely cut off the garrison and neigh- 
boring settlements, consisting of fifteen hundred men, women and 
children — the misconduct of a few indiscreet persons occasioned so 
great a number of innocent lives to be thus cut off." Still another 
account says: "Near the banks of the Mississippi, between the Choc- 
taw and Chickasaw tribes, in a region of great fertility, dwelt the 
Natchez Indians. The great chief of the tribe was revered as one 
of the family of the Sun, and his power was almest despotic. The 
French who came among them coveted their land, and Chopart, the 
French commander, demanded as a plantation the site of their 
principal village. In concert with the Cherokee (Chickasaws?) and 
a part of the Choctaws, a general massacre of the French w^as de- 
termined on. The butchery began on the morning of November 
28, 1729, and before noon nearly every Frenchman in the colony 
was slaughtered. The Jesuit Du Poisson. Du Codere, commander of 
the Yazoo post, the planter De Koli and his son, together wath the 
Capuchin missionary tg the Natchez nation, were all killed, only two 
white men, mechanics, being saved. Two hundred victims had 
fallen. New Orleans was in terror; but the brave Le Sueur, re- 
pairing to the Choctaws, won 7 00 of them to his side, while the 
French forces, under Loubois, gathered on the river. Le Sueur, 
with his Choctaws, on the morning of January 29, 1730, surprised 
the Natchez villages, liberated the captives, and brought off sixty 
scalps and eighteen prisoners, losing but two of his own men. He 
completed his victory February 8, when the Natchez Indians fled, 
some taking refuge with the Chickasaws and Maskokis, others cross- 
ing the Mississippi to the vicinity of Natchitoches. These were 
pursued and driven still farther west. The Great Sun and more 
than 400 prisoners were shipped to Hispaniola and sold as slaves. 
The Natchez nation no longer existed." (Drake, Indian Tribes of 
the United States, p. 156). There are still a few Natchez Indians 
among the Creeks in the Indian Territory, and a number near the 
Missouri border, in the Cherokee Hills. 









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MISSISSIPPI INDIAN TRIBES 9 

It has been stated that the Choctaws occupied the Great central 
part of the State of Mississippi. The trader, James Adair, who 
spent forty years among the Indians, writing in 1775, locates them 
as follows: "The Choctaw country lies in about 33 and 34 deg. 
north' latitude. According to the course of the Indian path, their 
western lower towns are situated 200 computed miles to the north- 
ward of New Orleans; the upper ones, 150 miles to the southward 
of the Chickasaw nation, 150 miles to the west of the late dangerous 
French Alabama garrison in the Muskhogee country, and 15'0 to the 
north of Mobile, which is the first settlement, and only town, except 
New Orleans, that the French had in West Florida. Their country 
is pretty much in the form of an oblong square. The barrier 
towns, which are next to the Muskhogee and Chickasaw countries, 
are compactly settled for social defense, according to the general 
method of other savage nations; but the rest, both in the center, 
and toward the Mississippi, are only scattered plantations, as best 
suits a separate easy way of living." He estimates their numbers 
after the secession of West Florida to the English at less than 4,500 
warriors. All writers unite in saying that the Choctaws were 
gathered on their eastern frontier, into compact villages, for pur- 
poses of defense, but lived wudely separated within the interior of 
their country. According to Adair, Koosah (Coosa) was the larg- 
est town in the nation, and was distant from Mobile about 180 
miles, "at a small distance from the river which glides by that 
low and unhealthy old capital." He also speaks of a remote, but 
considerable town, called "Yowanne," that lay 40 miles below the 
seven southermost towns of the nation, towards Mobile, which was 
distant 120 miles, "As it is a remote barrier, it is greatly harassed 
by the Muskhogee when at war with them." When Adair wrote, 
the town was ruled by the Mingo Humma Echeto, the Great Red 
Chieftain, and was defended by a palisaded fort. It is evident 
that the Englishman, Adair, bore little good will toward the Choc- 
taws, whom he characterizes as "of a base, ungrateful, and thieving 
disposition — fickle and treacherous — ready witted and endued with 
a surprising flow of smooth artful language on every subject within 
the reach of their ideas; in each of these qualities, they far ex- 
ceed any society of people I ever saw. . . . Except the intense 
love they bear to their native country, and their utter contempt of 
any kind of danger in defense of it, I know of no other virtue they 
possess." He declares that "having no rivers in their country 
(though it abounds with springs and creeks), few of them can 
swim like other Indians, which often proves hurtful to them when 
high freshes come on while they are out at war. . . . The 
Choctaws flatten their foreheads with a bag of sand which with 





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10 MISSISSIPPI INDIAN TRIBES 

great care they keep fastened on the skull of the infant, while it 
is in its tender and imperfect state. Thus they quite deform their 
face, and give themselves an appearance which is disagreeable to 
any but those of their 'own likeness." In another place he states 
that the Choctaws, "by not having deep rivers or creeks to purify 
themselves by daily ablutions, are becoming very irreligious in 
other respects, for of late years, they make no annual atonement 
for sin." The Choctaws by reason of the genial nature of the cli- 
mate where they lived, and the fertile plains and gently sloping 
hills of their favored land, excelled every North American tribe in 
their agriculture. They largely subsisted on corn, and placed but 
limited dependence on the chase. Choctaw tradition asserts that 
after their creation, they subsisted for a long time on the spon- 
taneous productions of the earth until they discovered maize a few 
miles distant from their sacred mound, Nanih Waiya. One version 
of the corn finding myth is thus given by Halbert: "A long time 
ago it thus happened. In the very beginning a crow got a single 
grain of corn from across the great water, (Gulf of Mexico), 
brought it to this countiy and gave it to an orphan child, who was 
playing in the yard. The child named it tauchi (corn). He 
planted it in the yard. When the corn was growing up, "the 
child's elder merely had it swept around. But the child wishing 
to make his own way, hoed it, hilled it up, and laid it by. When 
this single grain of com grew^ up and matured, it made two ears 
of corn. And in this way the ancestors of the Choctaws discovered 
corn." Scholars unite in assigning to the two tribes of the 
Chickasaws and Choctaws a common origin, based on language, 
tradition, religion and customs. There are many versions of their 
migration legend, though all unite in certain general features, 
such as the immigration from the west or northwest; the prophet 
and his sacred pole, and the final settlement at Nanih Waiya, their 
great sacred mound, in the southern part of Winston county. 
An excellent version of this migration legend will be found in Mr. 
Halbert's account of Nanih Waiya in the second volume of the 
publications of the Mississippi Historical Society. ' 

Bartram wrote of the Muscogees (Creeks) that "some of their 
most favorite songs and dances they have from their enemies, 
the Choctaws; for it seems that these people are very eminent for 
poetry and music; every town among them strives to " ■ ich 
other in composing new songs for dances; and by a custom gst 

them, they must have at least one new song for exhibition at every 
annual busk." See Bartram 516. 

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In the last century, said: "The Choctaw nation was divided 
Into three districts. Each district had its principal chief. Mingo 
Puckshennubbee ruled the western district, situated west of Pearl 
river. Mingo Homostubbee was chief of the northern district, 
which adjoined the Chickasaw country. Pushmattaha ruled the 
southeastern district. His residence was near the present site 
of Meridian, Miss. Major John Pitchlyn resided in the northern 
district, near the mouth of the Oktibbeha on the Tombigbee." 
Homostubbe died two or three years after the treaty of Mount 
■ Dexter, and was succeeded as mingo by his son, Mushalatubbee, 

a man of sense, but lacking the energy and versatility of his 
, father. His residence was near that of Major Pitchlyn. 

( The country of the Chickasaws adjoined that of the X!Jhoctaws on 

-- the north. They were a brave and warlike tribe, who were ever 

the invincible and faithful allies of the English. Their country 
reached to the Ohio on the north, to the Mississippi on the west, 
and was bounded on the east by a line drawn from the bend in 
the Cumberland river to the Muscle Shoals of the Tennessee, ex- 
tending south into the State of Mississippi to the land of the 
I Choctaws. Their region was as happy as any beneath the sun, 

I and the Chickasaws had an intense love for it. But they were 

^ never a numerous people within the memory of the whites, but 

I ever fought to maintain their hold with an intrepidity and daring 

^' which gained them a reputation of being the ablest warriors in the 

|;. South. 

i' Says Adair: "The Chickasaw country lies in about 3 5 degrees 

( north latitude, at the distance of 160 miles from the Mississippi; 

r . 160 miles to the north of the Ctoctaws, according to the course 

I' of the trading path; about half way from Mobile to the Illinois. 

i from south to north; to the west, northwest of the Muscogee 

J (Creeks) about 300 computed miles, and a very mountainous 

I mountain path; from the Cherokees nearly west about 540 miles. 

f The Chickasaws are now settled between the heads of two of the 

f most western branches of the Mobile (Tombigbee) river; and 

^-, within 12 miles of the eastern main source of Tahre Hache, 

f which lower down is called Chocchooma river, as that nation 

I (the Chocchumas) made their first settlement there, after they 

|: came on the other side of the Mississippi. Where it empties into 

f this, they call it Yahshoo (Yazoo,) river. Their tradition says 

f they had 10 '^OO men fit for war, when they first came from the 

}. west " v,his account seems very probable, as they and the 

Choir .V, J, and a^so the Chocchumas, came from the west as one 
=" family. The Chickasaws in 1720 had four large contiguous 

,;• pettlements, which lay nearly in the form of three parts of a 



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12 MISSISSIPPI INDIAN TRIBES 

square, only that the eastern side was five miles shorter than the 
western, with the open part toward the Choctaws. One was called 
Yaneka, about a mile wide and six miles long, at the distance of 
twelve miles from their present towns. Another was ten com- 
puted miles long, at the like distance from their present settle- 
ments, and from one to two miles broad. The towns were called 
Shatara, Chookheerefo, Hykehah Tufkawillao, and Phalacheho. 
The other square was single, began three miles from their present 
place of residence and ran four miles in length, and from one 
mile in breadth. This was called Chookka Phahaah, or "the long 
house." It was more populous than their whole nation contains 
at present. The remains of this once formidable people make 
up the northern angle of that broken square. They now consist of 
scarcely 450 warriors, and are settled three miles westward from 
the deep creek, in a clear tract of rich land, about three miles 
square, running afterward about five miles toward the northwest, 
where the old fields are usually a mile broad. The superior 
number of their enemies forced them to take into this narrow 
circle, for social defence; and to build their towns on command- 
ing ground, at such convenient distance from one another, as to 
have their enemies, when attacked, between two fires." Th© 
Chickasaws were ever the inveterate enemies of the French. The 
head men of the Chickasaws was called "Mingo," and was often 
called the king. In the various treaties made with the tribe 
by the government of the United States from the Treaty of Hopwell 
in 1786, to that of the Pontotoc Creek in 1832 the signature of 
the mingo or king is almost invariably affixed to the instrument. 
His assent was necessary to all treaties. In the Treaty of 18 05, 
when the Chickasaws relinquished part of their lands in Tennes- 
see in consideration of $20,000, Chenubbee Mingo, the king, was 
granted an annuity of $100.00. 

After the close of the war of the Revolution and the formation 
of the American government, the uniform policy of the United 
States was to treat the Indians as quasi nationalities, devoid of 
sovereignty, but having an absolute possessory right to the soil and 
its usufruct, with power to cede this right, to make peace, and to 
regulate the boundaries to their lands, by which the aboriginal 
hunting-grounds were so defined that they could be readily dis- 
tinguished from the district ceded. This policy gave rise to that 
long list of Indian treaties which record our later Indian history: 
and under it commenced the system of annuities whereby the 
Indians were provided with the means of subsistence, as their 
exhausted hunting-grounds were ceded, and were also encouraged 
to take up with the ways of civilization. The following treaties 



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MISSISSIPPI INDIAN TRIBES 13 

were concluded between the United States and the Choctaws and 
Chickasaws up to and including the removal of these tribes west of 
the Mississippi: With the Choctaws, Jan. 3, 1786, treaty of Hope- 
well, commissioners, Hawkins, Pickens and Martin; Dec. 17, 1801, 
Fort Adams, Wilkinson, Hawkins and Pickens; 1802, Oct. 17, Fort 
^Confederation, James Wilkinson; 18 03, Aug. 31, Hoe-Buckintoo-pa, 
James Wilkinson; 18 05, Nov. 16, Mount Dexter, Robertson and 
Dinsmoor; 1816, Oct. 24, Choctaw Trading House, Coffee Rhea, and 
McKee; 1820, Oct.l8, Doak's Stand, Jackson and Hinds; 182-5, Jan. 
20, Washi;igton, John C. Calhoun, 1830, Sept. 27, Dancing Rabbit 
Creek (final cession of lands in Mississippi), Eaton and Coffee. 
With the Chickasaws: 1786, Jan. 10, Treaty of Hopewell, U. S. 
commissioners, Hawkins, Pickens and Martin; 1801, Oct. 24, 
^Chickasaw Bluffs, Wilkinson, Hawkins and Pickens, 1805, July 
23, Chickasaw Country, Robertson and Dinsmoor; 1816, Sept. 20, 
Chickasaw Council House, Jackson, Meriwether aiid Franklin; 
1818, Oct. 19, Old Town, Shelby and Jackson; 1832, Oct. 20, 
Pontotoc Creek, (final cession of lands in Mississippi), John Coffee; 
1834, May 24, Washington, John H. Eaton. By the treaty of 
Daoksville, concluded with the Chickasaws and Choctaws, Jan. 17, 
1837, a convention was entered into between the Choctaws and 
Chickasaws, by which the Choctaws agreed to allow the Chickasaws 
the privilege of forming a district within their limits; to have an 
equal representation in the General Council; and to be placed 
on an equal footing, except as to the right of disposing of the 
lands occupied by them, or participating in the Choctaw annuities; 
the Chickasaws to manage their own funds. As a consideration 
for these rights and privileges, the Chickasaws agree to pay the 
Choctaws $530,000; $30,000 when the Choctaw annuity for 1837 
is paid and the $500,000 to be vested in some cai'e stock, redeem- 
able in not less than 20 years. 

The plan of concentrating the Indian tribes west of the Missis- 
sippi on lands especially appropriated to their use, where, under 
the operation of their own laws and institutions, their better 
qualities might be developed, was first suggested by President 
Monroe in 1825, in a message to Congress, Jan. 25, of that year. 
The policy was put into practical operation during the adminis- 
tration of President Jackson. In his first message to Congress in 
1829, he gave forcible expression to the subject, and Dec. 4, 1830, 
in his message he said: "Two important tribes, the Chickasaws 
and the Choctaws, have accepted the provision made for their re- 
moval at the session of Congress, and it is believed that their 
examule will induce the remaining tribes, also, to seek the same 
advantages." And he says the following year: "At the last 



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14 MISSISSIPPI INDIAN TRIBES 

session of Congress I had the happiness to announce that the 
Chickasaws and Choctaws had accepted the generous offer of the 
government and agreed to remove beyond the Mississippi and the 
western part of Alabama will be freed from Indian occupancy and 
openea to a civilized popuiaiion. The treaties with these tribes are 
in course of execution, and their removal, it is hoped, will be 
completed in the course of 18 3 2." Much of the Indian Territory, 
west of the Arkansas, was reported to be deficient in timber, water 
and fertility. Says Drake: "The Chickasaw Indians evidently 
labored under this impression during some years, for at the original 
sale of their lands at Pontotoc, Oct. 20, 1832, many of them ex- 
pressed a determination to remain on their old reservations ana 
there cultivate the soil. Two years' experience, however, caused 
them to change their views. In the preamble to a treaty negoti- 
ated at Washington, May 24, 18 34, they express a regret that they 
"are about to abandon their homes, which they have long cher- 
ished and loved; and, though hitherto unsuccessful, they still hope 
to find a country adequate to the wants and support of their people 
somewhere west of the Mississippi, and within the territorial limits 
of the United States.' By this treaty they ceded their reserva- 
tions east of the Mississippi, at the same time making some per- 
sonal, beneficial and eleemosynary provisions. They also directed 
the proceeds to be added to their vested funds, and agreed to 
send a delegation to the West to seek a location. This delega- 
tion visited the West during the year 1835, and selected a loca- 
tion in connection with the Choctaws, a closely affiliated people, 
making their own terms, as tiibe with tribe." 

In 1836, the War Department estimated the number of Choctaws 
at 18,500, and the Chickasaws at 5,500. 

See variou:5 Indian Treaties; Natchez Indians; Natchez Massa- 
cre, 1729; Fort Rosalie; Fort Nogales; Fort Maurepas; Forts and 
Districts under the French; Charlevoix; Missions, Early Catholic; 
Chickasaw X^reek War; Chickasaw-French War, 173 6; Chickasaw- 
French Campaign, 1739-40; Chickasaw School Fund; Choctaw; 
Trading Posts, U. S.; Pontotoc Battle, 1541; Alabamo Battle, 1541; 
De Soto in Mississippi; Pushmataha; Coahoma; Archaeology; also 
various titles covering French and Spanish colonial period. In 
Encyclopedia of Mississippi History. 



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GOV. GEXL. PIERRE C. MOYXE DE IBERVILLE • 
The Founder of Mississippi 
Photographic copy of an oil portrait in the Mississippi Hall of Fame. 



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PIEKEE LE MOYNE 1)E IBERVILLE 



THE FOUNDER OF MISSISSIPPI 

Pierre le Moyne de Iberville was the third of eleven sons of 
the brave Charles le Moyne, Seigneur of Longueil, Lower Canada, 
all of whom were distinguished soldiers of France. He was born at 
Montreal, July 2 0, 1662, and entered the service at France at an 
early age. After a brilliant career in the wars with England and Hol- 
land, he returned to France in 169 7 and was created a Knight of St. 
Louis in recognition of his eminent services. He took this oc- 
casion to urge upon the Court the necessity of prompt action in 
sending a fleet to the Gulf of Mexico to take possession and plant 
a colony in Louisiana, which had been neglected since the death 
of La Salle in 1687. Accordingly orders were issued in 1698 
by Louis XIV. for the dispatch of an expedition of colonists to 
the Mississippi, of which D'Iberville was given the command with 
the title of Governor-General. France was now to play her part 
in the great game of strategy with Spain and England for the 
control of the Mississippi basin. Forts and settlements on the 
lower Mississippi and the Gulf would provide Canada with a 
double autlet to the sea, and secure to France the free navigation 
of these waters, and the English colonies on the Atlantic would be 
hemmed in between the great French possessions of Canada and 
Louisiana. Spain, after two centuries of opportunity, had failed 
to seize the control of the lower Mississippi and had fastened her 
grasp on the islands and mainland farther to the south. France in 
actual possession could ignore her title based on early discoveries. 
The need of haste, however, was apparent; Spain was already in 
possession of the bay of Pensacola and engaged in establishing a 
colony there. 

The squadron under D'Iberville set sail from Brest on the 24th 
of October, 1698. It was composed of two frigates, the Marin 
and Badine, each carrying 3 guns, the former commanded by 
Compte de Surgeres and the latter by D''Iberville himself, and two 
smaller vessels, bearing nearly 200 colonists and a company of 



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16 PIERRE LE MOYNE DE IBERBIIA.E 

marines. Among the colonists were many women and children, 
the families of soldiers, who had been offered liberal inducements 
to join the expedition. There were also agriculturists and me- 
chanics, and a full supply of clothing and provisions and necessary 
implements had been provided. When they arrived in the bay 
called by the Spaniards Santa Maria de Galvez de Pensacola, on 
January 28, 1699, they did not deem it prudent to remain in the 
harbor, as two Spanish frigates were already there, and the Span- 
iards had been engaged for the space of four months in planting 
their colony. D'Iberville writes: "This is certainly a most beau- 
tiful port equal at least to that of Brest, and has been lost to us 
by delay." After exploring the Bay of Mobile, and Dauphin, Horn 
and Dog Islands, they finally anchored on Tuesday, February 10, 
in the harbor north of Ship Island, first called Surgeres, in honor 
of its discovery by that commander. Here D'Iberville learned 
from the Biloxi Indians of a large river to the westward, which 
they called the Malabouchia, and inferring that it was the Missis- 
sippi, he resolved to leave his vessels where they were safe and 
go in search of it. Meanwhile, on February 26, he had dispatched 
two feluccas in command of D'Sauvol to explore the Pascagoula 
ten leagues to the northeast. On Friday, the 27th, D'Iberville 
and his brother Bienville and a force of 51 men, part of whom 
were French Canadians, embarked in two long boats for the pur- 
pose of exploring the coast to the west, and also to search out the 
entrance to the Mississippi, with a view of ascending that stream 
and finding a favorable location for a settlement. He thus de- 
scribes his discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi, March 2: 
"At this moilient we perceived a pass between two banks, which 
appeared like islands. We saw that the water had changed: 
tasted and found it fresh, a circumstance that gave us great con- 
solation in that moment of consternation. Soon after, we beheld 
the thick, muddy water. As we advanced, we saw the passes of 
the river, three in number, and the current of the stream was such 
that we could not ascend it without difficulty although the wind 
was fair and favorable. . .. . The coast consists of nothing 
more than two narrow strips of land, about a musket shot in 
width, having the sea on both sides of the river, which flow^s 
between these two strips of land, and frequently overflows them. 
On Tuesday the 3rd, mass was performed, and a Te Deum 
sung, in gratitude for our discovery of the entrance of the 
Mississippi river," On this first voyage up the river D'Iberville 
ascended more than 100 leagues to the village of the Houmas. 
Strange to say, he was constantly assailed with doubts as to 
whether he was really on the Mississippi, and writes that "he is 



I 



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III 1 >■ V T PJ- ., 






PIERRE LE MOYNE DE IBERBILLE , 17 

very much vexed at the Recollet (Narrative of Father Hennepin), 
whose false narratives had deceived everyone and caused our 
sufferings and total failure of our enterprise by the time con- 
sumed in search of things which alone existed in his imagination." 
All doubts, however, were finally settled when he found among 
the Bayagoulas Indians (the Quinipissas of La Salle and Tonty ) a 
letter left by Tonty for La Salle, dated at the village of the 
Quinipissas, April 20, 1686. An old suit of Spanish armour, a 
relic of De Soto's army, still further identified the river. On the 
return trip, Bienville sent his brother down to the mouth to 
sound the passes, while he himself, with a few companions, re- 
turned to Ship Island by way of Pass Manchac and lakes Maurepas 
and Ponchartrain. It had been the intention of D'lberville to 
find a suitable place on the Mississippi to establish his colony, 
but having failed to find one, he proceeded to thoroughly explore 
the shores in the vicinity of Ship Island in search of a location. 
He selected an elevated site on the northeast shore of the Bay 
of Biloxi and there erected a fort, with log cabins for the colonies, 
which were finished by May 1st. D'lberville having now built a 
fort and founded a colony at the Bay of Biloxi, as the most con- 
venient place to establish commercial relations with the Indian 
tribes, the West India Islands, Mexico, and Europe, returned to 
France. He returned the following year and built another fort 
on the banks of the Mississippi, on learning from Sauvolle that two 
English armed ships had entered the Mississippi to establish a 
colony on its banks. These ships sailed back to the Gulf on 
being informed that fhey were on the Mississippi, on which the 
French had established themselves, and therefore they were tres- 
passers. On his return in January, 1700, D'lberville brought with 
him, sixty Canadian immigrants and a large supply of provisions 
and stores. He only remained a few days at the fort, and then 
proceeded to the Mississippi on another voyage of exploration. 
On his way up the river he selected the site for the new 'fort 
twenty-eight leagues from the mouth, and a short distance below 
the English Turn. After passing the Ellis cliffs he landed at the 
village of the Natchez "the most civilized of all the nations," and 
concluded a treaty of peace with them on the 5th of March. He 
ascended the river above Grand Gulf and on his return superin- 
tended the completion of the fort near the mouth of the river. 
Bienville was placed in command with a force of 25 men. In 
May D'lberville once more returned to France and did not come 
again to Biloxi until December, 1701, when he once more brought 
a large amount of supplies, arms, etc., and a number of colonists. 
During his absence. Governor D'Sauvolle had died of yellow fever, 



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18 PIERRE LE IklOYNE DE IBERBILLB 

leaving Bienville to succeed him as governor, and the colonists 
had been reduced by sickness to 150 in numbers. In 1702, war 
was declared by England against France and Spain, and the King 
of Prance ordered the headquarters of the governor to be re- 
moved to Mobile. Dauphin Island was used as a convenient 
station for the fleet and for many years it was an important point. 
In June, 1702, D'Iberville again returned to France, and when 
about to sail a fourth time for the Mississippi at the close of the 
year 1704, he was taken seriously ill at Rochelle, and was unable 
to leave France until the spring of 1706. On reaching the West 
Indies, he attacked and captured the island of Nevis, and on arriv- 
ing before Havana, the same year, he died of yellow fever after 
a short illness. The death of M. D'Iberville was severely felt by 
the colonists, the more so, as during his long absence from the 
colony until his death, dissensions had arisen among the several 
colonial authorities which retarded the growth of the colony. 



iTTT-j: 



FOET MAUllEPAS, OLD BILOXI 



THE FIRST SETTLEMENT IN MISSISSIPPI 

It was the original intention of D'Iberville to establish the first 
French colony on the banks of the Mississippi river. Because or 
its overflow, he had been unable to find a suitable location during 
his first voyage of discovery up the Mississippi in March, 169 9. He 
returned from his ineffectual search the 1st of April, and spent an- 
other week in searching out the shores adjacent to Ship Island, 
where the fleet was anchored. On Tuesday, the 7th, D'Iberville and 
Surgeres observed "an elevated place that appeared very suitable." 
This was on the northeast shore of the Bay of Biloxi. They had 
found seven or eight feet of water, and concluded to construct 
the fort there, as they "could find no spot more convenient, and 
our provisions were failing we could search no longer. On Wed- 
nesday the 8th, we commenced to cut away the trees preparatory 
for the construction of the fort. All our men worked vigorously, 
and at the end of the month it was finished. In the meantime, 
the boats were actively engaged transporting the powder, guns, 
and ammunition, as well as the live stock, such as bulls, cows, 
hogs, fowls, turkeys, etc. . . . The fort was made with 
four bastions, two of them squared logs, from two to three feet 
thick, placed one upon the other, with embrasures for port holes, 
and a ditch all around.. The other two bastions were stockaded 
with heavy timbers which took four men to lift one of them. 
Twelve guns were mounted." (Historical Journal of d'lberville's 
expedition.) The Journal further states that the very best men 
were selected to remain at the fort, including detachments of 
soldiers to place with the Canadians and workmen, and sailors to 
serve on the gunboats. Altogether about 100 people were left 
while d'Iberville returned to France early in May. M. de SauvoUe 
de la Villantray, lieutenant of a company and naval ensign of the 
frigate La Marin, was left in command as governor; de Bienville, 
king'fe lieutenant of the marine guard of the frigate La Badine, 
was next in command. Le Vasseur de Boussouelle, a Canadian, 
was major; de Bordenac, chaplain; M. Care, surgeon. There were 



'"7 7 . 






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20 FORT MAUREPAS. OLD BILOXI 

besides two captains, two cannoniers, four sailors, eighteen fili- 
busters, ten mechanics, six masons, thirteen Canadians and twenty 
sub-ofRcers and soldiers who comprised the garrison. This was 
the feeble beginning of the first white settlement on Mississippi 
soil. Unfortunately, there were few among the colonists who 
cared for agriculture and the colony never became self-sustaining. 
On the return of d'Iberville to Biloxi in January, 1700, he brought 
with him sixty Canadian immigrants and a large supply of pro- 
visions and stores. On this second voyage, he was instructed "to 
breed the Buffalo at Bilox'i; to seek for pearls; to examine the 
wild mulberry with a view to silk; the timber for shipbuilding; 
and to seek for mines." Expeditions in search of gold, jewels and 
valuable furs seem to have chiefly engaged the time and attention 
of the colonists. However, they made thorough explorations of 
the Mississippi and the surrounding country. In 1700, Le Sueur 
was sent to the upper Mississippi with 20 men to establish a fort 
in the Sioux country, for the purpose of controlling the copper 
mines of the Sioux Indians in the interests of France. Meanwhile 
the French had established forts and settlements in the Illinois 
country, and learning of the French colony at Biloxi boat loads 
of hardy Canadians began to arrive from the upper country. 
Fathers Davion and Montigny, accompanied by a few Frenchmen, 
were their first visitors, having made the long journey in frail 
canoes. In May, 1700, they were visited by M. Sagan, a traveler 
from Canada, who brought a request from the French minister to 
M. d'Sauvolle that he be furnished with 24 pirogues and 100 
Canadians for the purpose of making an exploration of the Mis- 
souri river and its branches. During the absence of D'Iberville, 
his youthful brother Bienville was indefatigable in making ex- 
plorations to secure the prosperity and perpetuity of the colony. 
But the health of the colonists suffered severely, and many died 
from what is now called congestive and yellow fever, including 
the governor, M. d'Sauvolle, who died in the summer of 1700, 
leaving Bienville in chief command. 

September 16, a party of Choctaws arrived at Biloxi to demand 
of the French some troops to assist them to fight the Chickasaws. 
The Choctaws at this time had 40 villages, and over 5,000 war- 
riors. Oct. 25, 20 Mobileans arrived at Fort Maurepas. This 
nation was said to contain about 400 fighting men at this time. 
December 18, a shallop arrived from Pensacola with the news that 
M. d'Iberville and Serigny had arrived there with the king''s ships, 
the Renommee of fifty guns, and the Palmier of forty-four guns. 
This was joyful news to the garrison, which had been living for 
more than three months on corn, and had been much reduced by 






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■^ :i, i-vt 1, 



FORT MAUREPAS, OLD BILOXI 21 

sickness, having lost upwards of sixty men, leaving only 150 per- 
sons in the colony. Bienville received orders by the shallop to 
evacuate Biloxi, and remove to Mobile River. January 5, 17 01, 
Bienville took up his march for Mobile river, leaving but 20 men 
under the command of M. de Boisbriant to man the fort. At 
Dauphin island, Bienville had an interview with M. de Serigny 
and Chateaugue, his brothers, who had arrived with a detachment 
of sailors and workmen, to build a magazine for the reception of 
the gdods and provisions, which had been brought from France, 
On the 16th, he commenced to build the fort of St. Louis de la Mo- 
bile, about twelve leagues above the present city of Mobile, on 
the right bank of the Mobile, which was the official center of the 
colony for the next nine years, when a new fort was built on the 
present site of Mobile, afterward known as Fort Conde. 



BILOXI 



(First Capital of Ancient Louisiana and site including the city of 
Gulfport and Biloxi designated by the Legislature for the Mississippi 
Centennial Celebration 1917. 



BY MRS. DUIN-BAR ROWLAND. 

Biloxi! other tongues may sing 
Of your rich stores and fresher bays, 
But all along your streets I feel 
The witchery of older days; 
Across yon blue gulf's restless waves 
The white-winged questing ships advance, 
And from each masthead proudly streams 
The lillied banner fair of France. 
Far-led by dreams that to the last 
Bright fantasy have been fulfilled, 
Bold heroes come with hope elate. 
New thrones and empires vast to build: 



Here by this sheltered, landlocked bay, 

A kingdom great, whose realms reached where 

The Rockies rear their cold white brows. 

Was planted 'mid wild flowers fair; 

Here where a savage people's hope 

But dimly lit the paths they trod, 

Diviner love and holier faith 

Raised altars to the living God, 



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BILOXI 23 



Through risk and loss the dream was hugged; 

With snare and lure and mock it spread 

Its mirage fair for those who won 

For others feast and vintage red; 

But every high, heroic deed 

Of those who starved and perished here 

Makes sweeter still a people's hope 

Of peace and freedom void of fear. 

Time has, In vain, City, sought 

With veer and shift and brazen glare 

To dim the glory of your youth. 

To raze its wall and temple fair; 

But while these waves break on your shores 

Your legends will delight the heart. 

Your venturous, chivalrous days 

Be of yourself the nobler part. 

Men will not let your glory fade, 

Your olden charm still binds them fast; 

Far dearer than rare gems they hold 

The ancient emblems of your past; 

Your history lives in every bloom 

That stars your vales and shores and meres; 

Its lustre will forever gild 

The garnered treasures of your years. 



ixoaj 






i^' i.:.v; 






FIEST WHITE SETTLEES IX MISSISSIPPI 



AT FORT MAUREPAS, (OLD BILOXI), 

April 8, 1699. 

This important document, which gives the names of the first white 
settlers on Mississippi soil, has been preserved in the office of the 
Minister of the Colonies, in Paris, France, and may be found in Series 
C. 13, General Correspondence relating to Louisiana, Vol. I., pages 
209-219. Accurate transcripts of this collection of documents, dealing 
with the founding of Mississippi, are on file in the Department of 
Archives and History; the collection is preserved in thirty-four bound 
volumes. This list appears in print for the first time; it gives the 
names of the garrison only. A careful search is being made in the 
French archives for the names of the two hundred colonists who ac- 
companied D'Iberville. 

(Rochefort— August 25, 16'99) 
(Mr. d'Iberville) 
Extract of the budget necessary for 
the salaries of the staff officers, 
petty officers, sailors and other 
persons, left in garrison at Fort 
Maurepas, in the Bay of Biloxi.) 
(on the back) 

Mr. de la Touche 
' Rochefort 

Extract of the funds which must be paid out in Rochefort for 
the salaries of the staff officers, the petty officers, sailors and 
other persons left in the garrison on the Bay of Biloxi, to the 
end of the year 1699. 



To know: 

staff officers — • 326 

petty officers 238 

sailors 63 

Canadians ...,..,...,,.,.....,-. r t • f f ? » • • " 7^^ 



' T 5 



■ -^ U iN 






*HE FIRST WHITE SETTLERS IN MISSISSIPPI 



freebooters 425 : 

laborers 229: 

cabin boys " 66 : 

soldiers (they will be paid from the funds of the 
port until the end of the year. Hence nothing 

Total 2065 : 



remitted in Rochefort by a statement of August 30, 1699. 
August 25, 1699. 

ROLL OF THE STAFF OFFICERS, petty officers, sailors, Canadians, 
freebooters, soldiers, laborers and cabin boys who have been left in 
garrison by Mr. d'Iberville at the fort of Maurepas in the Mississippi 
river, on the coast of Florida, to whom are due the sums hereinafter 
indicated for each of them, to begin, according to the terms of their 
engagement, on the first day after the termination of the advances 
made to them in France, and on the island of S. Doming^, until the 
last day of December of the present year 1699. (make the discount 
to the end of the year and remit the present). 



FIRST 



Mr. de SauvoUe, commander at 200 livres, began May 5, 1699, 
the rest of the time as ensign; has been paid on the vessel, 
"The Marin," as ensign of and lieutenant of the company 
for 4 months in advance from July 4, 1698, and for six 
months at the mustering out ended May Sr. 

Mr. de Bienville de Longuil, lieutenant of the King, at 100 livres, 
began id., the rest of the time as guard; has been paid on 
the "Badine" as g^jard four months in advance, began on 
July 20, 1698, and at the mustering out up to and including 
May 3r. 

Mr. Le Vasseur de Boussouelle, major from September 1 on at 
75 1. began id., the rest of the time as Canadian; embarked 
on the "Badine" as officer of the Canadians, on Sept. 1, 1698. 
Has not received anything. 

No amounts are drawn out for these gentlemen, because 
it is not known as what the court will be pleased to treat 
them. / 



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TilE FIRST WHITE SETTLERS IN MlSSiSSiPPI 



Mr. de Bordenave, chaplain at 30 1. per month, for the 
last 27 days of the month of May and the 7 last 
. months of the present year 237 1. 



Pierre Cave, surgeon-major, at 30 livres per month, for 
the last 27 days of January of the present year, 
i- e 357 1. 

Engaged on August 28, '98. Received in advance 120 1. 



PETTY OFFICERS 



Jean Francais le Vasseur, master on the ferry boat 
"La Precieuse" at 50 livres per month, for the 10 
last days of the month of October, the months of 
November and December 1698. 

i. e 116 1. 13s. 4r. 

and for the twelve ) 

months of the present ) 

year 600 1. o o ) 

Engaged on July 28, '98. Advance 120 1. 



716 1.13s.4r. 



Francais Guyon, master on the ferry boat "Le Voy- 
ageur" at 50 1. per month for the last 10 days of 
October, the months of November and december, 

1698, viz 116 1. 13s. 4r. 

and for the twelve ) 

months of the present ) 

year 600 o o ) 

Engaged on July 28, '98. Advance 120 1. 



716 1.13s.4r. 



Nicolas la Voye, coast pilot, paid at the mustering out 
of "la Badine" until May 3 incl. at 30 1. per month 
and for the 27 last days of said month and the last 
7 months of the same year, i. e 237 1 



Pierre Tabatrau, road pilot, engaged at Leogane on the 
first of January 1699 at 40 1. per month and for 

the said year, i, e 480 1, 

Advance nothing. 



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THE FIRST WHITE SETTLERS IN AIISSISSIFPI 2f 

Philipes Ley, master gunner, at 30 1. per month for 
the last 27 days of May 1699 and the last 7 months 

of said year i. e 237 1 . 

Mustered out from "la Badine" and paid at time of 
mustering out until May 3, incl. 



2387 1.6s.8r. 



SAILORS. 

Pierre Hardouin, ship carpenter, at 20 1, per month, 
for the last 27 days of May 1699 and the last 7 

months of said year, i. e 158 1 . 

Mustered out from "la Badine" and paid at time of 
mustering out until May 3, incl. 

Raymond Saintot, at 15 1. per month for the last 27 
days of May 1699 ancJ the last 7 months of said 

year, i. e 118 1. 10s. 

Mustered out from "la Badine" and paid at time of 
mustering out until May 3, incl. 

Bernard Saurotte, at 15 1. per month for the last 27 
days of May, 1699 and the last 7 months of said 

year. i. e 118 1. 10s. 

Mustered out from "la Badine" and paid at time of 
mustering out until May 3, incl. 

Jacques Roy, called grimos, carpenter of "le Marin," 
at 30 1. per month, for the last 27 days of May 
1699 and the last 7 months of the said year, i. e. . . 237 1. 
Mustered out from "le Marin" and paid at time of 
mustering out until May 3, incl. 



632 



CANADIANS. 



Jacques Bellair, at 30 1. per month, 
for the last 10 days of October, 
the months of November and December.. 70 1. ) 430 1. 

and for the year 1699 360 1. ) 

Engaged on July 20, '98. Advances 90 1. 



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28 THE FIRST WHITE SETTLERS IN MISSISSIPPI 

Pierre Pot, at 30 1. per month, 

for the last 10 days of October, 
the months of November and 

December 1698 70 l . ) 

and for the twelve months of \ 430 1. 

the present year 360 1. ) 

Engaged on July 20, '98. Advances 90 1. 

Philipes du Coudret, at 30 1. per month, 
for the last 10 days of October, the 

months of November and December 70 1. ) 

and for the twelve months of the ) 430 1 

present year 360 1 . ) 

Engaged on July 20, '98. Advances 90 1. 



Pierre Tesserontie, at 30 1. per 
month, for the last 10 days of 
October, the months of November 

and December 1698. 70 1. ) 

and for the twelve months of ) 430 1. 

the present year 360 1 • ) 

Engaged on July 20, '98. Advances 90 1. 

Antoine Damedieu, at 30 1. per month, 
for the last 10 days of October, the 

months of November and December, 70. 1. ) 

1698 and for the tw-elve months of ) 430 1. 

the present year ..360 1. ) 

Engaged on July 20, '98. Advances 90 1. 

Le Polonnais, at 30 1. per month, 
for the last 10 days of October, 
the months of November and 

December 1698 70 1. ) 

and for the twelve months of ) 430 1. 

the present year 360 1. ) 

Engaged on July 20, '98. Advances 90 1. 

Hurs Le Roy, at 30 1. per month, 
for the last 10 days of October, 
the months of November and 

December 1698 70 1. ) 

and for the twelve months of ) 430 1 , 

the present year 360 1 . ) 

Engaged on July 20, '98. Advances 90 1. 



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THE FIRST WHITE SETTLERS IN MISSISSIPPI 29 

Claude Marandan, at SO 1. per month, 
for the last 10 days of October, 
the months of November and 

December 1698 70 1 . , ) 

and for the twelve months of \ 430 1. 

the present year .360 1. ) 

Engaged on July 20, '98. Advances 90 1. 



Jean Du Chesne, at 27 1. per month, 
for the last 10 days of October, 
the months of November and 

December 1698 63 1 . ) 387 1 . 

and for the year 1699 324 1 . ) 

Engaged on July 20, '98. Advances 81 1. 



Estienne Godefray, at 27 1. per month, 
for the last 10 days of October, 
the months of November and 

December, 1698 63 1. ) 387 1. 

and for the year 1699 324 1 . ) 

Engaged on July 20, '98. Acivances 81 1. 

Jean Emery, at 27 1. per month, 
for the last 10 days of October, 
the months of November and 

December 1698 63 1. ) 387 1. 

and for the year 1699... 324 1. ) 

Engaged on July 20, '98. Advances 81 1. 



Jean Pintureau, at 25 1. per month, 
for the last 10 days of October, 

November and December 1698 58 1.6s.8r. ) 358 1.6s.8r. 

and for the year 1699 300 o o ) 

Engaged on July 20, '98. Advances 75 1. 



Jean du Boullay, at 25 1. per month, 
for the last 10 days of October, 

November and December 1698 58 1.6s.8r. ) 358 1.6s.8r. 

and for the year 1699 300 o o ) 

Engaged on July 20, 1698. Advances 75 1, 



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30 ■ THE FIRST TVTIITE SETTLERS IN MISSISSIPPI 

Jean Baptiste Herviers, at 30 1. per 
month, for the last 10 days of 
October, the months of November and 

December 169S 70 1 . \ 

and for the twelve months of the ) 430 1. 

present year 360 1. ) 

Engaged on July 20, '98. Advances 90 1. 

Jean Cabuteau, at 30 1. per month, 
for the last 10 days of October, 
the months of November and 

December 1698 70 1 . ) 

and for the twelve months of ) 430 1. 

the present year 360 1 . ) 

Engaged on July 20, '98. Advances 120 1. 

Tineau Alexandre, at 30 1. per month, 
from the 22nd of Dec. 1698, for the 
last 25 days of March and the last 
nine months of the present year 

1699, 1. e 295 1. 

Engaged on December 22, '98. Advances 73 1. 

Louis Guay, at 30 1. per month and for 
the twelve months of the present year 
1699, i. e 360 1 . 

Engaged on Jan. 1, 1699. Advances nothing. 

Antoine Olivier, at SO 1. per month and 
for the twelve months of the present 

year 1699, i. e 360 1 . 

Engaged on Jan. 1, 1699. Advances nothing. 



7192 1.13s.4r. 



FREEBOOTERS. 

Pierre Desmarsz, engaged on July 20, at 
the mustering of the vessel, at 30 1. per 
month and for last 10 days of October, 

November and December '98, i. e ..70 1. ) 430' 1. 

and for the twelve months of 1699, I. e. .360 1. ) 
Engaged on July 20, '98. Advances 90 1. 



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THE FIRST WHITE SETTLERS IN MISSISSIPPI 



31 



Michel Chess^, at 30 1. per month, from 
Sept. 1, '98, for the last 25 days of 
November and the month of December, 

i. e 55 L. ) 

and for the year 1699 360 1. ) 

From Sept. 1, '98. Advances 90 1. 



^^r^i: 



415 1, 



845 1 



Nicolas de Garde, at 30 1. per month. 
Engaged on Sept. 1, 1698, for the last 
10 days of November and the month 

of December 42 1 . 

and for the year 1699 360 1. 

Engaged on Sept. 1, '98. Advances 90 1. 

Jean NImonneau, engaged on Sept. 1, 1698, for 
25 1. per month, and for the month of 

December, i. e 25 1 . 

and for the present year 1699 300 1 . 

Engaged on Sept. 1, '98. Advances 75 1. 

Jean Desplans, on Aug. 28, 1698, at 30 1. 
per month, for the last 2 days of 
November and the month of December, 

i. e 32 1. 

and for the year 1699 .360 1. 

Engaged on Aug. 28, '98. Acivances 90 1. 

Philipes Paget, on December 28, '98, 

at 25 1. per month, and for the 

last 2 days of said month 1 1.13s.4r. 

and for the year 1699, i. e 300 o o 

Engaged on Dec. 28, '98. Advances 99 1. 

Pierre Bertrand, on Dec. 15, '98, at 30 1. 
per month, for the last 9 days of 
March, and for the last 9 months of 

the present year, I. e 

Engaged on Dec. 15, '98. Advances 95 1. 15s. 

Jacques Emerit, on Dec. 28, '98, at 30 1. 
per month, for the last 15 days of 
April and the last 8 months of the 

present year, i. e 

Engaged on Dec. 28, '98. Advances 107 1. 



402 1, 



325 1. 



392 1. 



301 13s. 4r. 



279 



255 



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32 THE FIRST WHITE SETTLERS IN MISSISSIPPI 

Andre Regnaux, at 30 1. per month, for 
the last 3 days of April and the last 

8 months of the present year, i. e 243 

Engaged on Jan. 1, '99. Advances 116 1. 18s. 3042: 13:4. 



Jacques Carolle, at 30 1. per month, 
for the last 13 days of March 
and the last 9 monihs of the 

present year, i. e 283 1 . 

Engaged on Jan. 1, 1699. Advances 77 1. 

Jean Charneaux, at 30 1. per month, 
for the last 12 days of March and 
the last 9 months of the present 

year, i. e ' 282 1 . 

Engaged on Dec. 28, '98. Advances 80 1. 

Louis Le Due, at 30 1. per month, for 

the last 14 days of March andi the 

last 9 months of the present year, i. e. . . . 284 1. 
, Engaged on Dec. 26, '98. Advances 80 1. 

Pierre St. Germain, at 30 1. per month, 

and for the twelve months of the present 

year, i. e 360 1. 



f 



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LABORERS. 

Jacques Gourdon, edge-tool maker, on 
Sept. 16, 1698, at 300 1. per year, for 
the last 3 days of March, 1699, and 

the last 9 months of said year, i. e 227 1.10s 

Engaged-on Sept. 16, '98. Advances 150 1.12s. 

Frangois Nicaud, carpenter, from Sept. 9, 1698, at 
400 1. per year, for the last 7 days of Jan., 

1699 and the last eleven months of said year 374 1. Ss.lOr. 

Engaged on the 9th of said month. Advances 150 1. 






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S 



THE FIRST WTIITE SETTLERS IN MISSISSIPPI 33 

Estienne Tardif, from Aug. 28 at 400 1. per 
year, for the last 17 days of Jan., '99, and 

the last eleven months of said year, i. e 385 1.12s. 

Engaged on Aug. 28 of said year. Advances 90 1. 

Henry Croisy, carpenter maker of copper trusses, 

from Aug. 28, '98, at 30 1. per month for 987 1. 10s. lOr. 

the last two days of November and the 

month of December 32 1. ) 392 1. 

and for the year 1699 360 1. ) 

Engaged on Aug. 28, '98. Advances 90 1. , 

Jean la Porte, gunsmith from Aug. 9, at 30 1 . 
per month for the 21 last days of november 

ixzd the month of December, 1698 50 1. ) 411 1. 

ana for the year 1699 360 1. ) 

Engaged on the 9th of said month. Advances 90 1. 

Francois de Salle, shoemaker, from Sept. 7, at 100 1. 
per year, for the last 23 days of March, 1699, 

and for the last 9 months of said year 81 7 5 

Engaged on Sept. 7, '98. Advances 50 1. 

Estienen Duguay, baker, from Sept. 7, at 150 1. 
per year, for the last 29 days of February, 

1699, and the last 10 months of said year 137 1 8 

Engaged on Sept. 7, '98. Advances 60 1. 

Marc Antoine Basset, from Sept. 7, 1698, at 80 1. for 
the first year, and 100 1. for the second, for the 
last 8 days of April, the months of May, June, July, 
August an(5 the first 7 days of September, at said 
rate of 80 1., in accordance with the terms of 

his engagement, i. e 29 1.6s. 6r. ) 

and for the last 23 days of said ) 

month Sept. and the last 3 months ) 60 14 3 

of said year, at the rate of 100 1 . ) 

1. e 31 1.7s.9r. ) 

Engaged on Sept. 7, '98. Advances 50 1, 

Claude Bage, from Dec. 30, '98, at 12 1. 

per month, for the last 9 days of Jan., 1699, 

and the last eleven months of said year, i. e 135 12 

Engaged on Dec. 3, '98. Advances 8 1.16s. 
3 — m 






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34 THE FIRST WTIITE SETTI>ERS IX MISSISSII'PI 

Pierre Potus, from Dec. 20, 169S, at 10 1. 
per month, for the last 10 days of July, 
1699, and the last 5 months of said 
year, i. e. the sum of 



Engaged on Dec. 20, '98. Advances 70 1. 



53 6 8 



2258 1.12:10 



CABIN BOYS. 



St. Michel, from Aug. 1, 1698, at 8 1. per 
month, for the last 26 days of November 

and the month of December 14 1.18s.8r. 

and for the year 1699 96 o o 

Engaged on Aug. 1, 1698. Advances 25 1. 



Pierre Huet, from Aug. 1, 1698, at 8 1. per 
month, for the last 26 days of November 

and the month of December 14 1.18s.8r. 

and for the year 1699 96 o o 

Engaged on Aug. 1, 1698. Advances 25 1. 



Gabriel Marcal, from Aug. 1, 1698, at 8 1. per 
month, for the last 26 days of November 

and the month of December 14 1.18s.8r. 

and for the year 1699 96 .o o 

Engaged on Aug. 1, 1698. Advances 25 1. 



Jean Joly, from Aug. 1, 1698, at 8 1. per 
month, for the last 26 days of November 

and the month of December 14 1.18s.8r. 

and for the year 1699 96 o o 

Engaged on Aug. 1, 1698. Advances 25 1. 



Jacques Charon, from Aug. 1, 1698, at 8 1. per 
month, for the last 26 days of November 

and the month of December 14 1.18s.8r. 

and for the year 1699 96 o o 

Engaged on Aug. 1, 1698. Advances 25 l^ 



110 1.18s.8r. 



110 1.18s.8r. 



110 1.18s.8r. 



110 1.18s.8r. 



110 1.18s.8r, 



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THE FIRST WHITE SETTLERS IX MISSISSIPPI 35 

Pierre le Vasseur, from Aug. 1, 1698. at 8 1. per 
month, for the last 26 days of November 

and the month of December 14 1.18s.8r. ) 

and for the year 1699 -...96 o o ) 110 1. 18s. 8r. 



._ 665 12 
Engaged on Aug. 1, 1698. Advances 25 1. 

NAMES OF THE SOLDIERS, REMAINING AT FORT MAUREPAS. 
SERGEANT , 

Daniel Pineaii, „ 

called La Motte 

CORPORALS 

Frangois Montiron 

Jean Desgarennes 

The port of Rochefort owes these soldiers wages for the past and. 
we must see Mr. Du Guay and give him an account for the whole period 
up to the end of the year. 

( SOLDIERS 

( Pierre Bosset J 

( Jacques Porche x5G7^9'75 

'( 
f Hyerome Brouin 

Notice that they are employed on the income of the port of Rochefort. 
( Jean Malbeeg 

'. ( - - 

( Jean Marpeaux ~ 

( 

( Pierre Godeaux 
( Guillaume Martin 

( 

( Antoine Niret 

( 

( Jean Chesne 

^ ( 

( Jean du Val 

( ■ • ■ 

( Nicolas la TulUe 



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36 THE FIRST ^VHITE SETTLERS IN MISSISSIE'PI 

Jacques Henry 

Pierre Vallet 

Pierre Maury 

Morgan Nomme ' 

Pierre Cilliraux 

Guillaume Lucas 

Notice that they are employed on the income of the port of Roche- 
fort. 

RECAPITULATION. 

3 staff officers nothing 

2 staff officers 594 1 . 

5 petty officers 2387 1 . 6.8. 

4 sailors 632 1 . 

Brought forward 3613 1 . 6s . 8r . 

18 Canadians 7192 13 4 

13 freebooters 4251 13 4 

10 laborers 2258 12 10 

6 cabin boys 665 12 o 

1 sergeant 

2 corporals 

17 soldiers 



Total 81 men 17981 1.18s. 2r. 

i. e. XVIIM IXC xxiill 1 1. 18s. 2r. 
and for the year M.VIIC (1700) 

Nothing for this year 

the sum of seventeen thousand nine 

hundred and two livres 

XVIIM IXC II 1. 

Grand total of the contents of the present roll thirty-five thousand 
eight hundred and eighty-three livres, eight sous, two pence. 

xxxvM Vine xxiiii in i. xviii s. iir. 

I, the undersigned certify the correctness of the contents of this 
roll. 

Rochefort, August 25, 1699. 

seen: DuGuay. ' D'lbervllle. 






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THE MAKIXCI OF MISSISSIPPI. 



NATIVE DOMINION 

When the territory which is now the state of Mississippi was 
first explored by white men, it was owned and occupied by the 
following tribes of Indians: The Natchez, Choctaws, Chickasaws, 
Biloxis, Pascagouias, Chocchumas, Tunicas and Yazoos. 

The most numerous and powerful tribes were the Chickasaws 
and Choctaws; the former lived in the northern and the latter 
in the central and southern parts of the State. 

The Natchez Indians lived along the Mississippi River, in the 
present counties of Adams, Claiborne, Jefferson and Wilkinson. 
The Biloxis and Pascagoulos occupied the Gulf Coast country. 

The Tunicas and Yazoo tribes had their hunting grounds along 
the Yazoo River. The Chocchumas lived in the eastern part of 
the State. 



SPANISH DOMINION 

1512-1699. 

Spain by the right oi discovery, claimed nearly all of the great 
continent of North America, which was given the name of Florida 
by the early Spanish navigators and explorers. The title to the 
country was rather general and undefined, but remained unchal- 
lenged until the coming of the English and French. 
, What is now the State of Mississippi remained nominallj: under 
the dominion of Spain until 169 9, when the French, under Pierre 
Lemoine d'Iberville, made a settlement at Biloxi. 
• The kings of Spain, hence of Mississippi, from 1512 to 1699, 
were Ferdinand V., Charles L, Philip II., Philip III., Philipx IV., 
Charles II. 



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38 THE MAKING OF MISSISSIPPI 

FRENCH DOMINION 

1699-1763. ' • 

In 1699 Mississippi became a possession of France by actual 
settlement, and was called Louisiana, with the seat of government 
at Biloxi. 

From 1699 to 1711 the settlements of Louisiana were under 
the control of the Governors of New France, or Canada, as follows: 

Louis Hector de Callierves. 

Philip de Rigault, Marquis de Vaudreuil. 

In 1711 Louisiana was made an independent government, re- 
sponsible directly to the crown, and the seat of colonial govern- 
ment was established at Mobile. 

The following Governors ruled the country as the representatives 
of France: ' 

Antone LeMoyne Sauvolle, 

Jean Baptiste LeMoyne Bienville, 

Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, 

M. De I'Epinay, 

Jean Baptiste LeMoyne Bienville, 

M. Perier, 

Jean Baptiste LeMoyne Bienville, 

Marquis de Vaudreuil, 

Louis Billouart de Kerler^c. 



ENGLISH DOMINION 

1763-1781. 

By virtue of the treaty of Paris, entered into on the tenth day 
of February, 1763, between England, Spain and France, England 
gained much of the territory within the present limits of the State 
of Mississippi, which was the Province of West Florida. 

The following Royal Governors ruled the Province during the 
English dominion of eighteen years: 

George Johnstone, 1763 to 1767. 

Montfort Browne, ad interim 1767 to 1768. 

John Eliot, 1768. 

Montfort Browne, ad interim 1768 to 1769. 

Elias Durnford, ad interim 1769 to 1770 

Peter Chester, 1770 to 1781. 



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THE MAKING OF MISSISSIPPI 



39 



SPANISH DOMINION 

1781-1798. 

In the summer of 17 7 2 Spain had declared war against England. 
Don Bernardo de Galvez, the Spanish Governor, attacked ;^he 
English Province of West Florida and made it a part of the pos- 
sessions of Spain in America by May 9, 1781. 

The military and civil commanders of the Natchez District 
under Spanish rule were as follows: 

Francis Callett, Phelipe Trevino, 

Estravan Miro Pedro Piernas, 

Francis Dauligny, Carlos de Grand Pre, 

Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, Joseph Vidal. 

Stephen Minor. 

The seat of the Spanish Government for the Natchez District was 
at Natchez. 



AMERICAN DOMINION 

By virtue of the treaty of San Lorenzo, which was made October 
27, 1795, the Natchez District became a part of the United States. 

The Mississippi Territory was formed by act of Congress, April 
7, 1798. 

(For more detailed information relative to Mississippi, from 
1798 to the present, see "An Outline History of Mississippi," in this 
volume.) 



TBRRITOKIAL GOVER^s^MENT. 



GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI TERRITORY 

1798-1817/ 

Winthrop Sargent, of Northwest of Ohio River. 
Appointed on confirmation, May 7, 17 98. 

William C. C. Claiborne, of Tennessee. 
Recess appointment. May 25, 1801. 
Appointed on confirmation, January 26, 1802. 

Robert Williams, of North Carolina. 

Appointed on confirmation, March 1, 1805. 
Appointed on confirmation, March 14, 1808. 

David Holmes, of Virginia. 

Appointed on confirmation, March 7, 1809. 
Appointed on confirmation, March 31, 1812. 
Appointed on confirmation, December 10, 1814. 



' TERRITORIAL JUDGES OF MISSISSIPPI. 

1798-1817. 

Commissioned. 

Daniel Tilton, of New Hampshire May 7, 1798 

Peter Bryan Bruin, of Mississippi May 7, 1798 

William McGuire, C. J., of Virginia___ June 28, 1798 

Seth Lewis, C. J., of Tennessee May 13, 1800 

David Ker, of Mississippi, recess appointment Nov. 2, 1802 

Appointed on confirmation Jan. 25, 1803 

Thomas Rodney, of Delaware, recess appointment — July 12, 1803 

Appointed on confirmation Nov. 18, 1803 

Ephraim Kirby, of Connecticut „ A.pril 6, 1804 



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TERRITORIAL GOVERNMExVT 41 

Harry Toulmin, of Kentucky Nov. 22, 1804 

Obediah Jones, of Georgia . March 3, 1805 

George Matthews, Jr., of Georgia July 1, 1805 

Walter Leake, of Virginia March 2, 1807 

Francis Xanvier Martin, of North Carolina March 7, 1809 

Obediah Jones, of Mississippi March 6. 1810 

Oliver Fitz, of North Carolina April 18, 1810 

David Campbell, of Tennessee March 3, 1811 

Josiah Simpson, of New Jersey Feb. 18, 1812 

George Poindexter, of Mississippi March 3, 1813 

Josiah Simpson, of Mississippi Feb. 9, 1816 

Stevenson Archer, of Maryland !_March 6, 181T 



ATTORNEYS-GENERAL OF MISSISSIPPI TERRITORY. 

Lyman Harding 1799-1803 

George Poindexter 1803-1807 

Seth Lewis, West District : 1807-1808 

William B. Shields, West District 1808-1814 

Christopher Rankin. West District 1814-1817 

Nicholas Perkins, East District 1807-1809 

Lemuel Henry, East District 1809-1812 

Joseph Carson, East District 1802-1817 

Louis Winston, Madison County . 1809-1817 



SECRETARIES OF MISSISSIPPI TERRITORY 

1798-1817. 

John Steele, of Virginia. 

Appointed on confirmation, May 7, 1798. 

Acting Governor, April 3, 1801, to November 23, 1801 

Cato West, of Mississippi. 

Appointed on confirmation, March 3, 1803. 

Acting Governor, October 1, 1804, to May 10, 1805. 

Thomas H. Williams, of Mississippi. 
Recess appointment, July 1, 1805. 

Cowles Mead, of Georgia, 

Appointed on confirmation, January 21, 1806. 
Acting Governor, June 6, 1806, to January 28, 1807. 






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42 TERRITORIAL GOVERN.MENT 

Thomas H. Williams, of Virginia. 

Recess appointment, June 1, 1807. 

Appointed on confirmation, November 18, 1807. 

Acting Governor, March 3, 1809, to July 1. 1809. 

Henry Dangerfield, of Mississippi. 

Recess appointment, June 30, 1810. 
Appointed on confirmation, January 10, 1811. 
Appointed on confirmation, December 10, 1814. 
Acting Governor, October 6, 1811, to June 15, 1812. 

Nathaniel A. Ware, of Mississippi. 
^ Recess appointment, June 7, 1815. 
Appointed ,on confirmation, January 10, 1816. 
Acting Governor, April 1815, to May, 1816. 



SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF 
MISSISSIPPI TERRITORY. 

1800-1817. 

Henry Hunter from 1800 to 1803. 
> William Gordon Forman, 1803. 

William Connor, 1803. 

Nicholas Perkins, 18 03. 

William Dunbar, 1803. 

Philander Smith, from 1804 to 1805. 

John Steele, from 1805 to 1806.. 

John Ellis, from 1806 to 1808. 

William Snodgrass, November, 18 09. 
' Ferdinand L. Claiborne, February, 1809. 

Ferdinand L. Claiborne, 1809 to 1810. 

Thomas Hinds (pro. tem.), 1810. 

Ralph Rogers (pro. tem.), 1810. 
. Cowles Mead, from 1811 to 1813. 
• Daniel Burnet, from 1813 to 1815. 

Gabriel Moore, from 1815 to 1817. 



AUDITORS OF MISSISSIPPI TERRITORY. 

Charles B. Howell. 
Beverly R. Grayson. 
Park Walton. 



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TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENT 43 

TREASURERS OF MISSISSIPPI TERRITORY. 

Abner Green. 
Samuel Brooks. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF MISSISSIPPI 

TERRITORY. 

1801-1817. 

John Stampley, from 1801 to 1802. 

John Ellis, from 1802 to 1807. 

Joshua Baker, from 1807 to 1809. 

Daniel Burnet, 18 09. 

James Lea, 1809. 

Alexander Montgomery, 18 09. 

Thomas Barnes, from 1809 to 1810. 

Alexander Montgomery, from 1810 to 1812. 

Thomas Barnes, from 1812 to 1815. 

James Titus, 1816 to 1817. 



MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL OF MISSISSIPPI 

TERRITORY. 

1800-1817. 

Commissioned 

Bailey, Robert - Feb. 4, 1815 

Barnes, Thomas Sept 1, 1809 

Appointed on confirmation Dec. 26, 1809 

Re-appointed . Feb, 15, 1814 



MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF MISSIS- 
SIPPI TERRITORY. 



Name. 



County. 



Session. 



Baker, William D Adams 1815 

Baldwin, Benjamin Baldwin (Alabama) 1813 



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44 TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENT 

Name. County. Session. 

Balch, H. J Jefferson 1811, 1813 

Banks, Sutton Adams 1800 

Barnes, Allan Claiborne 1811 

Beasley, Daniel Jefferson 1809, 1811 

Bond, John Jr Marion, Lawrence 1815 

Bowman, Joseph Adams 1811 

Branham, James W . 1807 

Brandon, Gerard . Wilkinson 1815 

Brightwell, Theodore Washington (Alabama) ' 1809 

Briscoe, Wilborn Claiborne 1813, 1815 

Bridges, Samuel Jefferson 1806, 1807 

Brooks, John— Jefferson 1802, 1803 

Brown, Ervin 1815 

Bullock, Stephen ___. 1807 

Burnet, John . Pickering . . 1802 

Burnet, Daniel Claiborne 1807, 1813 

Caller, James , Washington (Alabama) 1807, 1811 

Caller, John Washington (Alabama) 1804 

,Calvit, Thomas Pickering 1800, 1802 

Campbell, Anthony Adams 1815 

Cassells, Henry 1808 

Chaney, Bailey E ., Franklin 1809, 1813, 1814 

Clark, George 1807 

Claiborne, F. L Adams , 1804 

Cook, Samuel . 1807 

Connor, William Adams 1802 

Crawford, William Mobile (Alabama), Jackson 1813 

Davis, Micajah Adams 1807 

Defrance, Abram Adams 1809 

Dixon, Roger Jefferson . 1802 

Downs, Henry D Jefferson 1807 

Downs, Henry D Warren 1813, 1815 

Dunbar, William Adams 1802 

Dunbar, Joseph Jefferson 1805 

Ellis, John Adams 1806 

Fitzpatrick, Thomas Jefferson 1806, 1807 

Forman, William Gordon 1803 

Foster, James . 1809 

Girault, John Jefferson 1802 

Green, Thomas M Pickering 1800 

Greenleaf, David Adams 1813 



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TERRITORIAL. GOVERNMENT 4S 

Xayne. County. Session. 

Hanes, John Adams 1809 

Hanna, Henry Amite ^ 1813, 1815 

Harding. Lyman Adams 1804 

Henry, Lemuel Washington (Alabama) 18 07 

Harris, Thomas 1807 

Hoggatt, James Adams 1800, 1802 

Hoggatt, Philip Adams . 1811, 1813 

Hopkins, John Jefferson 1 1815 

Humphreys, George W Jefferson 1806 

Hunter, Henry Adams 1800, 1806, 1809 

Hutchins, Anthony Adams 1800 

Kennedy, Joseph P '- 

King, Richard 1809 

Lister, Josiah D Washington (Alabama) . 1815 

Lowry, John Amite 1811 

McCaleb, David Claiborne 1809 

McCartney, James Madison 1813 

McConnell, George W Franklin 1811 

McGrew, William-. W^ashington (Alabama) 1811 

McVay, Hugh Madison (Alabama) 1811, 1813, 1815 

Mead, Cowles Jefferson 1807, 1811 

Montgomery, Alexander Adams 1806, 1807 

Montgomery, Samuel Adams 1813 

Moore, Gabriel Madison (Alabama) 1811, 1813, 1815 

Newman, George Adams . -1815 

Nugent, John Adams 1809 

Orme, Thomas 1807 

Osborne, Audly L 1809 

Fatten, James Wayne 1811, 1813 

Perkins, Peter Madison (Alabama) . 1811 

Perkins, Nicholas Washington 1802 

Perkins, Lewis Amite .^ 1811 

Poindexter, George Adams 1806 

Pool, William-- . : 1809 

Postlethwaite, Samuel Adams 1811 

Posey, John B Wilkinson . 1813 



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46 TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENT 

Name. County. Sessio7i. 

Rankin, Christopher Amite 1813 

Reagan, Ralph Claiborne 1809, 1813 

Roberts, Joseph : 1809 

Runnels, Harmon Marion, Hancock 1813 

Saffold, Reuben Clarke (Alabama) 1813, 1815 

Sessions, Joseph Adams 1807, 1811, 1813 

Shaw, John Jefferson 1804 

Shaw, John Franklin 1_,1815 

Shields, William B Adams 1807,1808,1813 

Smith, philander Adams 1804, 1811 

Smith, Samuel Washington (Alabama) 1813, 1814 

Snodgrass, William _. Jefferson 1806, 1807, 1808, 1809 

Stark, Theodore Adams 1807 

Steele, John Adams 1804 

Stewart, Duncan Wilkinson ., 1813 

Sturgus, Minor 1807 

Swayze, Nathan Adams 1815 

Taylor, John Adams 1813 

Titus, James Madison (Alabama) 1812 

Truly, Berinett . Jefferson : 1807 

Turner, Edward Warren : 1811 

Turner, Edward Adams , 1815 

Turpin, White Adams 7 809 

Ward, Edward 1810 

Ware, Nathaniel A Adams 1813 

Watts, Josiah Greene, Wayne 1815 

West, Cato Pickering 1800, 1802 

Wilkins, James C Adams 1815 

Willis, John B ^^_____1809 

Winborne, Jesse Amite 1815 

Winston, William H Madison - 1815 

Winston, William O Madison 1810 

Wood, James Claiborne 1815 









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GOV. WIXTHROP SARGEXT 
Photographic copy of an oil portrait in the Mibsissippi Hall o/ Fume. 



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BIOGEAPHIES OF GOVEEXOES OF 
MISSISSIPPI TEEEITOEY. 



• 1798-1817. 

' ' WINTHROP SARGENT. 

TERM MAY 7, 1798, TO MAY 25, 1801. 

Winthrop Sargent, first Governor of Mississippi Territory, was born 
at Gloucester, Mass., May 1, 1755. His family was established in Amer- 
ica by William Sargent, of Gloucester, England, about 1668. After liis 
graduation at Harvard University he was employed as captain of a 
merchant vessel owned by his father. He enlisted as a Lieutenant in 
Gridley's Regiment of Massachusetts Artillery July 7, 1775, and served 
eight years as a soldier of the Revolution, and at the close of the war 
he held the rank of Brevet-Major. Upon the formation of a land com- 
pany for the settlement of the Northwestern territory, Major Sargent 
joined the movement, and when a government was formed for the 
Territory, in 1787, he was elected Secretary by the old Congress. He 
served in this capacity until May 7, 1798, when he was appointed by 
President Adams Governor of Mississippi Territory. 

Governor Sargent left Cincinnati about the middle of June, by the 
route of the Ohio and Mississippi, for his new post, and arrived at 
Natchez August 6th. His first official act was an address to the people, 
which was delivered August 16th. The new Governor was greatly em- 
barrassed in the beginning of his administration by the absence of the 
territorial judges, who, with the executive, constituted the law-making 
authority of the Territory. The judges appointed were Peter Bryan 
Bruin, Daniel Tilton and William McGuire. Bruin was a resident of 
the Territory and was ready for the immediate discharge of his duties; 
the others were non-residents, Tilton being from New Hampshire, ana 
McGuire from Virginia. Judge Tilton arrived January 10, 1799, and 
Judge McGuire the following summer. 

Governor Sargent was a Federalist, a majority of the people were 
JefTerson Republicans, and political opposition under the leadership ot 
Anthony Hutchins, Cato West and Narsworthy Hunter soon developed. 
This opposition was largely predicated upon political differences. 



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48 BIOGRAPHIES OB' GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI TERRITORY 

The legislative functions of government were inaugurated soon after 
the arrival of Judge Tilton, and the first law of Mississippi Territory 
bears date of February 28, 1799. 

In the spring of 1799 Governor Sargent married Maria Mcintosh Wil- 
liams, a young widow of the Territory. One son, William Fitz Win- 
throp, was born of this marriage. 

The leaders of the opposition to the Governor found fault with the 
laws enacted, protests were made at public meetings, and Narsworthy 
Hunter was appointed to lay the complaints before Congress. This 
agitation resulted in the supplemental Act of June 24, 1800, which au- 
thorized a legislative body for the Territory, consisting of a House ot 
Representatives elected by the people and a Legislative Council, nomin* 
ated by the House and appointed by the President. The House was 
composed of nine members, the Council of five. In 1800 Adams was 
defeated for the Presidency by Jefferson, and on May 28, 1801, William 
Charles Cole Claiborne, an ardent young Democrat, was commissioned 
Governor of Mississippi Territory. 

Governor Sargent had a deep love for his country, and was sincerely 
ambitious to serve faithfully the people to whom he had been sent. He 
surmounted unusual difficulties in the establishment of law and order 
in a frontier settlement. 

After his retirement from office Governor Sargent quietly took up 
the life of a planter, residing at his home, Gloucester, near Natchez. 
He was a successful planter and acquired a large estate. He was one 
of the committee appointed by the Legislature in 1809 to receive sub- 
scriptions to the stock of the Bank of Mississippi, the first bank estab- 
lished in Mississippi Territory. 

Governor Sargent died in New Orleans June 3, 1820, and is buried at 
Gloucester. His portrait hangs in the Mississippi Hall of Fame; his* 
complete executive journal is on file in the Mississippi Department of 
Archives and History, and has been published as Volume I of Missis- 
sippi Territorial Archives. 

For authorities on the life and administration of Governor Sargent 
consult Encyclopedia of INIississippi History, Rowland (1907); Clai- 
borne's History of Mississippi (1880), Hietman's Register Continen- 
tal Army (1893), Annals of Congress, 1799-1801; Papers in relation to 
the official conduct of Governor Winthrop Sargent (1801), Letters to 
Governor Sargent (1798-1801), History of Mississippi, Lowry ana 
McCardle (1891); School History of Mississippi, Riley (1905); Me- 
moirs of Mississippi, Goodspeed (1893). 



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Photographic copy of an oil portrait in the Mississippx Hall of Fame. 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI TERRITORY 49 
WILLIAM CHARLES COLE CLAIBORNE. 

TERil MAY 25, 1801, TO MARCH 1, 1805. 

William Charles Cole Claiborne, second Governor of Mississippi Ter- 
ritory, was born in Sussex County, Virginia, in 1775. He was tbfc 
second son of Col. William Claiborne and Mary (Leigb) Claiborne. 
The Claiborne family in America was founded by William Claiborne. 
of Westmoreland County, England, who arrived at Jamestown in Octo- 
ber, 1621, and in 1625 was appointed Secretary of State for the Colony 
of Virginia by Charles I. 

W. C. C. Claiborne, when about twelve years of age, was sent to the 
Richmond Academy and afterwards to William and Mary. From a 
youth he was intensely patriotic, and is said to have written, when but 
eight years of age, in his Latin grammar the motto, "Clara patria 
carior Ubertas iibi est liltertas, il)i est inea patria'' He left school at 
the early age of fifteen, went to New York City, which at that time 
was the seat of the National Government, and was immediately given 
the position of enrolling clerk in the office of John Beckley, Clerk to 
the Congress. He soon attracted the attention of John Sevier, of Ten- 
nessee, who advised him to study law and go to Tennessee. At the age 
of seventeen he resigned his position, studied law in Richmond three 
months, was admitted to the bar and located in Sullivan County, Ten- 
nessee. Before he w-as twenty-three years old he had served as a mem- 
ber of the first Constitutional Convention of Tennessee, as Judge of the 
Supreme Court and member of Congress. On May 25, 1801, he w^as 
appointed by President Jefferson Governor of Mississippi Territory, to 
succeed Winthrop Sargent, whose term had expired. About this time 
he was married to Eliza W. Lewis, of Nashville, Tenn. He left Nash- 
ville for Natchez by way of the Cumberland and Ohio Rivers October 
8, 1801, and arrived November 23d. His first official act was a mes- 
sage to the General Assembly, which convened a few days after his 
arrival. By an Act approved February 1, 1802, the Territorial capitoi 
was moved from Natchez to Washington. His administration was a 
success from the beginning, and many important measures for the de- 
velopment of the Territory were enacted. 

On November 9, 1803, the Governor received an official communica- 
tion from Washington, by which he was appointed Commissioner, by 
President Jefferson, to receive the Louisiana Purchase from France. 
He was also instructed to act as Provisional Governor until the estab- 
lishment of a permanent form of government. During this time Gov- 
ernor Claiborne lost his wife and child. He afterwards married Clar* 
issa Duralde, a French lady, and after her death married a Miss 
Bosque, of Spanish descent, who survived hinj. 



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50 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI TERRITORY 

During the absence of Governor Claiborne from Mississippi Territory 
the duties of the chief executive devolved upon Secretary Cato West, 
who served as acting Governor until May 10, 1805. On October 2, 
1804, President Jefferson appointed Claiborne Governor of the Territory 
ct Orleans. He continued to serve in that capacity until 1812, when he 
was elected Governor of the new State of Louisiana. After serving 
two terms he was elected to represent his State in the United States 
Senate January 13,' 1817. He died November 3, 1817, before taking his 
seat, and is buried in Meterie Cemetery, New Orleans. From 1801 to 
1817 Governor Claiborne was a potent influence in the development 
of what was then the great Southwest. At the time of his death, at 
the age of forty-two, he was entering upon what promised to be a 
great national career. 

An oil portrait of Governor Claiborne hangs in the Mississippi Hali 
of Fame, and his journals from 1801 to 1816 are on file in the Depart- 
ment of Archives and History. 

For authorities on his life consult "Claiborne's Mississippi," "Missis- 
sippi Archives," "Martin's, Gayarre's and Fortier's Louisiana." Clai- 
borne's "Notes on the War of 1812," Letters to Governor Claiborne, 
1801-1805; History of Mississippi, Lowry and McCardle (1891), School 
History of Mississippi, Riley (1905), Memoirs of Mississippi, Good- 
speed. Official Later Books of W. C. C. Claiborne (6 vols.) 
1801-1816. Rowland, 1917. 



r ;" ROBERT WILLIAMS. 

TEEil MARCH 1, 1805, TO ilABCH 7, 1809. 

Robert Williams, third Governor of Mississippi Territory, was born 
in Surrey County, North Carolina, July 12, 1773. He was the eldest 
son of Col. Joseph Williams, a patriot soldier of the Revolution, who 
■was active in subduing the Tories of North Carolina. Having receivea 
a liberal education he studied law and was admitted to the bar. At the 
age of twenty-four years he was elected a member of Congress from 
North Carolina, and served from 1797 to 1803. In 1803 he was ap- 
pointed a member of the Land Commission for Mississippi Territory by 
President Jefferson, and, while serving on the Commission, was ap- 
pointed Governor March 1, 1805, and performed the duties of both 
positions until 1807, when the work of the Commission was concludea. 
He entered upon the discharge of his duties as Governor May 10, 1805. 
His administration was violently attacked by Secretaries Cato West 
and Cowles Mead, although both were menabers of Williams' party. 
The Governor established the somewhat unusual precedent of dissolv- 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI TERRITORY 51 

ing the General Assembly, which seemed to carry to the extreme limit 
the executive power. The criticism of Monette, the first Mississippi 
historian, was evidently based upon the comments of the partisan 
newspapers of the day, when he says of him: "He rendered himself 
odious to his political opponents and scarcely respected by his friends." 
Wheeler, a North Carolina historian, says that he was "a man of dis- 
tinguished attainments, great research and acute intellect."' His pub- 
lic papers, which are on file in the State Historical Department, clearly 
indicate that he was an able, efficient official, who failed to appreciate 
the power of conciliation. 

Col. Cato West, who had served as acting Governor for two years 
preceding the appointment of Governor Williams, had been strongly 
endorsed by the Jeffersonian Republicans of the Territory and was gen- 
erally regarded as the choice of the majority of the people. This influ- 
ential element bitterly opposed the Williams administration and finally 
brought about his resignation March 3, 1809. In April, 1806, the Gov- 
ernor returned to North Carolina for the purpose of removing his fam- 
ily to Mississippi Territory. Cowles Mead had been appointed Secre- 
tary of the Territory January 26, 1806, and in the absence of Williams 
assumed the duties of the executive office. It was during this period. 
May 31 to January 26, 1807, that the Burr arrest occurred. Governor 
Williams returned from North Carolina January 26, 1807, and he and 
Secretary Mead began at once charging each other with being in sym- 
pathy w-ill Burr, attacks that were followed by bitter denunciations. 
These dissensions finally culminated in a challenge from George Poin- 
dexter, a supporter of Mead, to Governor Williams to fight a duel, and 
the latter's refusal added to his unpopularity. 

It is stated in Wheeler's History of North Carolina that Robert Wil- 
liams was Adjutant-General of that State some time from 1812 to 1815. 
He wa^ a resident of ^^lississippi Territory in 1814, as his wife Eliza- 
beth died during that year at their residence near W^ashington. He 
afterwards moved to Louisiana and died at Ouachita, La., January 25, 
1836, and was buried on his plantation near Monroe, La. Governor 
Williams belonged to a very distinguished family, and it is said that 
some member of every generation since colonial days has attained 
high position in public life. 

Authorities: Claiborne's Mississippi (1880), Mississippi Archives, 
(1805-1809), Encyclopedia of Mississippi History (1907), Rowland; 
Monette's Valley of the Mississippi (1846), "WTieeler's North Carolina 
(1851), Mississippi newspapers (1805-1809), Letters to Governor Wil- 
liams (1805-1809), History of Mississippi, Lowry and McCardle; School 
History of Mississippi, Riley; Memoirs of Mississippi, Goodspeed. 



^ixi . -ri 



52 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI TERRITORY 

DAVID HOLMES. 

TERM MARCH 7, 1809, TO OCTOBER 7, 1817. 

(A sketch of Governor Holmes will be found under the heading of 
Biographies of Governors of the State of Mississippi.) 



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FAC SIMILE SIGNATURES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI 
TERRITORY 



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PART II 



Mississippi Boundaries 
Inhabitants of Mississippi in 1816 
Statehood 



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The Seal of the Department of Archives and History of the State of 
Mississippi was provided for in the Code of 1906. It w^as designed by 
the Director of the Department November 15, 1906, and was first used 
as an official seal in February, 1907. 

The date, 1540, was the time of the coming of the Spaniards under 
DeSoto; in 1798 Mississippi Territory was created; the State of Missis- 
sippi was admitted into the Union in 1817; the Department of Archives 
and History was established in 1902. 

The scroll with the hand, pen and inscription represent the truth of 
history as contained in authentic, original documents. The garland of 
magnolia leaves represent the State Flower of Mississippi. 



'■:^'^,iU 






MISSISSIPPI BOUXDAKIES 



The first boundary fixed by European peoples in the neighborhood 
of the present domain of the State of Mississippi, was between Spanish 
and British possessions. The treaty of 1763 made the middle line of 
the channel of the Mississippi river, as far south as Bayou Manchac, 
the line of demarcation. This was the line specified also in the treaty 
of 1783, between the United States and Great Britain, and of 1795, be- 
tween Spain and the United States. But the language of the act of 
April 7, 1798, forming the Mississippi Territory is "bounded on the west 
by the Mississippi." 

The boundary clause of the Enabling act of March 1, 1817, is as fol- 
lows : 

"The said State shall consist of all the territory included within the 
following boundaries, towit: Beginning on the river Mississippi at the 
point where the southern boundary line of the State of Tennessee 
strikes the same, thence east along the said boundary line to the Ten- 
nessee river, thence up the same to the mouth of Bear creek; thence 
by a direct line to the northwest comer of the county of Washington, 
thence due south to the Gulf of Mexico; thence westwardly, including 
all the islands within six leagues of the shore, to the most easterly 
junction of Pearl river with Lake Borgne; thence up said river to the 
thirty-first degree of north latitude; thence west along the said degree 
of latitude to the Mississippi river; thence up the stream to the 
beginning." 

In 1826, the legislature memorialized Congress to extend the west- 
ern, boundary of the State to "the middle of the Mississippi river, oi 
eastern boundary of Louisiana," to remedy the evil of the existing 
situation, "which affords immunity to crime and asylum to delinquents 
to the civil obligations of society." Evidently no action was taken. 
In the Mississippi code of 1857, the subject of this boundary is dis- 
cussed, with the conclusion: "We must understand the general ex- 
pression 'up the same (the Mississippi) to the beginning*, as having 
reference to the middle of the river, or thread of the stream, as the 
line had been previously defined, and it follows that the State has a 
right, by act of the legislature, to extend her jurisdiction that far, as 
this has undoubtedly been the precise boundary line between the ter- 



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56 inSSISSIPPI BOUNDARIES 

ritory lying east and west of the Mississippi river, ever since 1763. '' 
The foregoing has the weight of the opinion of Judge Sharkey, head 
•of the commission that prepared the code, vrhich includes a statute 
defining the western boundary of the State according to the above" in- 
terpretation. This boundary, however, is the most indefinite of the 
demarcations of the State. The river changes its bed occasionally. It 
has been pleaded by a retailer accused of violating the Mississippi 
laws that he was not amenable, having been changed from Arkansas 
to Mississippi without his consent. A tract of land in Bolivar county 
has been sold for delinquent taxes in both Arkansas and Mississippi 
Plantations have been doubled in size and others swept away. Even 
towns have yielded to the caprice of the mighty flood. An act of 1888 
authorized the governor to appoint tliree commissioners to treat with 
the States of Louisiana and Arkansas regarding the re-adjustment ot 
boundary lines caused by the changes of the river, but no action was 
taken. 



LOUISIANA LINE. 

After Spain lost control of the western end of West Florida through 
the Baton Rouge revolution, Governor Claiborne, under instructions 
from President IMonroe, took possession of Baton Rouge and the other 
districts west of Pearl river, and the gulf coast east to Mobile (all 
south of the 31°) as a part of Louisiana. This was made necessary by 
the diplomatic contention at that time, on the part of the United 
States, that West Florida, including Mobile, was part of the Louis^'ana 
ceded to the United States. But to have entrusted Governor Holmes 
with the taking possession would give color to the contention of the 
Spanish government that the region in dispute could not properly be 
considered part of Louisiana. Mississippi Territory was the real suc- 
cessor of West Florida, and to maintain the old divisions, all the 
newly acquired region, down to the Manchac and Lake Ponchartrain, 
should have been annexed to Mississippi territory, as soon as the 31^' 
boundary was obliterated. The diplomatic situation, however, rein- 
forced by the influence of Governor Claiborne, resulted in Mississippi's 
loss. In 1811, George Patterson and 410 other inhabitants of West 
Florida (Baton Rouge, etc.) petitioned congress for annexation to 
Mississippi. A congressional committee, of which George Poindexter 
was chairman, reported favorably to that proposition. Claiborne op- 
posed it, and by actual possession was in position to offer a "compro- 
mise" on the Pearl river line. When the bill came up for the dispo- 
sition of the new territory, Poindexter found it necessary to accept 
the "compromise." 

For the history of the 31° line, see British West Florida, Georgia Do- 



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MISSISSIPPI BOUNDARIES 57 

main, Dunbar's line, Boundary of 31°, etc. The line was establislied 
in 1798. Encyclopedia of Mississippi History. 

ALABAMA LINE. 

The Alabama line, it will be observed, had two points fixed: the 
mouth of Bear creek, which was an important point on the Tennes- 
see river from the days of the first Indian treaties with the United 
States; and the northwest corner of Washington county, which was 
the point where the trading road nortliwest from Mobile crossed the 
line of the first cession from the Choctaws. The line' between Bear 
creek and the Washington corner divided about equally the lands east 
and west of the natural boundary, the Tombigbee river. 

The line running due south from the Washington county corner, 
would cut off the eastern ends of the counties of Wayne, Greene and 
Jackson, which extended to the trading road previously referred to, and 
in the case of Jackson, to the ridge of high land west of Mobile bay. 
This would be true no matter with what variation from south it shoula 
be run to the gulf west of Mobile bay. But the Alabama enabling act 
of March 2, 1819, made the slight concession that if the surveyors found 
that the line due south would encroach on the counties of Wayne, etc., 
then it should be altered to run from the Washington county corner 
to a point on the gulf ten miles east of Pascagoula river. Thomas 
Freeman, surveyor-general for Mississippi, and Gen. John Coffee, sur- 
veyor-general for Alabama district, met and determined the Washing- 
ton county corner in 1820, and George Dougharty, under the direction 
of Freeman, ran an experimental line 105 1/^ miles south, reaching salt 
water near the mouih of Pascagoula. He then marked a point ten 
miles east of that river, and ran the permanent line back to the begin- 
ning. His bearing westward as he ran north was 10° 40', in which he 
figured the magnetic variation as 8° 40', but subsequent surveyors 
(1841) put the variation from true north as 2° 30'. Dougharty fin- 
ished his line July 19, 1820. It was partly retraced by John B. Peyton, 
under the direction of Levin Wailes, surveyor-general in 1823, and 
from Grand gulf north by Julius Monet and Elihu ^Carver in 1841. 

The line north of Washington county, to the Tennessee river, was 
run by James W. Exum, under the direction of Gen. John Coffee. 

Harper's geological report (1857) says the north end of the Alabama- 
Mississippi line bears north 15° east, and the south end, south 15° 25' 
east (as quoted in publications of the Mississippi Historical Society, 
Vol. VIII, Page 326). This is incorrect. The line north of the Wash- 
State (Records, State Land Office), as bearing north 6° 17' east. Gov- 
ington county corner is marked on the United States survey of the 
ernor Poindexter said, in his message of January, 1821: "The com- 
missioners appointed under the authority of the United States, to run 









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58 Mississippi boundaries 

the boundary line between this State and Alabama, have I am Informed 
finished that work," 

TENNESSEE LINE. 

In 1828, there was an investigation of the possibility of a navigable 
channel from the Mississippi below Chickasaw bluffs to the upper 
Yazoo, and perhaps out of this arose the suggestion in Governor Bran- 
don's message in January, 1829, that many intelligent persons believed 
the north line of the State was south of where it should be, to be on 
the 35th parallel, and that an agreement should be made with Tennes- 
see to retrace the line. The selection of the 35th parallel as a boun- 
dary had its origin in the western extension of the line between the 
two Carolinas. As a boundary between Tennessee and Alabama, it was 
first marked in 1818 by General Coffee, surveyor-general, and the sur- 
vey was carried to the Mississippi river by General Winchester, in 
1819. Ten years later, the correctness of the line was challenged by 
Mississippians so far as to claim that Memphis would be south of a 
correct location of the 35th parallel. There was, of course, no Mem- 
phis when the geodetical line was first selected as a boundary, ana 
though the site of Memphis was claimed and once occupied by the 
Spanish of Natchez, their claim had no definite northern limit except 
the Ohio river, if it did not extend to Lake Michigan. 

In November, 1831, Governor Brandon reported that Maj. John Hol- 
brook, commissioner to verify the line run in 1819, had discoverea 
that the marked line was so nearly correct, that it would be useless 
to agitate the subject further. In fact it appeared that the line was 
too far north. Tennessee was interested in this discovery, and a line 
was marked on her behalf by Engineer Thompson, either at the same 
time or later. Governor Carroll of Tennessee took up the subject, 
urging that the line should be fixed according to the Thompson sur- 
vey. Governor Scott referred the correspondence to the legislature in 
1832, and a house committee reported that there was no urgent neces- 
sity for further proceedings. 

In January, 1837, the governor was authorized to appoint a com- 
mission of three to run the boundary line, but Tennessee did not take 
action immediately. In the legislature, F. H. Walker reported in April 
that the line run by Winchester was the only legal line; that the line 
run by Thompson was an ex parte proceeding on the part of Tennessee. 

The commission appointed in 1837 was composed of B. A. Ludlow, a 
surveyor of public lands, D. W. Connelly and W. Petrie, in behalf ot 
Mississippi, and J. D. Graham and Austin Miller, for Tennessee. They 
determined by astronomical observations, where the line should be, 
found it w^as so far south of the Winchester line that the domain ot 
Tennessee was enlarged by about two hundred square miles, and 



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MISSISSIPPI BOUNDARIES 5d 

marked the line from a point on the Tennessee river six chains south 
of the mouth of Yellow creek, to a point on the bank of the Mississippi 
river, opposite Cow island. Mississippi adopted the report of these 
commissioners by act of legislature, February 8, 1838. 

The boundary of the State as declared by the constitution of 1890, 
begins on the Mississippi, at the point fixed by the above survey fol- 
lows the Tennessee line to the point on the Tennessee river above de- 
scribed, "thence up the said river to the mouth of Bear creek; thence 
by a direct line to what was formerly the northwest corner of the 
county of Washington. Ala.; thence on a direct line to a point ten 
miles east of the Pascagoula river, on the gulf of Mexico; thence west- 
erly including all the islands within six leagues of the shore, to the 
most eastern junction of Pearl river with Lake Borgne; thence up said 
Pearl river to the 31st degree of north latitude; thence west along the 
said degree of latitude to the middle or thread of the stream of the 
Mississippi river; thence up the middle of the Mississippi river, of 
thread of the stream, to the place of beginning, including all islands 
lying east of the thread of the stream of said river; and also including 
all lands which were at any time heretofore a part of this State." The 
source of this description, except the last clause, is the code of 1857. 

MAPJTIME BOUNDARY. 

When Judge Sharkey interpreted the words of the enabling act in 
1857, he did not consider it necessary to discuss the words: "thence 
westerly, including all the islands within six leagues of the shore, to 
the most eastern junction of Pearl river with Lake Borgne." A league 
is three geographical miles, and six leagues is a little more than 20 
land miles. A line twenty miles from the shore includes all the islands 
of the bar of the Mississippi sound, within the limits specified, but, as 
Lake Borgne is approached, the limits become involved in obscurity 
among the islands and sand bars off the Louisiana coast. In that re- 
gion are many oyster reefs, and the conflict of authority of the two 
States in regard thereto, led to a meeting of commissioners from both 
at New Orleans in 1901, and again in 1902. A temporary line was 
agreed upon, which occasioned much protest on the part of Mississippi 
fishermen, but was maintained. The question was brought before the 
United States supreme court, as an original suit, on the complaint or 
the State of Louisiana vs. the State of Mississippi, under the clause of 
the constitution extending the jurisdiction of that court to "contro- 
versies between two or more States," and decided in March, 1906, in 
favor of Louisiana's title to islands within three leagues of her shore. 
(See Boundary Case; also article by Monroe McClurg, Publications of 
Mississippi Historical Society, Vol. VII, Page 293). 

Boundary Case. See Boundaries. In his Geological report of 1854, 
B. L. C. Wailes wrote: "The State also embraces the islands in the gull 



/ - 



-1 



60 MISSISSIPPI BOUNDARIES 

within six leagues of the northern shore." The language of the enab- 
ling act of 1817, follows the east line of the State "due south to the 
gulf of Mexico, thence westerly including all the islands within six 
leagues of the shore, to the most easterly junction of Pearl river with 
Lake Borgne, thence up said river," etc. The east line was run south- 
erly by the coast of the sound, and the terminus marked there. It 
would seem that this line would be extended with the same bearings 
six leagues out over the water, to find the eastern limit of the mari- 
time possessions; but the inference is not so clear as to the^ bearing 
of the line which might be considered to be the extension of the line 
of the Pearl river in its most easterly channel. What direction the line 
would take out from the most easterly land point would have to be gov- 
erned by some general rule regarding maritime boundaries. But in 
1812, the State of Louisiana had been admitted into the Union, with a 
boundary defined in part as "along the middle of said river (Iberville) 
and Lakes Maurepas and Ponchartrain to the gulf of Mexico; thence 
bounded by said gulf to the place of beginning (around the delta ana 
back to the mouth of the Sabine river), including all islands within 
three leagues of the shore." Hence, whatever the "shore" of Louisiana 
may be, the islands within ten miles of the same had been assignea 
to her jurisdiction five years before the boundary of Mississippi was 
defined as including the islands within twenty miles of her shore. The 
peninsula of St. Bernard juts up toward the mouth of the Pearl from 
below Lake Borgne, within eighteen miles of the Mississippi shore, 
with some islands to the north of the peninsula, and east of it a stretch 
of thirty miles of archipelago called the Grand marsh, or Louisiana 
marsh, the islands covered by sea grass, and most of them submerged 
by high tide. This area was for many years the subject of little in- 
terest, until the growth of the oyster industry, When Attorney-General 
Williams estimated it to be worth from two to ten millions of dollars. 
The States of Louisiana and Mississippi both passed laws for the reg- 
ulation of the oyster fishing, and disputes began. In apprehension of 
an armed conflict between the sheriffs of St. Bernard parish. La., and 
Harrison county. Miss., a meeting at New Orleans was called by Gover- 
nor Heard in January, 1901, at which Mr. Ducate, of the great oyster 
house of Lopez & Ducate, of Biloxi, asserted the right to fish in the 
marsh islands within eighteen miles of the Mississippi shore. As a 
result of this meeting. Governor Heard appointed a commission of five 
to make a boundary adjustment, and Governor Longino appointed a 
commission, February 9, 1901, composed of J. I. Ford, Scranton, E. J. 
Bowers and A. Keller, Bay St. Louis; W. A. White and H. T. Howard, 
Biloxi; the latter, chairman. The two commissions met at New Orleans 
March 26, and the Louisiana representatives contended for a boundary 
following the deep water channel through the sound into the gulf east- 
ward of Chandeleur island. The Mississippi commissioners replied, 



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MISSISSIPPI BOUNDARIES 61 

Jii\y 20, that they regarded as islands considerable territory that Lou- 
isiana claimed to be mainland, and there was no opportunity for agree- 
ment. "It is apparent that the only hope of settlement is a friendly 
suit in the supreme court of the United States, and we respectfully 
suggest that course." The next action was by the Oyster Commissions 
of the two States, which met at New Orleans in September, 1902, ana 
adopted a temporary boundary, to be observed until the opinion of 
the supreme court should be obtained. This arrangement gave Louis- 
iana exclusive rights in the marshy islands from Malheureux point 
eastward to Grand pass (west of Isle Pitre, and made a neutral -zone, 
open to both States, between the marshes and the channel line claimeo 
by Louisiana. This was unsatisfactory to the Mississippi oystermen 
and a mass meeting at Biloxi early in November, asked to have the 
agreement abrogated. Consequently there was another conference ot 
the two State oyster commissions held at New Orleans, November 17, 
attended by the governors and attorney-generals of the two States. 
This produced no result. The Louisiana authorities refused to modify 
the treaty, or to submit the subject to the legislature of the two States. 
The bill of complaint in the supreme court was completed in October, 
and brought by "The State of Louisiana, one of the United States or 
America, by William W. Heard, governor, and upon the information 
of Walter Guion, attorney-general," against the State of Mississippi, 
Go^^ernor Longino and Attorney-General McClurg. The bill claimea, 
as the boundary of Louisiana, the deep water channel off the mouth 
of Pearl river, "eastward following the deep water channel to the north 
of Half Moon island, through the Mississippi sound channel to Cat 
island pass, northeast of Isle d Pitre, into the gulf of Mexico. At the 
October term, 1902, a demurrer was filed and overruled. Governor 
Longino appointed Monroe McClurg, of Greenwood, and Dodds & 
Griffith, of Biloxi, as counsel to assist the attorney-general, William 
Williams, after Mr. McClurg's resignation. In 1904, Governor Longino 
was appointed by the supreme court to take testimony, and upon his 
declination, William D. Bullard, of Pascagoula, was selected. The 
legislature of 1904 failed to make an appropriation for attorney's fees 
and expenses, and the attorneys all resigned. In this emergency Gov- 
ernor Vardaman made an arrangement with Judge Hannis Taylor and 
Monroe McClurg to be associate counsel with Attorney-General Wil- 
liams and his assistant James N. Flowers, and the work on the case 
proceeded, in both States, without legislative aid. Louisiana ex- 
amined about 100 witnesses, and introduced about 85 maps, charts and 
diagrams, and over 100 documents. Mississippi made a similar show- 
ing, and the evidence submitted covered about 12,000 typewritten pages. 
The burden of the Louisiana evidence was to prove that "the marshes" 
from Malheureux point to the east end of Pitre island, was in 1812, 
and as late as 1817 a solid peninsula of the mainland, subsequently 



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62 MISSISSIPPI BOUNDARIES 

converted into an archipelago by storms and gradual subsidence 'of 
the land. "Mississippi has held more directly to her pleading and 
sought by her evidence to meet the theories and facts developed by 
her opponent and to show sovereignty and jurisdiction, subject ot 
course to the national and internatio!ial common right, over the water 
surface, bottoms and islands within six leagues of her shore since the 
strip of territory south of degree 31 was claimed by the United States 
and especially since it was occupied by American authority in 181C 
and inferentially in 1763." (Louisiana vs. Mississippi, McClurg, Mis- 
sissippi Historical Society, Vol. VIII., pages 293 — 339). Mississippi 
' undertook to show that there had been no such change in the character 
of the "marsh, in the memory of men living, also that by history and 
tradition the line between the two States is the Pearl river extended, 
that the Congress intended to place within the limits of Louisiana 
nothing east of the Mississippi river except the ancient island of New 
Orleans; that the description of the line from the Mississippi east- 
ward is the historical description for that one island; that the coast 
line referred to in the Louisiana Act runs east and west; that the 
islands intended to be given to Louisiana are those south and in front 
of her mainland. CAtty.-Gen. Report). The record was printed in a 
volume of more than 2,000 pages, at the expense of Louisiana. Briefs 
also were printed, and the case was set for argument before the su- 
preme court in October, 1905. The opinion of the supreme court of 
the United States was given March 5, 1906, by Chief Justice Fuller. 
It was held that the peninsula of St. Bernard and adjoining islands 
are a part of the territory of Louisiana, under the act of Congress in 
1812 defining the boundary of that State, and that the later act defining 
the boundary of Mississippi could not be taken as intended to contro- 
vert the Louisiana act. The chief justice said: "The general land of- 
fice of the United States in all the maps it has caused to be made ot 
Louisiana and Mississippi has been consistent in its recognition of the 
ownership by Louisiana of the disputed area . . . The record con- 
tains much evidence of the exercise by Louisiana of jurisdiction over 
the territory in dispute and the general recognition of it by Mississippi 
as belonging to Louisiana." 

BOUNDARY ON THE 31° NORTH LATITUDE. 

Commissioner Ellicott, who had waited at Natchez from February 24, 
1797, was notified by Governor Gayoso, January 10, 1798, that the sur- 
vey of the line would soon be taken up, and again on February 13 that 
they would meet at Clarksville "some time next month" to take up the 
work. Ellicott then sent a dispatch to the department of state that he 
would begin the survey alone, the instant the forts were evacuated. 
Th9 Natchez fort w^s evacuated March 30, l)efore daylight, an4 ou 



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MISSISSIPPI BOUNDARIES 63 

April 9 the astronomer wtih his surveyor, assistants and woodsmen, 
left Natchez, arriving at Clarksville, April 10. He wrote: "I confess my 
feelings were nmch alive on leaving that town; the attentions, polite- 
ness and hospitality which I had experienced from the inhabitants on 
all occasions, for more than a year, had made strong impressions on 
my mind, which can only be obliterated by the loss of recollection." 
Ellicott set up his clock and zenith sector, and after taking observa- 
tions five evenings found that he was three miles and 290 perches 
north of the 31st parallel. The distance was measured southward by 
hi^ assistants, Gillespie, Ellicott, Jr., and Walker, and it was found 
that the place reached was almost unapproachable by land as the site 
of an astronomical observatory. Consequently the expedition embarked 
on the river and descended to Bayou Tunica (Willing's bayou), a voy- 
age of fifty miles, and so transported the instruments, stores, etc., to 
a hill near the place they desired to reach. To do this they were also 
compelled to cut a road for a mile through the gigantic cane and lofty 
timber. The camp was made on May 1, and a building was next erected 
for the instruments. Ellicott was provided with a zenith sector of 
nearly six feet radius, another zenith sector of 19 inches radius, both 
made by Rittenhouse with improvements by Ellicott; a large achro- 
matic telescope made by Dolland of London; a transit and equal alti- 
tude instrument which Ellicott had constructed and used in running 
the western boundary of New York, the boundaries of the District ot 
Columbia and the principal avenues of Washington; two smaller tele- 
scopes, sextants, and various instruments and contrivances necessary 
to the work. For ten nights the astronomer observed the zenith dis- 
tance of various stars with his large sector, and thereby determined 
that he was 1,644.8 feet too far south. The distance was carefully 
laid off, and ended in a deep hollow or chasm. How the astronomer 
got out of it by an ingenious arrangement and laid off the first ten 
miles of the line, the reader is referred to his Journal (appendix, pp. 
51—52.). 

The party was joined later in May by Captain Minor and a party of 
laborers and William Dunbar, selected as astronomer on behalf of 
Spain. Dunbar was before this the owner of a splendid astronomical 
circle, made for him in London, which he sold to Governor Gayoso for 
use on this work; a sextant that Mr. Dunbar had given to Gayoso was 
also made use of. The American surveyor originally" appointed was 
Thomas Freeman, but he and the astronomer quarreled, and David 
Gillespie was chief surveyor after the work began. Gayoso had nom- 
inated Thomas Power, his diplomatic agent, for Spanish surveyor, but 
Dunbar refused to serve with him. Daniel Burnett was chosen for the 
place. Patrick Taggert seems to have been an efficient assistant sur- 
y^j^or in the Spanish force. John Bowser was ^ppoii^te^ tp \hQ pon^* 



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64 MISSISSIPPI BOUNDARIES 

mand of the escort October 27, 1798, to succeed McClary, and con- 
tinued on duty until March, 1800. Surveyor Thomas Freeman wrote to 
Captain Guion May 21: "McClary landed at the bayou the evening be- 
fore last, and marched his detachment up here yesterday. I am sorry 
to see the men so bare of clothes . . . However, we live very 
cheerful and merry, considering we are immersed in an impenetrable 
forest, condensed by cane and grapevines so that a dozen trees must 
be cut before one can fall, and this on the most irregular, hilly, broken 
and unfinished part of the globe's surface, where every leaf is inhab- 
ited by myriads of moschetoes, gnats, flies, ticks, etc., of various kinds, 
so that we may be said for the present to be in a more than earthly 
purgatory." * 

May 31, Governor Gayoso, empowered to act as commissioner for 
Spain, arrived, with several officers, and found the work started by the 
establishment of the beginning of the line. He declined taking any 
formal action, and returned to New Orleans, "Empowering Capt. 
Stephen Minor and William Dunbar to execute the commission on be- 
half of his Catholic majesty." . On June 7 the camp was moved to Little 
Bayou Sara, and the men being nearly all overcome by the weather, 
negroes were employed to do the work. The first twenty miles was 
traversed only by cutting a path with cone-knife and hatchet. The 
party did well in advancing a quarter of a mile a day, as a wide road 
had to be cut for the observations. On July 28, the important first ten 
miles that involved all sorts of astronomical and surveying problems, 
was about done when, the v/aters of the Mississippi having receded 
from flood, Mr. Dunbar undertook the task of running the line from 
the bluffs to the margin of the river, a distance of 2 miles and 180 
perches. Dunbar had undertaken to remain on the line only until ii 
was completed through the inhabited country. "In the beginning ot 
September," Ellicott writes, "Mr. Dunbar left us, and returned to his 
seat, a few miles from the town of Natchez. This circumstance I con- 
sidered a real loss to the public. To myself it was irreparable." After 
that Captain Minor was the Spanish commissioner and astronomer, 
alone. Next day, the camp w^as moved to Thompson's creek, where 
they continued until October 27, when the camp was moved to the 
Pearl river. A very interestinsr feature of life on the survey west ot 
the Pearl was an intrigue which was in progress. Wilkinson, Daniel 
Clark, Ellicott and Gayoso were watching each other, one of Ellicott's 
functions being, apparently, to obtain information for the government 
regarding the Western schemes of independent empire. It seems from 
a letter of Gayoso to Thomas Power that Wilkinson was worried about 
his correspondence, which Gayoso said was all in Spain and would be 
liept safe if the general should conduct himself with propriety. 

The small streams on the route had been' crossed on rafts, as the 
country was unsettled and apparently never explored. The Pearl was 



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MISSISSIPPI BOUNDARIES 65 

• I - 

crossed in the same way on November 18. The expedition was then 
about out of food and clothing. Supplies had been sent to the mouth 
of the Pearl, but the river was choked with logs, and absolute neces- 
sities were brought up by pack horse. Both Gillespie and EUicoti 
made trips to New Orleans to arrange for supplies, taking a boat sent 
by Governor Gayoso, and part of the men set to work clearing out a 
channel in the Pearl, which was found to have so many by ways thai 
parties would go astray and lose several days in finding ihe righi 
course. 

On February 23, 1799, at New Orleans, Ellicott and Gayoso signed 
with great ceremony, in the hall of the government house, four re- 
ports in Spanish and English, confirming the work done before June 
7, 1798, the date when the Spanish interests were entrusted to Dunbar 
and Minor. A new^ silver standish, made for the occasion, was em- 
ployed. The sandbox was in the form of a drum, the ink was in a 
miniature mortar, the pounce box was an astronomical sphere, all of 
these being curiously and appropriately engraved. Meanwhile, the 
guide line was carried on to Mobile bay by Daniel Burnet, surveyor 
for Spain, and the correction line back to Thompson's creek was run 
by Gillespie. The direction was carried across the Mobile by signal 
fires, and the party pushed on, reaching the Chattahoochee river, 381 
miles from the Mississippi, the eastern boundary of the Mississippi 
territory, where the instruments were set up again, May 9, 1799. The 
end of the guide line was found to be 236 feet too far north, which dis- 
tance was laid off and the corrected line carried back, as in former 
cases. The rest of the work was a line from the confluence of the 
Flint and Chattahoochee to the source of the St. Mary's. The Creek 
Indians interfered (indicating the necessity of Captain Bowker's escort, 
that had accompanied the party all the way), and the running of that 
part of the line was abandoned. Instead, Ellicott erected a monu- 
ment at the river confluence, and sailed around the peninsula and up 
the St. Mary's, penetrated the great Okefinokee swamp as far as possi- 
ble, and built a mound to mark the other end of the line. On his 
way, he found William Augustus Bowles shipvrrecked off the mouth 
of the Apalachicola, indicating that the days of foreign intrigue with 
the Indians was not to end until the United States stepped across 
this line of Ellicott's and Minor's, and possessed every foot of the 
coast. 









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IXHABITAXTS OF MISSISSIPPI I^^ 1816, 



From the original roils, on file in the Department of Archives and 

History. 
A census was taken in 1816. by authority of the general assembly, 
in connection with the movement for statehood, and is of unusual in 
terest. In the following table it is separated into historical regions: 



Natchez District. 

Adams 

Wilkinson . 

Amite 

Jefferson . . . 
Claiborne . . 
Warren .... 
Franklin . . 



Choctaw Purchase, 1809 

Pike 

Lawrence 

Marion 

Greene 

Wayne 



Florida Annexation. 

Hancock (estimated) 

Jackson 

Mobile .-. 



"Tombigbee." 

Clarke 

Washington 
Baldwin . . , 
Monroe . . . , 



Tennessee River. 

Madison (estimated) 



Free 


Free 




WTiite. < 


Colored. 


Slaves. 


3,608 


129 


6,394 


3,218 


2 


4,05Y 


3,365 


19 


1,694 


2,531 





2,377 


1,716 


23 


1,790 


801 


14 


768 


1.701 


4 


1,013 


2,078 


1 


539 


1,367 





417 


1,015 




686 


1,357 




38J$ 


1,566 


1 


517 


666 




334 


714 


42 


255 


666 




334 


2,767 


16 


1,334 


1.888 




671 


436 


43 


684 


3.625 


72 


1,603 


10.000 




4,200 



Totals. 45,085 366 30,061 



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INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



67 



It will be noted that tax lists of certain counties have been used in 
this compilation. These are largely in accord with census returns, 
and are used for the reason that the census rolls of those counties ar(j 
not available. 



CENSUS OF 1816. IN ADAMS COUNTY, MISS. 



Heads of Families. 
John W. Byran. 
John Wilkinson. 
Charles Defrance. 
/ Richard Fletcher. 

John Davis. 
Isaac Mann. 
Thomas W. Powell. 
Clement N. Reed. 
James Stout. 
Robert H. Morrow. 
David Collins. 
Ebenezer Rees. 
David Beck. 
Jonathan Powell. 
John C. Cox. 
Alexander Calvit. 
■William W. Bell. 
Ann H. Chesly. 
Patty Martin. 
-<^ JRebecca Franklin. 

Mary Lazarus. 
Joseph Pomet 
James Cox. 
John Langley. 
John Newman. 
T. M. Edrington. 
John Hynes. 
Edward G. Reynolds. 
Elisha Lewis. 
Andrew Williaraij 
Robert Werdin. 
Elizabeth Allen. 
Magdalane Bruner. 
Keziah Ash. 
Maxfield Ludlow. 
Frederick Conrad. 
Francis Daellier. 



Heads of Families. 
Thomas McAttee. 
Catherine Brashaw. 
James Tooley. 
James Fletcher. 
John Teer. 
Thomas Hadden. 
Nicholas Grey. 
Frederick Mann. 
N. A. Ware. 
Frederick I. Calvit. 
John Steele. 
Daniel Rawlings. 
Ann -Walters. 
Samuel Sowells. 
Elizabeth Crothers. 
Milly Cobler. 
John Templeton. 
Hezekiah Kibby. 
Elijah Norman. 
Hiram Aranandes. 
Montfort Calvit. 
Frederick Leak. 
John Forsythe. 
White Turpin. 
James Ardrie. 
William W. Walker. 
George F. Wilkinson. 
Beverley R. Grayson. 
Eliza Daingerfield. 
Samuel Miller. 
Christopher C. Stone. 
Amy Blanchard. 
William Collins, Jr., 
Samuel Grayham. 
Nelson Gillaspie. 
Samuel Carson. 
Augustus Ferguson. 



'■■r:-./'^MBAi?vi 



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68 



INHABITANTS OF MTSSTSSIPFI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
William Mann. 
Edmund Curtis. 
James Carson. 
Jessee Tucker. 
William Lazarus. 
Ann Martin. 
Lucretia Martin. 
Peter Nelson. 
Daniel Boice. 
Richard M. Green. 
Samuel Sampson. 
Joseph Clarke. 
John GrifRng. 
William Hazlip. 
John Roberts. 
Hannah Terrell. 
William Thompson. 
Epraim Foster. 
Geo. W. Doss. 
Benjamin Stowell. 
Theodore Starke. 
Thomas H. West. 
Joseph Montgomery, 
Ananias Pate. 
Henry Stark. 
William Brooks. 
Philip Brill. 
■ Joseph Harrison. 
Thomas Goode. 
Caleb Stowers. 
William Foster. 
Wm. Erastus Lum. 
Thomas Grafton. 
James Grafton. 
Benjamin Kitchens. 
Robert Turner. 
Allen Grafton. 
John H. White. 
Richard Terrell. 
Mathew Watson. 
Israel Leonard. 
Reuben Newman. 
William Hoggate. 
Elizabeth T. Bell. 



Heads of Families. 
James Surget. 
Susannah Stocker. 
Archibald Terrell. 
Thonaas Brabston. 
Robert Taylor. 
Philip Roberts. 
John Nichols. 
William D. Baker.. 
Peter Bisland. 
/'John Grafton. 
Joshua Howard. 
George L. Gayton. 
Joel Ailes. 
Joel Pate. 
William Powell. 
Thomas Holmes. 
Martha Robb. 
Ann Killian. 
Joseph Perkins. 
William Popijoy. 
William Clarke. 
Samuel Montgomery. 
Samuel Brooks. 
William Adams, 
Heniy Bellsinger. 
Josiah Martin. 
John Minor. 
Hannah Tooley. • 
Abraham Taylor. 
William Mayben. 
Charles Cason. 
Joseph Ford. 
Elizabeth Cason. 
Robert Lucas. 
Richard Miller. 
Christian Harmon. 
Clement Gore. 
Thomas Freeman. 
Agnes Montgomery. 
Nathaniel Hoggate. 
Jacob Curtis. 
George Rice. 
John Hoggate. 
Gripilla Hoggate. 



3" ' I 

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INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



69 



Heads of Families. 
Levi WMttington. 
Nancy Mario w. 
. Horatio Gerrceld. 
John Weast. 
John May banks. 
Peter Corbeil. 
John Row. 
Enoch Martin. 
Aron Martin. 
John Martin. 
Benjamin B. Day. 
Samuel W. Wells. 
Robert Farr. * 
Alexander Farrar. 
Daniel Perry. 
Randall McCullom. 
Jonothan Rucker. 
Jacob Clark. 
Henry Bradshaw. 
Ezekial Newman. 
John Snodgrass. 
John Bewell. 
William Gillaspie. 
C. G. Leyellen. 
Whitmal Smith. 
Edward Brooks. 
Edmund Andrews. 
Sarah Stapleton. 
Eliza Moorebouse. 
John V. House. 
Charles A. Burton. 
Walter Cline. 
Solomon Marshall. 
Roswell Valentine. 
John Montgomery. 
Hugh Montgomery. 
Jeremiah Coleman. 
Thomas Downing. 
Edward T. Smith. 
Benjamin H. Debell. 
John Fretwell. 
Timothy Pharas. 
William L. Chew. 
Isaac N. Selser. 



Heads of Families. 
Lemuel Williams. 
William Lemon. 
Robert Dunbar. 
Richard Dunn. 
John Bisland. 
Pascal Tucker. 
Isaac Taylor. 
John Slowers. 
William Collins, Sen. 
Lewis Stowers. 
Stephen Justice. 
James Huston. 
Samuel Marshall. 
John McCaleb. 
John Pipes. 
Edward Allen. 
John Parker. 
Nancy Carroll. 
Joseph Pipes. 
F. & Charles Broadmen. 
James H. Drury. 
Manuel Madden. 
Isaac Alexander. 
David Nesbit. 
Jessee Johnston. 
Henry Price. 
Charles M. Lawson. 
William C. Smith. 
John Arn. 
Robert H. Stewart.' 
Jeptha L. Conner. 
Pierson Noland. ' 
Thomas Darrach. 
Nancy Brown. 
Andrew Richards. 
John F. Bowie. 
John Munsey. 
Ahab Holmes. 
John Holmes. 
Ishara Griffing. 
Benjamin Roach. " 
Nalhl. Harrison. 
Thomas Dews. 
, William Cochran. 



^'-^n '[u v.'^-M.n^ 



'•-^■'r^. 



i|-ir;H 



70 



IxXHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
John B. Nevet. 
James K. Cook. 
David D. Michie. 
Robert Ford. 
William Biggs. 
Andrew Macrery. 
James G. Harrison. 
Robert Tail. 
Alexr. ^ahuerson. 
David Pannill. 
George Dorman. 
-John A. Barnes. 
William Barnard. 
Simeon Gibson. 
Philip A. Emgel. 
Thomas Freeman. 
George Varnado. 
William Carroll. 
Rosey Bond. 
Richard Harding. 
Martin Smith.' . 
James Foster. 
Mary Copeland. 
William Wilkinscii. 
John Prater. 
Alexr. McDonnald. 
WiUiam Wright. 
John W. Miller. 
Prosper King. 
M. Dawson. 
D. Cory. 
John Brownr^ 
James Bosly. 
Hardy Sojourner 
Thomas Lynch. 
Jessee Sessions. 
John Dodd. 
David Newland. 
Spencer Kockham. 
Winnifred Cordell. 
John Cordell. 
Benjamin Price. 
Rachel Havard. 



Heads of Families. 

James D. Campbell. 
Nancy Gilbort. 
Alexr. Ardrey. 
James T. Lewis. 
George Mock. 
Stephen Dunn. 
Samuel Ross. 
John Lacky. 
William Sanders. ' 
Godfrey Glassburn. 
Sarah Rowan. 
Morris Custard. 



Samuel Brown. 



Ethan A. Wood. 
James Bradley. 
Mary Ewing. 
William Dunbar. 
William Newland, Sen. 
William Newland, Jun. 
John Hawkins. 
Elisha Curtis. 
John Odem. 
Pinkney Morrell. 
Jeremiah Perry. 
James Jerome. 
John Lemott. 
Abraham McNeece. 
Elisha King. 
Robert French. 
Benjamin Holmes. 
Eliza Hosell. 
Elijah Chambers. 
George Gibson. 
John Erwin. 
Samuel Cooper. 
Francis Buckner. 
Hugh Nelson. 
Moses Pool. 
John I. Watton. 
Oliver Mock. 
Eliza Hoggate. 
Thomas Foster. 
James C. Wilkins. 



1' •?■ 



... .. J,;,fj 



V/ .-v,r<;. 









INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



71 



Heads of Families. 

Margaret Foreman. 
David Foreman. 
James Foster, Sen. 
William King. 
Samuel King. 
John B. Taylor. 
John Sarrade. 
William Magruder. 
Samuel Martin. 
William Cad well. 
Norman Stewart. 
Philo Andrews. 
Samuel L. Winston. 
Robert W^illiams. 
Silas Hilson. 
Gerard Brandon. 
Joshua Draughn. 
Magr. H. Claiborne. 
James Moore. 
Sophiah Rolls. 
John H. Wood. 
Isaac Guion. 
Drury Martin. 
Samuel Wood. 
Thomas Ford. 
Charles Basley. 
Abraham Defrance. 
Simpson Holmes. 
Amos Gaskins. 
John Castings. 
Elijah Still. 
Ludorick Grant. 
James Warden. 
David Grunlesy. 
George Helviedge. 
John Flnton. 
John Rabb. 
Peter Roddy. 
Peter Rabb. 
James Roddy. 
Archd. Evans. 
William O. Evans. 
Moses Richardson. 
John Smith. 



Heads of Fa))nUes. 
Adam Bingaman. 
Lewis Bingaman. 
Parke Melton. 
Susannah Magruder. 
James Kircheval. 
William Griffing. 
Levi Weeks. 
Mariah Fuller. 
George Ralston. 
Thomas Botton. 
Alexr. Covington. 
John Rabb, Jun. 
Thomas Duncan. 
Jessee Nelson. 
Philander Smith. 
James McCredy. 
John F. Home. 
T. P. Bradish. 
William Walters. 
Jessee Carter. 
Daniel Sanders. 
Israel E. Trask. 
Horace Robbins. 
Mary Green. 
Eliza C. Bowmar. 
John Havard. 
Thomas Miller. 
Thomas Havard. 
Levi Baldwin. 
William B. Cotton. 
Lea Boyd. 
Eliza Tomlinson. 
Thomas D. Carson. 
Valentine C. Grooms. 
Samuel Duncan. 
Abraaa^n Ellis. 
Mary Conner. 
James Nelson. 
Alexr. Boyd. 
Joshua Ballance. 
Nancy Shelton. 
Jemima Gregory. 
John EllLs. 
Louisa Richy. 



''■">''' '-:';i^^/i 






72 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
John Hutchins. 
Toney (a free man of 

colour). 
Margaret Bolton. 
Rody Cadwell. 
Geo. Eldredge, Senr. 
Joel White. 
John Fletcher. 
Silas Uurrows. 
James Sparks. 
John Beck. 
James Lacy. 
John Beck, Senr. 
Joel Bromfield. 
Jessee Enlow. 
Robert Sturgeon. 
William Taylor. 
Joseph Branheim. 
Joseph T. Montgomery. 
William Hoggate, Jun. 
Isarei Smith. 
Lydia Abrahams, 
Nancy Moffett. 
Philomela Mitchell. 
William Surget. 
Calvin Smith. 
John F. Oillaspie. 
Canady Cason. 
Pennington Tucker. 
Joseph Thomas. 
Mary Mitchell. 
Elisha Estus. 
William E. Leiand. 
Jacob Earhart. 
William Earle. 
Solomon Swayze. 
Daniel Fowler. 
William Williams. 
Joshua Davis. 
Isaac Gillaird. 
Edward Hacket. 
John Ogden. 
Thomas Floyd. 
James Truax. 



Heads of Families. 
John Fetter. 
Duncan McMillan. 
Nathan H. Luce. 
Deborah Luce. 
Joseph Mannen. 
Henry Noble. 
Robert Holmes. 
Daniel Farrar. 
Thomas Eaton. 
Ebenezer Howell. 
Mary Green. 
Caleb King. 
Henry Noyes. 
Lydia Swayze. 
James Sw^ayze. . 
John Holliday. 
Gideon Hopkins. 
Harriot Swayze. 
Archd. Bradley. 
Nathan Swayze, Junr. 
Elisha Gates. 
Nathan Swayze, Senr. 
Oliver Walton. 
Philip Armstreat. 
Mary Armstreat. 
John Sojourner. 
John Vardiman. 
Thomas Griffing. 
John M. Glaughlin. 
Jessee Kennedy. 
Thomas Tucker. 
Joseph Sessions.' 
David Fleming. 
Marj' Grafton. 
Est. of Eliza Sarver. 
John Tullis. 
Richards Ellis. 
Gabriel Scott. 
Elizabeth Benoist. 
Charles McGlaughlin. 
John Martin. 
Williams Giles. 
John McMuUins. 
George Smith. 






"■: n-sdUi 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIFPI IN 1816 



73 



Heads of Families. 
John Brown. v^ 
Martha Perry. 
George Perkins. 
Hannah Miller. 
Marj' Walker. 
Eliza Miles. 
Chas. Henderson. 
Benjamin B'.ack. 
John Ancret. 
Elizabeth Wood. 
William Crawford. 
Robert White. 
Sarah Nichols. 
James Pankey. 
Andrew Chess. 
Noah B. Salisbury, 
West & Brown. 
Francis McCrary. 
Richard Westrope. 
Nancy Ann Brush. 
Patrick Griffing. 
Darius Moffett. 
Elisha E. Elam. 
Geo. McCraken. 
Bernard Lacaze. 
Gideon Blambo. 
. James Fowler. 
Daniel Woodard. 
E. T. Roundtree. 
Ann Van Camp. 
Andrew Davidson. 
H. R. Williams. 
William Cowan. ' 
Prissilla Connelly. 
Elizabeth Green. 
Philip Hill. 
John Henderson. 
Abner Scrantum. 
Thos. Hannah. 
Thos. Whalley. 
Philip R. Angel. 
James Whitehead. 
Minice & Steen. 
Eliza Barland. 



Heads of Families. 

William Snodgrass. 
George Mellor. 
John Hawkinson. 
Walter Irvine. 
George Newman. 
Joseph Silvester. 
Martha Long. 
Samuel Patterson, ' 
James McConnell. 
David Lattimore. ' 
John Camp. 
McGraw & Railton, W. 
William Cromeline. 
John W. Winn. 
N. C. Hall. 
John Od.um. 
David Wood & Co. 
C. H. Kyle. 
Francis Surget. 
Robert Moore. 
John Kerr. 
Christopher Miller. 
James Cathcart. 
Richard Vansant 
Lewis Petitt 
Joseph Newman. 
Joseph Daman. 
James Thursby. 
Sophiah Elliate. 
Mary Grant. 
Adam Bower. 
H. Postlethwaite. 
Peter Crayon. 
James Henderson, Jr. 
Peter Nardon. 
Geo. McClelan. 
John Bruyeat. 
Edward Miles. 
Frederick Seip. 
Levi Pernell. 
John Bertha & Co. 
Henry C. Johnston. 
G. B. WeigatL 
Philip Engel, Senr. 






b •" J d ;> i . 



74 



IXHABITAXTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Daniel D. Elliot. 
Samuel Davis. 
John L. Buck. 
Josiah Mars. 
Rees E. Fleeson. 
Pliilo Nichols. 
S.imut>l Gustin. 
Joseph Quigless. 
Anthony Campbell. 
Peter Walch. 
James Bracken. 
Edward Paine. 
James Hackett. 
William Rutherford & Oo. 
Charles B. Green. 
Clarisa Scott. 
•Jacob Cole. 
George Winn. 
Isabella Nichols. 
Andw. Marschalk. 
Silas Brown. >.-^ 
Gabriel Ticheanor. 
Henry Turner. 
Jacob Eiler. 
Head & Lyons. 
John Steele. 
Thomas Anderson. 
John M. Pernell. 
Christopher Rankin. 
Leonard Pomet. 
J. H. McComees. 
Mathew Thomas. 
John Lape. 
Chas. McAlister. 
Arthur Andrews. 
James Chambers. 
Stephenson Spencer & Co. 
John Q. Carroll. 
Pefer Paul. 
Casandra Harastae. 
Sarah Brown. 
-William Bullett, Jr. 
Geo. Aviraker. 
Micajah Terrell. 



Heads of Families. 
Jane Rapalje. 
John Rabb. 
Thos. B. Reed. 
, James Kempe. 
Jacob Fry. 
Eliza Dawson. 
John S. Miller. 
Robert Haughton. 
Wm. E. Leighman. ' 
John B. Gobeau. 
Garret Varees. 
Edward Turner. 
M. Atticle. 
Mary Lewis. 
Henry Tooley. 
Rachel Conner. 
Eliza Hutchinson. 
Martha Hen don. 
David Liveatman. 
Amy Johnston. 
William Farquhar. 
Jas. Thompson. 
William Murry. 
Lydia A. Young. ^ 
Eliza Armstrong. 
Lewis Evans. 
Lyman Harding. 
Green B. Walker. 
Job Routh. 
Jeremiah Hunt. 
Wyat Wilkinson. 
S. Postlethwaite. 
Geo. Lloyd. 
Jas. G. Moore. 
Philip Dixon. 
John Taylor. 
Peter Surget. 
Est. of B. Osmund. 
John Frank Sittler. 
Pat. Doherty. 
Margaret Newton. 
Willing Wooley. 
Jaque Andra. 
C. B. Minnis. 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



75 



Heads of Families. 

Peter Isler. 
Danl. Lipincot. 

D. Badberry. 

Wm. D. King. 

John Wood. 

James Moore. 

Est. of S." Minor. 

Est. of Wm. Lintot. 

Elijah Smith. 

S. W. Butler. 

Geo, Poindexter. 

Mary Wilks. 
. Manuel Texhada. 

Jos. Texhada. 

Geo. Furney. 

Matesus & :Molenus. 

Jinny Hastings. 

Chas. Breton. 
■ Abigal Rimades. 

Rachel Simmons. 

Isabella Chisolm. 
' Rachel Patterson. 

Frances Watson. 

Robt. D. Galbreath. 

Angeline & Agatha. 

William Parker. 

Benjamin Farar. 

William Whootsel. 

T. L. Servoss. 

Thomas Hinton. 

Eliza Sexmore. 

James Wilkins. 

David Abby. 

Rebecca Dayton. 

Edward Hunt. 

Eliza Miller. 

Joshua Howard. 

Charles Neaf. 

Winton & Overton. 

James C. Wilkins. 

Thomas Fry. 

John Ratclif. 

David Vance. 

David Karr. 



Heads of Families. 
Louis Roberts. 
Lewis Burwell. 
John G. Jones. 
Joseph Darks. 
Abijah Hull. 
Zalmony Parker. 
Samuel Burtis. 
Samuel Batchelder. , 
William Crane. 
Henry Masters. 
M. Blambo. 
Helena Qulon. 
Moses Odum. 
Hugh Mclntire. 
Williams & Golman. 
Samuel Chapman. 
West & Battles. 
Joseph Bremalt. 
Elias Wells. 
Stephen Carter. 
Henry Reynolds. 
Moses Keyton. 
John Irby. 
Abner Mardis. 
Joseph Galvan. 
Augustus Greswould. 
Catherine Howard. 
Henry Wyche. 
John Anderson. 
Perry Scott 
George Duncan. 
Samuel Wilson. 
, Rebecca Purity. 
I^ydia Rogine. 
Charles Moore. 
Joseph Foxwell. 
Frederick Eigle. 
Sally Morris. 
Paul McDonald. 
Sarah Kelly. 
Duncan James. 
Benjamin Brustic. 
Sarah Gibbs. 
John L. Page. 



!fa 



:i m-yMj^'-fl 






76 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Henry Butcher. 
Francis Rovette. 
Geo. Caramock. 
Winfield Roberts. 
John King. 
Mary Steers. 
William Oswolt. 
John Kimble. 
Aithur Mahon. 
Mary Girault. 
James Dunlop. 
Edward C. Baker. 
John Richards. 
Isaac Evans. 
James Mcintosh. 
• Winthorp Sargent. 
Jonathan Thompson. 
David Holmes. 
A. Hoggate. 
Payton Stone. 
Isabella H. Claiborne. 
Chancey Pettybone. 
John Lombard. 
Abraham Galtney. 
James Harris. 
James A. Mathews. 
William Shines. 
William I. Minton. 
John Whitehurst. 
Dniry Scruggs. 
William C. Middleton. 
Henry Francis. 



Heads of Families. 
Nathl. Ivy. 
James Fitzgerrald. 
Henry Clark. 
Jas. Newman. 
James Gray. 
David Lawson. 
Absolem GrifRn. 
Est. of William Dunbar. 
Samuel Clements. 
Thomas Flinn. 
William B. Jackson. 
Buckner Pitman. 
John Wright. 
Thomas Nelly. 
Manuel Leggett. 
Richd. L. Smith. 
Mary Bolls. 

Est. of Alexr. ^Montgomery. 
Est. of Ben Vousden. 
John Swaney. 
William Sturdevant. 
Joseph Fagan. 
Ellen Dicker. 
William Palmer. 
Archd. Lewis. 
Mary Ashley. 
Elizabeth McHenry. 
Stephen Kennedy. 
Sarah Jones. 
William Kennedy. 
Children of Tho' A. Clai- 
borne. 



CENSUS OF 1816, IN AMITE COUNTY, MISS. 



Heads of Families. 
David Johns. 
John Gill. 
Hardy Coward. 
R. Griffin & T. Waggoner. 
Jacob Desell. 
Daniel Wilson. 
Henry Toler. 
George Desell. 



Heads of Families. 
Joseph Francis. 
Henry Anderson. 
Mrs. Knox. 
Thomas Sellers. 
John Montgomerj% Jr. 
John Jones. 
Wm. T. Paddleford. 
John Hadley. 



'.■'a:/:.\ 






INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



77 



Heads of Families. 
Alix. C. Calhoun. 
Joseph Lowry. 
John Burton. 
Henry House. 
Zachariah Lea. 
John Cain. 
George Simmons. 
Benjamin Lewis. 
John Lehr. 
A. & D. Wilkinson. 
John Fleming. 
Isaac Jackson. 
James Welch. 
Thomas Smith. 
David Cox. 

• Joseph Knox. 
James Hanna. 
John Dixon. 
Samuel Moore. 
Stephen Cade. 
William Jones. 
Darius Anderson. 
Samuel McCawley. 
Susanlia Lindsey. 
William Pool. 
Robert B. Wells. 
Charles C. Witherholt. 
Richard Kirkland. 
Thomas Smith. 
James Marlow. 
William Moore. 
Charles McMinis. 
Benjamin Tarborough. 
Willie Jackson. 

• William Gardner. 
James Dukes. 

V Thomas Duke. 

Nathaniel Wilson. 
Abram Lunda. 
Stephen D. Hamberlin. 
John Robinson. 
Samuel Hays. 
William Herbert. 
Archibald Brown. 



Heads of Families. 
John Ricketts. 
David Nelson. 
Thomas Torrance. 
John Wilson. 
John Mason- 
William Brown. 
Benjamin Capells. 
James McKnight. 
James Newsham. 
James Howell. 
Hugh W. Cooper. 
William Griffin. 
Henry Casselle. 
Matthew Tool. 
Robert I. Lowry. 
James Ratcliff. 
Samuel McMinis. 
Lewis Magee. 
Ellis E. Spillman. 
Samuel M. Thompson. 
John E. Townsen. 
William Loflin. 
George Laveall. 
Moses Robinson. 
John Thompson. 
Matthew Smylie. 
William Toumbs. 
David Parker. 
John Watson. - 
Richard Varnell. 
Abner Talbert. 
Rukins Jelks. 
William Maples. 
John McAlpin. 
Jonathan Day. 
John B. Moore, 
j James Germany. 
Randal Goldsber. 
Johnston Link. 
Nathan Chamberlain. 
David Cook. 
Benjahiin Rollins. 
Westly Hudson. 
Allan McLain. 



.fivn 



>;;■; sa 






i1 \' 



78 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Nathaniel Smylie. 
James Smylie, Sr. 
Roger Dunn. 
Cadesby Gayden. 
John Frithe. 
Henry Dunn. 
Thomas Batchelor. 
Robt. Montgomery. 
Abner O'Neal. 
Julius Nichols. 
Michael Eagan. 
Silas Hillyard. 
George Cockerham. 
Redden Futch. 
Priscilla Futch. 
Jonas Causy. 
Berryhill & Hinson. 
Abel Cotton. 
George Brister. 
John Cockerham. 
Sfniuel Brister. 
John Perry. 
John Ailes. 
John Hudson. 
William Burrows. 
Thomao 'Jordon. 
Matthew Stokes. 
Jonathan Huit. 
Peter H. Marsailas. 
Michael Matthews. 
Michael Matthews. 
Peter Eatcliff. 
James L/oflin. 
Beniamin Ratcliff. 
Elizabeth Gerrald. 
Jacob Boatner. 
Jesse Gerald. 
Littleton Capel. 
George Caldwell. 
John Bates. 
David Kenebrue. 
John Smyliei 
Silas Se?lers. 
Jordan Kenebrue. 



Heads of Families. 
Ephraim Dixon. 
Peter K:ll. 
William Clark. 
Jon?s Courtney. 
Willie IMurpny 
Willis Murphy. 
Robert C. Anderson. 
Thomas Dixon. 
James Fleming. 
Littleton L. Atkinson. 
Austin Spears. 
Zachariah Rembert. 
William Ewell. 
Jesse Talbert. 
Abigail Anderson. 
Henry Ratcliff. 
John McCawley. 
Cornelius Vanhouten. 
Robert P. Davis. 
David Davis. 
Micajah Davis. 
William Alexander. 
Henry Stokes. 
Jehu Howell. 
John Rucker. 
James Herbert. 
Sabert Oglesby. 
William A. Lucas. 
Jane Bates. 
William Tillery. 
' Robert L. Webber. 
Joseph Cotton. 
Holland Hogg. 
Johnston Randale. 
Hiram Randale. 
Jacob Matthews. 
Donson Obanion. 
William Thompson. 
David Faris. 
Leonard Cagle. 
Roger Cagle. 
Benjamin McAlister. 
Thomas Stokes. 
Peter James Wilson. 



.'li 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSTFPI IN 1816 



7& 



Heads of Families. 
John Straughan. 
Joseph Veney. 
Joseph Sanders. 
William Still. 
William Varnell. 
Eliza Elliott. 
William Shropshire. 
John Barton. 
William Varnell, Sr. 
James Varnell. 
Evan Whittington. 
Holloway Huff. 
John Capel. 
Jesse Page. 
Elisha Neal. 
Barksdale Crawley. 
Jesse P. Minton. 
William Liongmire. 
John Prince. 
James White. 
Isaac Alexander. 
Isaac Alexander. 
Isaac Davis. 
Mrs. Davis. 
Thomas Mattison, 
James Hogge. 
Henry Humble. 
George McGee. 
Peter Curry. 
James Bray. 
Joseph Beasley. 
Alexander Wardlaw. 
Jesse Smith. 
Liberty Holmes, 
Taliaferro Stribling. 
John Tucker. 
John Shropshire. 
Joseph Viney. 
Mrs. Horton. 
David Dunn. 
James F. Straughan. 
Richard Scott. 
William Scott. 
David Taylor. 



Heads of Fa)nilies. 
Philip Taylor. 
Larkin Scott. 
John Scott. 
John Evans. 
Little Strange. 
John Ashley. 
James Mereditn. 
James Faust. 
William Hickman, 
William Hickman, Jr. 
John Kizer. 
Isham Strange, 
David Day. 
John Rogers. 
Isaac Freeman. 
Alix Montgomery. 
Archd. Thompson. 
Wm. King. 
Miredith Bonds. 
Thomas Reynolds. 
James Humble. 
William Nettles. - 
EHe Mercer. 
Rowland Thompson. 
James Whittington. 
Th. Collinsworth. 
Thomas Loffton. 
John Meredith. 
Mrs. Meridith. 
Aaron Whittington. 
Grief Whittington. 
Robert Day, 
Robert Day. 
Wilson Nelson. 
James Whittington. 
John Whittington. 
Gerard Whittington. 
Cornelius Whittington. 
Benjamin Huff. 
Wm. Causey, 
John Causey, 
Simeon Mercer, 
Asa Mercer. 
John Wilkinson. 



]\^^n^M 



:^ -h^s 









80 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 

John Montgomery. 
John McAlister. 
Hugh Montgomery. 
Moses D. Smith. 
Charles Rhodes. 
Jesse Moore. 
Thomas Shropshire. 
Henry Temple. 
John Wright. 
Mrs. Hillgard. 
Reuben Roe. 
James Harrell. 
Philip Jones. 
James Cain. 
John Catcoat. 
Joseph Ellison. 
James Smith. 
Aaron Butter. 
Lewis Chancey. 
Rohert Temple. 
Barton Hanon. 
Caleb Johnson. 
William Johnson. 
William Matthews. 
Robert Day. 
Washington Johnston. 
Noble Johnson. 
John McMillian. 
James McMillian. 
Dougald McMillian. 
William Delaney. 
Cade L. Kenady. 
John Calsoate. 
James Calsoate. 
William Calsoate. 
Stephen Calsoate. 
William Philips. 
• Samuel Gerald. 
Thomas Swearingin. 
James Scott. 
Daniel McMillian. 
Lampkin W. Brown. 
Joseph Wade. 
John Wade. 



Heads of Families. 
John Tarbe-r. 
Richard Chaddock. 
David Cockerham. 
James Roberts. 
Raimond Roberts. 
Luke Roberts. 
Henry Westbrook. 
Isaac Chaddock. 
John Boiling. 
Needham Coward. 
Edmund Anders. 
Reuben Holloway. 
Pope McGee. 
Samuel McGee. 
James McGee. 
Samuel McGee, Jr. 
Jonathan Derden. 
Jeptha Harrington. 
Matthew Rushing, 
David Breeland. 
Francis Parsons. 
Jesse Wise. 
John Furgeson. 
Ewell Parsons. 
William Lunday. 
Free Dolloy. 
William Bates. 
Kinchin Webb. 
David Montgomery. 
John Jinkins. 
Alixr McCloy. 
Lazarus Cotton. 
William' Davis. 
- Jacob Buckholtes. 
William Buckholtes. 
Edmund Jinkins. 
William McGee. 
John Delany. 
Joshua Harris. 
William P. Thomas. 
William Causey. 
James Miller. 
Henry Hanna. 
Thomas Causey. 



Wv^-a'A V 






INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



81 



Heads of Families. 
Shields Marsh. 
Moses Whittington. 
Willie Jenkins. 
Furney Griffin. 
Th. Mercer. 
Robert Berryhill. 
John Ellmore. 
Joab Cotton. 
Ezekial Moore. 
Joseph M. Booth. 
Thomas Talbert. 
Joshua Neelin. 
Peter Haynes. 
James Mitchell. 
Joseph Clark. 
Jonathan Courtney. 
John Courtney. 
Tavner Lewis. 
Lewis Talbert. 
James M. Mumford. 
Thomas Edwards. 
Mrs. Ann Davis. 
John Knox. 
James Richmond. 
Thomas Hooper. 
Mrs. Drenan. 
Mrs. Lonley. 
William Morgan. 
George Gayden. 
Stephen Ellis. 
Lowry Ellis. 
Robert Furlow. 
David Singletar>'. 
John Collins. 
Agrippa Gayden. ^ 
James Hillyard. 
Joseph Price. 
Robert Gillaspie. 
William Wilson. 
Gibb Chavois. 
Thomas Cotton. 
Hiz Newman. 
Patrick Calehan. 
Jesse Rice. 
6 — m 



Heads of Families. 
William Vaughan. 
Ambrose Smith. 
David Lea. 
William Lowry. 
Brury Wall. 
Leevis Gober. 
Benjamin Fairman. 
William Meens. 
Vincent Simons. 
Dannee Sullivan. 
John Traverse. 
Thomas Cockerham. 
Dempsey Sturdivent. 
- W. Everette. 
Joseph Gibson. 
John Gibson. 
John Fleshly. 
Thomas Arnold. 
Mrs. Tarber. 
John Cockerham. 
John Cockerham, Sr. 
Allan Tarborough. 
Martin NauL 
Jesse Winbourn. 
Jesse McCoy. 
Jesse Winbourne. 

Hugh Bennett 

Robert Adams. 
Henry Harkness. 

Robert Adams. 

Edmund Morris. 

John Covington. 

Mrs. Whitaker. 

James Braziles. 

Samuel Simmons. 

Craddock Gober. 

Stephen Reed. 

Caleb W. Baker. 

James Morris. 

Moses Arnold. 

Aaron Eastridge. 

John Arnold. 

William Bert. 
. Ezra Allred. 



■m/uH'Ki 






.X^::,tiY;l;H :,j'rir,l 



r:iO:rr:'J 



i, ^-d 



^2 



Inhabitants of Mississippi in i816 



Heads of Families. 

Henry Cockerham. 
Edmund Drake. 
Edward Clivetund. 
William Gibson, 
Robert McDowell. 
Joshua Collins. 
Richard Arnold. 
John Keen. 
Aaron Arnold. 
Ishara Arnold. 
James Arnold. 
John Arnold. 
William Arnold. 
John Roberts. 
Thomas Norman. 
George Wells. 
Henry Flowers. 
Alfred White. 
Joseph Adams. 
Jesse Young. 
C. Garlington, Sr, 
Mrs Workman 
C. Garlington, Jr. 
Jacon Alfred. 
Thomas SuUivent. 
John Wilson. 
John W. Kennon. 
Drury Massie. 
John Keen, Jr. 
David Winbourne. 
- James White. 
James Denman. 
Allan Hunlock. 
Henry Haggard. 
Job Wigley. 
James Chandler. 
Samuel Bosman. 
Alixr McMorrls. 
John Worthy. 
John Wigley. 
Jonathan Neighbors. 
James Gordon. 
William Garner. 
Samuel Garner. 



Heads of F'amiUcs. 
Hiram Terrell. 
Henry Butler. 
Peter Dismukes. 
John Everette. 
Wm. Hagan. 
James Moore. 
William Moore. 
William Isaacs. - 
John McLindon. 
Michael Mixon. 
Obed Mixon. 
George Raybon. 
Henry Clark. 
Sanders Raybon. 
Joseph Raybon. 
Mark Raybon Burnett. 
Aaron Parker. 
Mark Raybon. 
Cornelius Raybon. 
Thomas Gordon. 
Thomas Faris. 
Moses Donahoe. 
Thomas Holden. 
John Sibley. 
William Sibley. 
Frederick Testona. 
James Lea. 
William Lattimore. 
William Stuart. 
William Brister. 
Daniel Sullivan. 
William Anderson. 
^ Nathan Land. 
Simon Cowell. 
• James Miller. 
Joel Swearingln. 
Moses Clark. 
Zeddock Weeks. 
Jesse Webb. 
John Donahoe. 
Thomas Davis. 
John Hall. 
Thomas Neal. . 
Howell Wall, 



:.A ■vVft 






■":^ -■•-■q.n].. 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIF'PI IN 1816 



83 



Heads of Families. 

Anthony Raybon. 

Young Welch. 

James Welch, Sen. 

James Welch, Jr. 

John Welch. 

Ann Yarner. 

Robert Burton. 

Caleb Burton. 

Solomon Newman. 

Lewis Perkins. 

John Lowry. 

George Gerald. 

Samuel F. Thompson. 

William Furlow. 

William Chapman, Jr. 

John Brown. '^ 

Sylvester Dunn. 

Daniel McCoy. 

Benjamin Hill. 

James Newsham. 

Haley Cotton. 

John Neelin. 
. * Edward Collins. 

Robert Pool, 

Mastin C. Harper. 

Thomas McKnight. 

Joseph Robinson. 

Andrew Petifils. 

James Smylie. 

Mrs. Hicks. 

Frederick Beavers. 

Charles Davis. 

Richard Hurst. 

Benjamin Roberts. 

John J. Love. 

William Love. 

Joseph Forman. 

Charles Love. 

Joseph Rogers. 

Frances Graves. 

John Berry. 

Christian Nelson. 

Nezzar Lewis. 

James Johns. 



Heads of B^iDiiUes. 
Thomas Johns. 
Thomas L. Husbands. 
John Gerald. 
Daniel McNeel. 
John Love. 
Benjamin Alexajider. 
Daniel McGahey. 
Alexander Morrison. 
Ephraim Anderson. 
Robert Anderson. 
John Atwood. 
Josiah Gayle. 
John Robinson. 
Joseph Williams. 
David Edwards. 
Victor Edwards. 
Samuel A. Davis. 
William P. Johnson. 
Alexander Keith. 
Jsaac Hickman. 
William Roberts. 
William McCoy. 
Jesse McCoy. 
Nathan McGraw. 
Doctor Dickey. 
John Rhodes. 
Samuel McCoy. 
Charles R. McCoy. 
Jesse McCoy, Jr. 
Richard Curtis. 
William Francis. 
Prestly Petty. 
Ulric Sturzenegger. 
Henry Harkness. 
James Jones. 
Thomas Puckett 
Abram Puckett. 
Josiah Laird. 
Taliaferro Stribling, 
. Archibald B. Steel. 
James Steel. 
John Cotton. 
Jesse Boiling. 
Charles Charter. 



■I 'J 11 s.biitad';. 






84 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
"William Norton. 
Elvin Roberts . 
Ezekiel Smith. 
Austin Spears. 
Alexander Martin. 
John Spears. 
Theophilus Edwards. 
Stephen Sarcer. 
Samuel Welson. 
Silas Hollis. 
William Clark. 
William Clark. 
John Clark. 
John Bradshaw. 
Matthew G. White. 
William S. Allison. 
Gabriel Felder. 



Heads of Families. 

Frederick Beavers. 

Andrew Petifils. 

Samuel Hays. 

John Page. 

William Byrnes. 

Mrs. Bell. 

Matthew Bowman. 

Joseph King. 

Joshua Menton. 

M. Houston. 

David Cook. 

Allan McLain. 

C. Vanhouter & M. Davis. 

Thomas Taylor. 

Thomas Cotton. 

Jesse Gerald. 



Endorsed: 

"A true estimate of the inhabitants of the county of Amite taken for 
the year, 1816. • 

^ David Davis, 

Tax Collector and Assessor of Amite County." 



CENSUS OF 1816, IN BALDWIN COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI TERRI- 
TORY. (Now in State of Alabama). 



Heads of Families. 
Maximian Andra. 
Daniel Johnson. 
Jeptha Keneda. 
John Buford. 
Mrs. P. Lewis. 
- Phillip Graves 
William Terry. 
Samuel Love. 
Mordica Baldwin. 
Solomon Wheat. 
Josiah Carney. 
H. Garten. 
Samuel Free. 
Arthur Foster. 
James Etteredge. 



Heads of Families. 
Phillip Mask. 
James Powell. 
John Powell. 
Mrs. Sulevent. 
Mrs. E. Fair. 
John Johnson. 
Joseph Johnson. 
Isaac Johnson. 
Cornelius Rain. 
Joseph Wheat. 
Thomas Bates. 
Louisa Chastang. 

E. Chastang. 

Zeno Chastang. 
A. Rials. 



t.'i".::- TlclAHHl 



Jf'S 









INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



85 



Heads of Families. 
Arthur Garner. 
J. Holden. 
John Mcgaskey. 
Mary Hollinger. 

A. — — Hollinger. 
William Thomas. 
Mrs. H. Minis. 
Joseph Mims. ^ 
Mrs. E. Oneal. 
Mrs. S. Dunn. 
Thomas Burns. 
Henry Beard. 
John McDanal. 

L. Briars. 

Mrs. M. Weakley. 

B. Weakley. 
Robert Killercas. 
Gary Ghristian. 

. William McDanal. 
Samuel Aron. 
A. ISIcDanal. 
W. & J. Pierce. 
James Mcconnel. . 



Heads of Families. 
Rachel Helvenor. 
Howell Dupree. 
Benjamin Headan. 
Partrick Maloney. 
Henery B. Slade. 
T. J. Strong. 
George Gullet. 
John Eades. 
Mrs. Jane Carson. 
Hirum Munger. 
John Roberson. 
Mrs. H. Dunham. 
B. C. Dunham. 
James Jinkins. 
John Jinkins. 
Robert Harvell. 
Mrs. E. Bates. 
Nanette Durette. 
John Hinson. 
P. L. Trouilette. 
Robert Lewis. 
Harry Toulmin. 
William Locklin. 



CP:NSUS of 1816, IN CLAIBORNE COUNTY. MISS. 



Heads of Families. 
Wm. Rush. 
Moses Jones. 
•' John Calhoun, 
Reuben Stelly. 
Elijah L. Clarke. 
David Davis. 
Samuel Mason. 
Wm. Mathews. 
Joseph Mathews. 
SamI, Goodwin. 
Richmond Shuffield. 
Wm. Goodwin, 
Wm. Moore. 
Benja. Kitchens. 
Dempsey White. 



Heads of Families. 
Alexr. Armstrong. 
Ignacious Flowers. 
James McDonall. 
John Brock. 
Wm. Williams. 
Joseph Bullard. 
James Hutchins. 
Beja. Adear. 
Henry Stiner. 
Thomas Grubs. 
Margaret McHay. 
James Dennis. 
Spencer Adams. 
Lot Mason. 



H^'-f 



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86 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Wm. Briscoe. 
Martin Cooper. 
James Sims. 
John Briscoe. 
Darius Hamilton. 
John Dennis. 
Philip Alston. 
Henery G. Johnson. 
Larkin White. 
Devanport Wiseman. 
Walter Leake. 
Charles P. Coleman. 
Robert M. Coleman. 
James Watson. 
Elisha Flowers, Jr. 
Elisha Flowers, Sr. 
James Barland. 
Ralph Ragan. 
Joseph Briggs. 

Adam Gordon. 

Benja. Shields. 

Thomas Going. 

Saml. Going. 

John Gibson. 

Abel W^elson. 

Mabourn Cooper. 

Moses Shelby. 

Reuben White. 
. Gideon Foster. 

Simeon HoUiday. 

James McHelwee. 

Eden Brashears. 

Elias Fisher. 

David Ellison. 

Rebeka Brazeal. 

Martha Willis. 

Martha Sea. 

Wm. Rains. 

John Robinson. 

Benja. Mitchell. 

Dansel Lyon. 

D. P. January. 

James Gerson. 



Heads of Families. 
Thomas Clark. 
Darby Haney. 
Casander Haney. 
Polly McKey. 
Jeremiah Miller. 
Wm. Cox. 
Reuben Ceasar. 
Aaron Cox. 
Josiah Flowers. 
Lydia Aron. 
John Cook. 
Mary Thralkill. 
Julas Battis. 
James D. Pickett. 
Wm. Cooper, 
Wm. Hilcrea^e. 
Robert Guy. 
John McEhern. 
Ann Brashears. 
Shadrick Brown,^ — 
Joseph Montgomery. 
Eli Tharp. 
- Wm. Sarrels. 
Bumbary Scott. 

Alexr. Brunt. 

Stephen Miller. 

Joshua Saxton. 

Wm. B. Minor. 

Nancy Mitchell. 

Stephen Jones. 

George W. Humphrey 

Henery Oxendine. 

Andrew Mundall. 

Thomas Barnes. 

Peter Lyon. 

Wm. Carson. 

Nancy Wool dredge. 

Gibson Clark, Jr. 

Amelia Wadkins. 

Thompson White. 

Saml. Dawcy. 

John W. Thompson. 

GeorgQ Jennings. 



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INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



87 



Heads of Families. 

Jeremiah Watson. 

Thomas Farrar. 

Joab Thompson. 

Frisby Freeland. 

Nancy Bryce. 

Andy Stephens. 
' Harmon Blannerhassett. 

Elizabeth Cotton. 

Mathew Lord, 

John Murdock. 

David McCaleb. 

Jonathan McCaleb. 

James McCaleb. 

James Gragg. 

Elijah Clarke. 

Ann Gibson. 

Gilbert Fife. 

John H. Truly. 

Cader Perves. 

James Davenport. 

Wm. Tanner. 

Wm. Thompson. 

Lewalen Price. 

Thomas W. Cagan. 

John Read. 

Robert Jordan. 

Thomas Mullins. 

Wm. Pope. 

Elizabeth Wheeli*. 

Daniel Burnet. 

Isaac Bland. 

Saml. Gibson. 

Joseph Moore. 

Joseph Nicolls. 

Saml. Coban. 
-^ Willis Brazeal. 

Jonathan Conger. 

David Smith. 

David Christian. 

Reuben McGinty. 

Lydia McGinty. 

Isaac Randale. 

Cheleon F. Stiles. 



Heads of Families. 
Seth Rundall. 
David Lee. 
Joseph Wilds. 
John Calvit. 
John Calvit. 
Wm. Taylor. 
Lewis Clarke. 
Nahum Chunn. 
Stephen Bellinor. 
J. G. Clarke. 
E. Frazier. 
George Arnold. 
Wm. Helley. 
Michael Snyder. 
Elijah Bland. 
Hector McNeil. 
Wm. Wright. 
Daniel Vertner. 
Patterick Catterson. 
Nelson White. 
Levi Thompson. 
Rebeka Wood. 
Joel Moss. 
Ambers Marbell. 
Mary Lobdall. 
Henery Haney. 
Rebeka Jones. 
Gibson CJarke. 
Saml. Parkes. 
Charles Brooks. 
Jesse Hudnall. 
Wm. Brooks. 
Benja. Brooks. 
Waterman Crane. 
James Cor bit. 
Debraugh Hartly. 
Joshua Rundall. 
Josiah Rundell. 
James Foster. 
Benja. Beard. 
John Gragg. 
Jacob Secrease. 
Wm. C. Bucky, 



:\ '.■:.. 



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vja.: ■■■:/. 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Celiab Smith. 
Saml. Cox. 
Shem Thompson. 
James Smith. 
Wm. Christie. 
Lewis Evans. 
James Harmon. 
John W. Thompson. 
Wm. Scott. 
Armsted Sharp. 
Nancy Fife. 
James Sanders. 
Robert S. Caldwell. 
Person B. Griffen. 
Thomas Shelby. 
Richerd Wenters. 
Richerd Gradock. 
Thomas Park. 
Robert Patton. 
Wm. Robinson. 
John Michele. 
James Patton. 
James Davenport. 
Phyla Newman. 
Parmenas Briscoe. 
Wm. Willis. 
Harrison Person. 
Abner Wilkinson. 
Asa German. 
Wm. Dunn, 
Robert Moore. 
Spencer Foster. 
Turner B. Brashears. 
Charles Patterson. 
Levi Norrell. 
Sarah Robinson. 
Pheby Tearny. 
Joel Lyming. 
Henery Parr. 
John Falls. 
John Robinson. 
Harwood Jones. 
Isaac Powers. 
John Mathews. 



James Beard. 
Saml. Ragsdale. 
John Orr. 
Archad. Irwin. 
Wm. Irwin. 
Ann Dannels. 
Thomas Morriu. 
William Wells. 
John Petterson. 
Jacob Beard. 
George Beard. 
Wm. Harris. 
Jacob Philips. 
Benja. Robinson. 
Charles Taylor. 
Charles Booth. 
Abram Green. 
Saml. Lum. 
Philip Thurman. 
Francis Patton. 
Gal. Wetherington. 
John Booth. 
John Sarrels. 
Ramon Robinson. 
Andrew Hathorne, 
Thomas Long. 
Abram Barnes. 
Mary Bullock. 
Ausburn Jeffers. 
Esther Barnes. 
Etherine Evans. 
Ezekial Evans. 
Benja. Baker. 
Hezekiah Harmon. 
Benja. Smith. 
David Hunt. 
Samuel Loring. 
Est. of James Archer. 
Isaac Ross. 
Helon McCoUister. 
Saml. Carman. 
Daniel McCollister. 
Wm. Harvey. 
Catherine McMellon. 



iVJ 



■rB 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



89 



Heads of Families. 
Pheba Alford. 
Alexr. McAlpin. 
Joshua Gazy. 
George Tauneyhill. 
Ira Powell. 
John Weeks. 
Benja. Carlile. 



Heads of Families. 
Peter S. Vandorn. 
Wm. Scott. 
Patterick Brown. 
Walter Barrels. 
Wm. Simmons. 
John Amnions. 
Wm. Bridgers. 



Wm. Bridgers, 
Assessor C. C. 



CENSUS OF 1816, IN CLARKE COUNTY, MISS. 



Heads of Families. 
-Heads of Families. 
Armstrong, Thomas 
Austell, Evan 
Anderson, Jorden 
Alston, Lemuel 1 
Arnold, Benjamin 
Alden, Samuel 
Anderson, Isaac 
Armstrong, John. 
Anderson, William 
Allen, Drury 
Anderson, William 
Benus, Jame:^ 
Brumby, Thomas M 
Bradon, James. 
Boler, William 
Barrow, John 
Beall, Walter. 
Barlow, William. 
Boy kin, So'.omon 
Brewer, Matthew 
Bird, William 
Browning, William 
Browning, Isaiah 
Bradley, John 
Blackwell, James 
Bruster, Henry 
Brown, Bartlet 



Heads of Families. 
Beeler, Thomas 
Bedell, Benjamin 1 
Buckelow, John 
Barlow, Branson 
Bethany, John 
Brown, John 
Bowman, James 
Brooks, Aaron 
Brown, Stephen 
Birdsong, Jesse 
Bostick, Le\'y 
Basor, Caleb 
Bennison, John 
Brunson, Josiaii 
Coleman, William 
Coats, William 
Clemments, Benjamin 
Carmack, David 
Creagh, John G 
Cammel, James C 
Caller, Robert 
Cahil, Barney 
Cobb, Seaborn 
Cawl, Samuel 
Calk, Elijah 
Campbell, Danles 
Cochran, William 
Christmas, Nathaniel 



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Inhabitants of Mississippi in i816 



Heads of Families. 
Crawford, William 
Carter, Henry 
Churchwell, James 
Cox, John 
Coxe, William 
Cauline, Christine, Sr. 
Cauline, Christine, Jr. 
Cox, Caleb. 
Coal, Richard 
Cade, William 
Cato, Patsey 
Campbell, Duncan 
Casity, Charles. 
Cox, Matthew. 
Chiles, Waltei 
Canley, Baranabas 
Collier, Francis 
Curtis, Blunder 
Casity, Hugh 
Coleman, Jesse 
Cannon, Joel E 
Carter, Hezekiah 
Crawford, William 
Dod ridge, Noan 
Davis, Hannah 
Dyer, Joseph 
Delany, Thomaa 
Davis, Daniel 
Daflan, James 
Dewit, Joseph 
Dent, Uriah 
Dodd, Richard 
Drinkard, Francis 
Deese, George 
Dees, Benjamin, Sr. 
Dees, Benjamin, Jr. 
Dean, John, Sr. 
Dean, John, Jr. 
Dukes, Hardeman. 
Daniel, James. 
Dewett, James. 
Dixon, John. 
Doty, Edward. 
Dungan, John. 



Heads of Families. 
Dennis, Joseph, 
Easley, Warham. 
Embra, Anne. 
Embra, Jonathan. 
Etherington, William. 
Evans, Ellington 
Ewin, Samuel. 
Emmonds, John., 
Edwards, John. 
Easley, John. 
Easley, Edward. 
Edwards, Dabney. 
Evans, Stephen. 
Edwards, Gideon H. 
Easley, Roderick. 
Files, John. 
Faught, William. 
Ford, James. 
Furlow, Xames. 
Franklin, Henry, Sr. 
Figures. Thomas. 
Foster, William. 
Foster, Caty. 
Foster, Mary. 
Fraser, Thomas. 
Ferguson, Jacot). 
Ford, Sarah. 
Foscue, Benjamnt. 
Foster, Sarah. 
Foster, George, Thos. Mc- 
■ Gee, overseer. 
Gibbs, George. 
Gill, Reuben. 
Glass,. John. 
Green, Raleigh. 
Gilmore, John. 
Goode, James I. 
Gee, Joseph. 
Gains, David. 
Ganes, Williams. 
Glass, Williamson. 
Glass, Zacharias. 
Goodwin, Thomas. 



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Inhabitants of mississif'pi in isie 



^1 



Heads of Families. 

Green, Joshua. 

Green, James, Sr. 
, Gray, Bozzel. 

Gains, Young. 

George, Basil. 

Glass, David. 

Graves, Joseph. 

Green, William. 

Greer, Isaac. 

Gales, Josiah. 

Green, James. 

Gill, Richard. 

Gilmore, George. 

Gibbs, Zachariah. 

Hawkins, Elizabeth. 

Hicks, Matthey. 

Hilbert. Henry & Clarke. 

Hammonds, Samuel, Sr. 

Hammonds, Samuel, Jr. 

Harrison, Samuel. 
Harrison, Benjamin. 
Hatch, Benjamin. 
Harrison, Vincent, 
Hill, Moses. 
Hill, Starling. 
Hill, Green. 
Harris, Micajah 
Hough, William H. 
Hill, Fanny 
Heaton, Isaac 
Hosea, Thomas 
Holdman, Joseph 
Heard, Joel 
Hardy, Henry 
Hopkins, Richard 
Hays, William 
Hays, Mark 
Hammond, William 
Hearne, George 
Harper, Mary 
Hearne, William 
Hammonds, Matthias 
Howell, Henry 
Hogg, Jolffi 



Heads of Fayriilies. 
Harrison, Pascal 
Hicks, Jeremiah 
Harwell, Needham 
Hardy, Henry 
Harmon, Joseph 
Hall, Joseph W. 
Hall, John 
Haden, Robert G. 
Jones, William C. ' 
Jones, Josiah 
Jackson, Isaac 
Jackson, William 
Jones, William 
Jentry, James 
Jones, Allen 
Irby, John K. 
Ivy, Charles 
Jones, Absalom 
Jackson, Joseph 
Jones, Matthew 
Jones, William, Jr. 
James, Abner 
Jackson, Isaac 
Irvine, Jesse B. 
Johnson, John 
Jetton, Benedict 
King, William & Kessinger 
Kirkpatrick, Jamea 
Kennaday, John 
Kelly, Hannah 
Keal, James 
King, Benjamin 
Kelley, Jesse 
Kirkham, Joseph 
Kemp, Joseph 
Kirk, Reuben 
Landrum, William 
Lee, Nancy 
Long, Jacob 
Langham, Joel 
Lowry, John, Sr. 
Lowry, John, Jr. 
Lofton, William 
Lee, Robert 



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92 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Lambert, John 
Langham, Thomas K. 
Love, Robert 
' Lenoir, Robert 
Leech, Polly 
Lacy, Thomas 
Love, Robartes 
Lowry, George 
Level, Joseph 
Long, John M. 
Lacy, Elisha 
Loftes, Benjamin H. 
Loftes, John A. 
Landrura, Caty 
Langham, Thomas 
Langham, Thomas J. 
Mirams, Thomas 
McDonold, John 
McGraw, William 
McKenney, Green 
Mott, Loveless 
McDonold, AlexanGer 
McGraw, John, Senr. 
Myrick, Henry 
Myrick, William 
McCain, John 
McMillan, Nathan 
Mabry, Walter 
Matthews, Samuel 
McKinney, John 
Morgan, Richard 
Martin, John 
Miller, Michael 
McGraw, John, Jun. 
Mott, Jonas 
Mott, William 
Mott, Joseph 
Moore, Edward 
Moore, Andrew 
Mitchel, Charles 
McDade, John 
McGraw, William 
Mixon, James 
McUntere, Sarah 



Heads of Faniilics. 

Montgomery, Jonathan 
Morgan, John 
Murrell, William 
Mitchel, Lewis 
Martin, Andrew 
McGee, John 
Martin, Robert 
Montcrief, Caleb 
Mobley, Michael 
McAlpine, Archibald 
Milstead, Sarah 
Mills, William 
Matlock, James 
Neeley, David 
Nabors, Nathai> 
Oneal, Bridge> 
Oglethorp, John 
Odum, Richard 
. Phillips, Richard 
Parker, John 
Price, John 
Pickens, John 
Pearson, Henr>' & Leod 
Prior, William 
Phillips, Joseph 
Phillips, James L. 
Parker, Amos 
Presnal, Abraham 
Pickerson, Moses 
Pares, William S. 
Price, James M. 
Potts, Henry 
Parker, William 
Prince, Elijah 
Powers, Nathaniel 
Phillips, William . 
Phillips, David 
Pearce, Lewis 
Phillips, Charles 
Phillips, Charles, Sr. 
Pitman, Jacob 
Pool, John 
Pace, Derapsey 
Phillips, Robert H. 



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INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



93 



Heads of FamiUrs. 
Prewit, Martin 
Pace, John 
Pugh, Elijah 
Pugh, Isaac 
Pugh, Jesse 
Pugh, Robert 
Pogue, Robert 
Phillips, Thomas 
Phillips, William 
Pogue, David 
Phillips, George 
Perry, Darling 
Perry, Nathan 
Philpot, Thomas 
Phillips, Joseph col 
Quinea, Jane 
Reed, James 
Rogers, Benjamin 
Rogers, Elizabeth 
Robea, Kinchen 
Robinson, Wililam A. 
Revers, Richard 
Rogers, John Jr. 
Rogers, John Senr. 
Rogers, Jonah 
Rodes, John 
Rose, "William 
Ray, John 
Ray, Charles, Sr. 
Ray, Charles, Jr. 
Ray, Henry 
Reed, Elias 
Raner, Hardy 
Rainwater, Richard 
Robeson, Edmund 
Roser, Elijah 
Rutledge, Ah ram 
Rogers, John 
Reynolds, Reuben 
Robinson, David 
Scruggs, Richard W. 
Scott, Benjamin 
Scarborough, John 
Scarborough, Silas 



Heads of Families. 
Spikes, Jonah ' 
Smith, Reese 
Singleton, Richard 
Stokes, David 
Saffold, Reuben 
Smith, Neel 
Stewart, James 
Smith, John 
Standley, Benjamin 
Shamburger, Henry 
Shamburger, William 
Sansom, Williani 
Stinson, Burrell 
Short, James 
Savell, Hannah 
Sanders, Isaac 
Sanders & Isham 
Slator, John 
Slator, George 
Short, John 
Saffold, Drury 
Starky, Gideon 
Sanders, Joseph 
Smith, William 
Scott, Benjamin 
Saunders, George 
Saunders, Isham 
Saunders, George 
Thompson, Thomas 
Taylor, Green B. 
Tate, William 
Taylor, David 
Towns, Auky 
Trayreck, Allen 
Thornton, William 
Turner, Abner 
Tutchstone, Caleb 
Treeble, Andrew 
Thompson, Joseph * 
Tucker, George 
Veesy, James 
Vincent, David 
Wilkerson, John 
Wells, Josiah 



1 mi 



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94 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 

Westbrooks, Thomas 
Webb, William 
Williams, Steptien 
Wilkerson, John 
'Wilkerson, Samuel 
Wilkerson, Jesse 
White, Michael 
Watson, Alexander 
Wright, Margaret 
Walton, John 
Walker, William 
White, Robert 
walker, Matthias 
Wadkins, Josiah 
Williams, Josepn 
Wilson, William 
Walker, Purnai 
Wilson, John 



Heads of Families. 
White, John 
White, Jonah 
White, James 
White, Jacob 
Welch, Dempsey 
Wilson, James 
Wilson, Matthew- 
Williams, Sarah 
Wills, John 
AVhite, John 
Windham, William 
Warnock, Joseph 
Wilson, James 
White, Joab 
White. David 
Walton, William L. Kirk 
Watson, James 
Wilson, William (B. S.) 
Williams, Phillip 
Wilkerson, Jesse 
York, Jabez 



Wadkins, William 

Wood, Jas. & A. Kilpatrick 

Walker, Tandy 

Mississippi ^Territory 

I do hereby Certify that the above list of the Census of Clarke 
County amounting to 4,117 is correct to the best of my knowledge and 
belief. 

Given under my hand this the 24th day of October, 1816. 

- Joseph Mott, Assr. 

. \ ■ . " C. C. 



CENSUS OF 1816 IN FRANKLIN COUNTY, MISS. 



Heads of Families. 
Benjamin Scott. 
Daniel Cameron. 
Lauchlin Galbreath. 
Peter Mclntyre. 
Daniel Higdon. 
Daniel Galbreath. 
Hugh Cameron. 
James Ford, 



Heads of Families. 
Alexander Rae. 
Steplien Corban. 
David Carnes. 
Malcolm Shaw. 
Charles McCarrall. 
George Halloway. 
Elections Williams. 
John Williams. 



■(l/-.':n',a 









INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



95 



Heads of Families. 
William Williams. 
Elijah Mobley. 
Edward J. Williams. 
Moses Martin. 
Jacob Guin. 
Austin Holdbrook. 
John Bazer. 
Bailey E. Chaney. 
John T. Chaney. 
William Chaney. 
William Calvit. 
William Kennison. 
Elijah W. Brown. .^ 
Jonathan Mackey. 
Nathaniel Kinnison. 
David Hildibrand. 
William Ford. 
Henry Ford. 
George Ford. 
Jacob Guice. 
Jonathan Guice. 
Nancy Holinshead. 
David Power. 
Jacob Shillings. 
. Daniel Guice. 
Abraham Guice. 
John Burk. 
Littleton Monday. 
Phillip May. 
John Shillings. 
John H. Guice. 
John Morgan. 
Zabon Barefrite. 
Norman Gillies. 
Samuel Boyd. 
Samuel Gilbert. 
William Graves. 
John Klnlson. 
John Spiars. 
Robert Spiars. 
John Calvit 



Heads of Families. 
Benjamin Hitton. 
Absolem Wells. 
Thomas Calvit. 
James Humby. 
William Armstrong. 
Jonathan Guin, Jr. 
Nicholas Baggot. 
Willie Atkins. 
Andrew McKinsey. 
David House. 
Michael Zeagler. 
John Gibson. 
David Callahan. 
Silas Darsey. 
Wilson Gibson. 
George Knox. 
Daniel Harrigle. 
David Havard. 
John B. Owens. 
Stephen Owens. 
Willis Magee. 
Needham Lee 
Joseph Porter. 
Oshea Byrd. 
Gabriel Scott. 
Thomas L. Maxwell. 
George W. McConnell. 
Joseph Scott. 
James Goodbolt. 
William Cupete. 
Wadwell Sanders. 
. David Scarborough. 
Henry Nichols. 
Joshua Hadley. 
James Lee. 
Thomas Lazarus. 
George Anding. 
William Irby. 
Simeon Wilks. 
Eprom Flowers. 
Anthony Hutchlns. 



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96 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Head^ of Families. 
Edin Byrd. 
John F, Witherspoon. 
Willis Bradshaw. 
David :May. 
David King, 
John Lilcox. 
James Prichard. 
David Berry. 
Matthew Shilling. 
Thomas Bell. 
Richard Dunn. 
David Dunn. 
Joseph Carter. 
Vinson Carter. 
Polly Thomas. 
Jonathan Brown. -v^ 
Godfru Ethridge. 
Charles Campbell. 
Robert Thompson. 
Gabriel Sojourner. 
Richard Oglesby. 
William Oglesby. 
William Verdiman. 
Samuel Heady. 
• James Newell. 
John Jamison. 
John James. 
James Carter. 
James McCowen. 
James Erwin. 
Readick Sojourner. 
John Zeagler. 
Abraham Roberts. 
David Roberts. 
John H. Lusk- 
Henry Murphy. 
Lewis Umphrj'. 
George Fletcher. 
Samuel Howze. 
James Curtis. 
Levi Lusk. 



Heads of Families. 
Moses Bass. 
Freeman Ford. 
James Brown. 
John Bunchley. 
Henry C. Oats. 
John Briggs. 
Harvey Oneal. 
Samuel Gregg. 
William Murphree. 
Tim Oneal. 
Arthur Howard. 
Hiram Oneal. 
Michell Oneal. 
John Buckley. 
Jonathan Oneal. 
Jonathan Oneal, Jr. 
William AUin. 
Indiah Peck. 
William Rounsavall. 
Isaac Rounsavall. 
John WaddelL 
John Hails. 
Moses Foster. 
Henry Jacobs. 
George Davis. 
George Gray. 
William Cain. 
John Russell. 
Joseph McGinty. 
David White. 
John Tarver. 
William Peight. 
John Obier. 
Birket Thompson. 
William Adams. 
John Adams. 
Andrew Gray. 
Joannah Adams. 
James Mathas. 
James Gallanton. 
Samuel Lee. 



v-'-ii Xv' 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



97 



Heads of Families. 
William Foster. 
Abraham Wacter. 
John Foster. 
Arthur Bowlin. 
Jacob Wacter. 
John Rials. 
Ayer Allred. 
Thomas Cotton. 
Morgan Murrah. 
John Foster. 
Aaron Herrin. 
William Herrin. 
John Cooper. 
Noah Coleman. 
John Caves. 
Richison Sanders. 
Abell Blackman. 
James Blackman. 
Benjamin Blackman. 
John Porter. 
Thomas Herrod. 
John I. Wells. 
Peter Blackman. 
Hugh Sanders. 
John Ford. 
Thomas Ford. 
John Runnells. 
William Kinnisson. 
Thomas Aldrige. 
Isaac Bedford. 
James Stephens. 
Reubin Gibson. 
Abraham Buckles. 
Gabriel Pickering, 
Knightly Sanders. 
John Lee. 

Micajah Pickett, Jr. 
George Lambright. 
Isaiah Mobley. 
John Anding. 
Reason Mobley. 
7— -m 



Heads of Families. 
Elijah Wright. 
Nicholas Lazarus. 
Thomas Brady. 
John Hawley. 
Francis Whiting. 
Davis Evans. 
Henry Sluder. 
Micajah P. Stone. 
Richard T. Coleman. 
William May. 
Joseph Winn. 
William Howard. 
Byrd Sutton. 
John Cameron. 
David Beckett. 
Peter Hathorn. 
Luke Rowls. 
David Thompson. 
John Stirling. 
James Owens. 
William Pickett. 
Thomas K. Pickett. 
William K. Carter. 
Thomas Havis. 
William Witherspoon. 
James W. Smylie. 
Levi Kindrick. 
Grey Briggs. 
John Middleton, Jr. 
James Knox. 
Thomas Merideth. 
Nathan King. 
Aaron Hickingbottom. 
John Williams. 
Bartlett Smith. 
William Davidson. 
Bartlett Ford. 
David Williams. 
Archibald Baker. 
Beal B. Rowan. 
James A, Witherspoon, 



TTHAliAl 



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98 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
William Porter. 
Jolin Middleton, Sr. 
Samuel Ratcliffe. 
John G. McConnell. 
John Page. 
Adam Carriway. 
John E. Witherspoon. 
• John Shaw. 
John Ducker. 
Arichbald Sillers. 
James Keith. 



Heads of Families. 
Thomas Kell. 
James McCall. 
Thomas Rowan. 
Moses King. 
Micajah Pickettt, 
Lewis Stephens. 
Bartlett Shipp. ' 
John Ferguson. 
Ahsolum Ford. 
William Cirby. 



Sr. 



Total of Inhabitants, Franklin County, Miss., May 4th, 1816,-2,712. 

T. Rowan, Assr, 



CENSUS OF 1816. IN GREENE COUNTY. MISS. 



Heads of Families. 

Josiah Skinner. 
. Jacob Nealey. 

John Roberts. 

Thomas Nealy. 

Amos I. Reed. 

Isom Copeland. 

James Reaves. 

Daniel McCaskill. 

Henry Thomas. 

James Thomas. 

George Dickey. 

Epheram Tapley. 

Charles Brene. 

Craven P. Moffett. 
• William S. Byrd. 

William Harris. 

George Penticost. 

Ely Moffett. 

John Wheat. 

James Simmona. 



Heads of Families. 
Jesse Tutchstone. 
Berrey Elsey. 
Robert Little. 
Thomas Pierce. 
James Newel. 
John Atkinson. 
Thomas Williams. 
Meher Lyle. 
Charles Wheaton. 
Joseph Nealy. 
R. H, Gilmer. 
Jeremiah Fletcher. 
Esther Ganes. 
John Hartsfield. 
Jacob Carter. 
Robert Weatherspoon, 
Thomas Rogers. 
Joshua Lett. 
Annas Densby. 
John Horgi;r, 



dQ ;>,;3{f>,iO 



my. 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1?16 



99 



Heads of Families. 
Shederick Merritt. 
Edmond Merritt. 
William Parker. 
John Daughdrel. 
Lemuel Hogan. 
Thomas Simpson. 
Lauchlin McKay. 
Alexander :McKinzee. 
Robert Weatherspoon. 
Sherwood Bradley. 
Elijah Spell. 
Jesse Thompson. 
Hiram Stewart. 
"William Holloway. 
Jesse Hinton. 
Samuel Coalman. 
George Pierce. 
William Weldy. 
Isaac Carter. 
' William Baxter. 
Joshua Williams. 
John Price. 
Edmond Price. 
Malcom McCollum. 
Michael Cripp. 
Benjamin Williams. 
James Taylor. 
John Piatt. 
James Williams. 
David Henry. 
Charles B. Mulford, 
Samuel Newton. 
John Bowing. 
William Ballard. 
James Eason. 
John Futch. 
' Drury White. 
Wright Wall, Sr. 
Wright, Wall. Jr. 
Roderick McDuffie. 
Randol McFeraou, 



Heads of Faviilies. 
Neal Morgan. 
Malcom Morrison. 
Kenith McLeod. 
Malcom McLeod. 
Jonas Matther. 
Isaac Harrell. 
Samuel W^arren. 
Isaac Henry. 
Tisdell Whatley. 
Elias Spikes. 
Jonathan Thomas. 
William Mathias. 
Dempsey Tutchstone. 
John Thompson. 
William Millsap. 
James Thomas. 
Uriah Millsap. 
John Evans. 
John Barlow, 
John Smith. 
Cagebey Dowling. 
James Tutchstone. 
Isaac Herrington. 
Brient Barlow." 
Asa Chaddick. 
Thomas Carter. 
Joel Pierce. 
William Thomas. 
Arthur Burrows. 
, Samuel M. Knox. 
William Herrington. 
Joshua Smith. 
Jacob J. H. Morris. 
Isaac Roberts. 
Edmond Lankford. 
Wyche Whatley. 
Jesse Lett. 
Robert Lott. 
Daniel Maloy. 
Axom Roberts. 
Isaac Roberts, Sr. 



:■'■_. t"-c|t; 



VHMI 



.-^^'f 



■;-^J 



100 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads o-f Families. 
Spenser Chatham. 
William Turner. 
Benjamin Williams. 
John T. Taylor. 
John R. Williams. 
John George. 
George Johnson. 
John Findley. 
James Griffin, 
Samuel Griffin. 
Ivy Malone. 
Richard Monk. 
Zacchariah Henderson. 
Willis Windham. 
Josiah Spikes. 
William Runnolds. 
Margaret Cocheran. 
Charles Turner. 
Elizabeth Moore. 
Abreham Stafford. 
John Wilson. 
William Tirdell. 
Edmond Byrd. 
Noel Turner. 
Enoch Turner. 
Jeremiah. Patrick. 
William Rag'.and. 
Jonathan Sermon. 
James Bonnels. 
Jonathan Dearmond. 
William Crawley. 
Robert Merritt. 
Alexander Stringer. 
Rubin Hornsbay. 
Rubin Watts. 
John Wardeen. 
Hardy Wootan. 
Burrell Rouse. 
William Reaves. 
James Smith. 
Nimrod Smith. 



Heads of Families. 
William Raney. 
Samuel Cradick. 
John McRea. 
Daniel Martin. 
Roderick Currey. 
Normond McDuffie. 
George Armstrong. 
Nancy Morrison. 
Daniel Mcintosh. 
James Ford. 
Alexander Mcintosh. 
Thomas Evans. 
Thomas Hester. 
William Carter. 
Edmond Hester. 
Claton Smith. 
John Gardener, Jr. 
John Gardener, Sr. 
Thomas Walley. 
Goldsberry Walley. 
Thomas Walley, Sr. 
James Mcintosh. 
John Mclnnis. 
Elisha Morgan. 
William Morgan. 
John Palmer. 
Joseph Palmer. 
John Hall. 
Jeremiah Morgan. 
John West. 
Phillip James. 
Robert Corrathers. 
Thonjas Avre. 
Zacchariah Murrell. 
James Brewer. 
Walden Lewis. 
James Davis. 
John Williford. 
Wamack Blankinship. 
Edward Davis. 
Henry Snelgrove. 






>:,'•) ;''■' 



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17^ -O iuLlLVfl' 



INHABITANTS OF :MtSSI?SIPPI IN 1816 



101 



Heads of Families. 

Millinda Roberts. 
Sarah Land rum. 
William Ramsey. 



Heads of Families. 

John L. Dantzler, 
Joseph Stringer. 
James Taylor. 



1 certify that the within is a true enumeration of the census of th- 
County of Greene to the best of my knowledge. 

Jos. Skinner, 
Assr. of the Taxes, G. C. 



TAX-PAYERS OF HANCOCK COUNTY, MISS., IN 1816. 



Heads of Families. 

Chevalier Dedeaux. 
Balon Deaedaux. 
Joan Socia. 
Philip Socia. 
Antonio Bayard. 
Charles De Capoi-. 
Phelix Turien. 
Michael Dagan. 
Pearl Morau. 
Charles Favre. 
John Morau. 
Bazeal Cadnier. 
Gilbert Cadnier. 
John Baptiste Cad^nier. 
John J. Jordan. 
Meleete Macarty. 
Dimitry Cannar. 
John Bste Favre. 
Abraham R. EUery. 
Baptiste Laudass. 
Charles Necaier. 
Charles Fabre. 
Valentine Bunwas. 



Heads of Families. 

John Bste Morau. 
Madame Peure. 
Charles M. Belegant. 
TTriah Macarty. 
Alcide Scrulorz. 
Madame Mirney. 
Thomas Shields. 
Thomas Wilkinson. 
Louis Glaiser. 
Elihu Cazon. 
M. Dancey. 
George Merrill. 
Macaine Yollintine. 
Louisa Necaier. 
Louis Fayer. 
Larant Fayer. 
Ujean Dubesant. 
V Pierre C. Chavonet. 
Mary Peroack. 
Michael Cibelot. 
M. Baisderais. 
George B. Damerow. 
Jack Ladnier. 



li^f-J\ 









102 



iNHABtTANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IX 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Jean Ladnier. 
Poard A. Crayavoi. 
Joseph Ladnier. 
Francis Bouquie. 
Jacob Kigre. 
Jasper & Jock Ladnier. 
Madame Seayer, 
Lewis Hayert. 
Alexis Fayre. 
John Fayre. 
Abijah T. Fayre. 
Jukes Fayre. 
Glais Ladnier. 
John Bste Courceneaux. 
Joseph Morau. 
Beyeard Barrios. 
Chaistlant Peare. 
Antonio George. 
Joseph Budrant. 
Chalstiant Negrac. 
Hayes* A. Helrette. 
David Baldwin. 
Charles Armas, Sr. 
Charles Armas, Jr. 
Victor Le Count. 
Joseph Labott. 
Lewis Gregory. 
Elizabeth Callemere. 
John Frederick. 
Jordun Pittot. 
Dr. Lazemoy. 
Joseph Daillis, Esqr. 
John Smith, Esqr. 
Abua Penton, 
William Hunt, Esqr. 
Jordan Morgan. 
Charles Taylor. 
James Burnet. 
Henry Henengen. Esqr. 
Thomas Anderson, Esqr. 
William Collins. 



Heads of Families. 
David Burnet. 
John Burnet, Esqr. 
John Burnet, Sr. 
John Strahan, Esqr. 
William Partill. 
John M. Hatch. 
James Tate. 
Jeremiah Handley. 
Burrel Perry. 
Reuben Crow. 
Nathan Smith. 
Hiram Smith. 
Jesse Magehee. 
James McArthur. 
Solomon Lott. 
Champness Terry. 
Stephens Leavel. 
William Oats. 
John Culpeper. 
Jesse Hippy. 
Thomas Wheat. 
Elias Wallis. 
Samuel Hace. 
Wesley Jarman. 
John Workman. 
Thos. Carton. 
Jesse Chapmaii. 
Joseph Walkei". 
Moses Murphy. 
William Thompson. 
Alexander Frasier. 
Charles Holmes. 
Duncan McCall. 
Ambrose Gaines. 
Mituron I. Banbin. 
Joseph Ellis. 
James Faure. 
William Gallagher. 
John Aplwhite. 
Antonio Judice. 
Stephen Aplwhite. 



\.'^.Ui\ '\- ^-v 



advl 






ij-sur-' 



Inhabitants 6f Mississippi in 1816 



103 



Heads of Families. 

Francivez Ladnier. 
Andre Guardiot. 
Charles Charlan. 
Antonio P. Favre. 

Entered in Journal, page 446. 



Heads of Families. 

Edward Livingston, Esq. 
George Merrill. 
D Lezaner. 
Abr. Duncan. 



Parke Walton, 
Audr. Pub. accts. 



TAX-PAYERS IN JACKSON COUNTY, MISS., IN 1817. 



Heads of Families. 

Perry King. 

Thomas Bilbo. 
- Willis Holder. 

Thomas Havens. 

Alexander Nicholas. 

Peter Ladnier. 

John B. Ellis. 

John B. Budrow. 

Jacob Ladnier. 

Modlear . 

Benjamin Sencer. 

Volentin Delmas. 

Aincy Kracps. 

Francis Kracps. 

Antonin Kracps. 

Bozeal ICracps. 

Elare Kracps. 

Madm Joseph Kracps. 

Maray Rose Despong. 

Antoine Ells. 

John Combas. 

Mary Jane Deflander. 

George Davis. 

William Carter. 

Matthias Carter. 

Briant Farel. 

Claborn Chatham. 

James Gamett. 



Heads of Families. 

Ignatius Grantham. 
Peter Helverson. 
Absolum Lott. 
John Self. 
Walter Denny. 
John Havens. 
William Flury. 
John I. Abner. 
Henry Hoskins. 
Caleb Howell. 
Charity Powerfil. 
Whealen Gresham. 
William Hall. 
John Miller. 
Benjamin Gresham. 
Archibald McManus. 
John Eubanks. 
Hezechi Hodg. 
Ell?s Fairbanks. 
John Howard. 
Samuel Davia. 
Rodney Cooper. 
James Baker. 
Philip Howell. 
Patrick Ward. 
John Ward. 
Tarleton Wara. 
Sterling Deupree. 



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104 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 



E. 



Pleasant Elam. 
Joha Eubanks, Jun. 
Georg Hutson. 
Noah K. Hutson. 
Charles Hollan, Jun. 
Henry Wells. 
Jessy Graves. 
Joseph Graves. 
John Base. 
Hugh Gelender. 
Aaron Parker. 
Ivewis Parker. 
Isaac Ryans. 
Spencer W. T. Johnson. 
• Joseph Graham. 
Zehel Coward. 
William Cochran. 
Burel Cochran. 
John Munger. 
John Brewer. 
David D. Smith. 
George Has. 
Sans car Simon. 
John McCloud. 
Edward Williamson. 
Francis Cunningham. 
William Graham, 
y William Baker. 

Christerfer Baker. 
Richard Roberts. 
William Hamelton. 



Heads of Families. 

James Goff. 

William Goff. 

Edmon Goff. 

Amicus P. Lyons, 

Edward Laveandun. 

John More. 

Willis Tavier. 

Isaac Allison. 

Jane B. Wardeen. 

Francis Williams. 

William Hollan. 

George Fauquet. 

William Welborn. 

James Havens. 
- Smith Johnson. 

James Bradly, 

Joshua Gates. 

William Gates. 

Lord Graham. 

Joseph Rabby, Sen. 

Joseph Rabby, Jun. 

Stephen Bradford. 

Rechan. 

Jacob Bang. 

John B. Nichoia. 

Allen Goode. 

Benjamin Goode. 

Jeremiah Martin. 

John Beaver. 

William Blackman. 

Frederick Toger. 
, Andrew Farna. 

William Ware. 



CENSUS OF 1816, IN JEFFERSON COUNTY, MISS. 



Heads of Familieit. 
William Austin. 
Robert Andrews. 
Sam'l Andrews. 



Heads of Families. 
Isaac Adams. 
Chas. Brandon. 
John Alesworth. 






iiiiiihir.; /ijiiiHiv 






H ^^ 



11 ^' ,1 :>.U^iS 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



105 



Heads of Fdmilies. 

B. 

Joseph Bradeii. 

John Berry. 

James Burnes. 

James Bolls. 

William Blanto^i. 

Hiram Baldwin. 

Joseph Bradley. 

John Brabston. 

David Barker 

James Bedsil. 

Wash. Burch. 

James Baldridge. 

Sam'l Bullen. 

Elisha Brazeale. 

George Barnes. 

David Bullen. 

Andrew Bolls. 

Rebecca Bolls. 

Alex. Baldridge. 

H. J. Balch. 

Joel H. Bailey. 

Petkin Barnes. 

Thos. Y. Berry. 

Gause Brinson. 

Andrew Barland. 

John Bolls, Jr. 

John Burch. 

Joseph Bullen. 

Francis Baldridge. 

James Boyd. 
. John Bowie, Jr. 
. Neil Bowie, Sen. 

Neil Bowie, Jr. 

Louis Beaubia. 

James Bennit.* 

John Baldridge. 

E. Bennit. - 

Thomas Baker. 

Love Baker. 

David H. Bell. 

John Brent. 

Wm. Brent. 



Heads of Families. 
Jos. Bonner. 
B. M. Bullen. 
James Bealus. 
John Barnes. 
James Barnes. 
John Bolls. 
Matthew Bolls. 
Wm. Bolls. 
Sarah Blanton. 
Willis Bonner. 
Ben Hargraves. 
Malcom Black. 

C. 

Susan Carradine. 
Robert Cocks. 
Isaac Chambers. 
Richard Carradine. 
Wm. Glower. 
Malcolm Curry. 
John Con. 
Leiws Cable. 
Thos. Calvit. 
David Carradine, 
' Parker Collins. 
John Collins. 
Jacob Cable. 
Wm. Cessna, Jr. 
Sarah Chaney. 
Israel Coleman. 
Parker Carradine. 
Seth Cocks. 
Stephen Compton. 
John Cisson. 
Christian Clare. 
Jonathan Curtis. 
Arch. Curry. 
Malcolm Curry. 
Peter C. Chambliss. 
Abijah Clark. 
John Conger. 
Wm. Carroll. 
Wm. Cessna. 
Abram Clauson. 



■r;-r 









1D6 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Fomilics. 
Wm. Cook. 
Rachel Cook. 
Henry Creig. 
James Clark. 
H. H. Cheek. 
Alex Curry. 
Sarah Collier. 
George Clare. 
Maston Clary. 
Wm. Collins. 
Abram Cook. 
Israel Chambers. 
John Chambers. 
Wm. Cole. 
George Chaney. 
James Cowdon. 
Robert Curry. 
Joseph Calvit. 
John Carrol. 
Charles Cissna. 
Benj. Childers. 
James Crow. 
Clark Crow. 
Israel Comly. 
Edward Curry. 
John I. Carradine. 

Martha Darden. 
Benj. Dent. 
James Dunbar. 
Edmund Dugan. 
John Delany. 
Wash. Darden. 
J. Doan. 
Roger Dixon. 
Richard Darden. 
Thos. Daniel. 
David Darden. 
Jos. Davis. 
Isaac Dunbar. 
Rhoda Davis. 
Joseph Dunbar. 



Heads of Families. 
Joseph E. Davis. 
Walter Davis. 
John A. Davidson. 
John Daley. 
Sam'l Dunbar. 
Gaines Dunahoo. 
James Dowdon. 
Kinsman Divine. 
James Dromgoole, 
Abner Daniel. 
Peter Dickerson. 
John Doherty. 
Buckner Darden. 

E 

Reason Erwin. 
Andrew Ellis. 
Peter Emerick. 
Armstrong Ellis. 
James Elkins. 

F. 

Henry Folkes. 
Wm. Fairbanks. 
Abram Frisby. 
Robert Ferguson. 
George Foreman. 
M. Fritzpatrick. 
Paulina Ferguson. 
Wm. Ferguson. 
Robert Farley. 
John Foster. 
James Foreman. 
Ismy Foreman. 
Wm. Frisby. 
Thos. Frisby. 
Henry Fake. 
Thos. Fake. 
James Folkes. 
John Folkes. 
John Fowler. 



[\V: T 






INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



107 



Heads of Families. 
G. 

Wm. Grimes. 

Thos. M. Green. 

Jolm Gaskin. 

Arthur Grimes. 

Ashel Gardiner. 

Burwell Gaskin. 

John A. Gibson. 

James Gouly. 

David Gibson. 

James Greenlee. 

Rathan Green. 

John G. Grady. 

Elizabeth Green. 

Malcolm Gilchrist. 

Saml. Goodail. 

Philip Gilbert. 

Delauson Goode. 
Peter Glascock. 
Thos. Grafton. 
James Grafton. 
Randal Gibson. 
John Goodrum. 
Thos. Goodrum. 
Agnes Grafton. 
David Guice. 
Reuben Goodrum. 
Robert Greenwell. 
James Graham. 
John Gregory. 
John Garey. 
Est. Thos. M. Green. 
Jos. K. Green. 

H. 

A. Holland. 
David Hunt. 
John Hopkins. 
Caleb Hill. 
John Haragill. 
Letticia Hooper. 
Martha Harper. 



Heads of Families. 
Thos. Heath. 
John Holt, Sen. 
Wm. Harper. 
Asa Hubbard. 
Isaac Holt. 
Thomas Harding. 
Nimrod Hoskins. 
Alex. Huffman. 
David Holt. 
Asalum Humby. 
John Hill. 
David Herlong. 
Jacob Herlong. 
Wm. Hueston. 
John B. Hand. 
Margt. Hynum. 
Adolph Heath. 
Joseph Hornesby. 
Margt. Henderson. 
John Holt, Jr. 
Saml. Henderson. 
John Hancock. 
Charles B. Howell. 
Cyrus Hammilton. 
John Hawkins. 
Wm. Hawthorne. 
John Hambcrlin. 
Thos. Hinds. 
A. Hamberlin. 
Levy Haris. 
Christion Hackler. 
Hardy Hill. 
Jesse Harper. 
Felix Hughes. 
David Hunt. 
Sarah Helenach. 
Charles Hopkins. 
H. B. Harrison. 
Richd. Harrison. 
Wm. Hicks. 
P* B. Harrison. 
Wm. Hamberlin. 
Stephen Howe. 
Mai. Hagin. 
A. Hagin. 



^1 



.lfr-f^l;Uf :K!^1 



108 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIP-PI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Daniel Hu;ihey. 
Richard Hawkins. 
George Jones. 
James Jones, Sr. 
John Jones. 
John Jones; Jr. 
Daniel James. 
James Jones, Jr. 
Charles Johnson. 
Wm. Juery. 
John Jones, Sr. 
Pheobe Jones. 
Wm. J. Johnson. 
D. P. January. 
John C. Johnson. 
Z. B. Jennings. 
Silas Jacobs. 
Wm. Johnson. 
Wm. Johnson. 
Wm. Johnson. 
Nicholas Jones. 
F. Johnson. 

K. 

Henry King. 
Noel Killingswortb. 
Margt. Knox. 
James Kelley. 
Wm. Kelly. 
Mary Ker. 
David Ker. 
Wm. Kelly. 



Charles B. Lawrence. 
Wm. Loid. 
Michael Laughraan. 
James Lewis. 
Jonathan Legate.. 
Wm. Lackey. 
Person Lewis. 
Henry Ledbetter. 
James Luckett. 



Heads of Families. 



M. 



James T. Magruder. 
Cowles Mead. 
Stephen Marble. 
John Montgomery. 
Hugh Matthews. 
Thos. O. McDonald. 
John McFake. 
Walter INIackey. 
John S. Miller. 
Isaac McClutchie. 
Ambrose McDonald 
Danl. McDougal. 
Jon. McDonald. 
Danl. McLain. 
Jon. McEachin. 
Arch. Mcpherson. 
James McAlpin. 
Thos. Marble. 
Charles Magee. 
James McG-ill. 
Deray Moris. 
Danl. Macky. 
Earl Marble. 
Daniel McCaleb. 
Josiah Montgomery. 
James McLellan. 
Andrew Miller. 
John K. Movie. 
Robert McKay. 
Abner Marble. 
Theophilus Marble. 
John Maylone. 
Patsey Mays. 
Willis McDonald. 
Andrew Montgomery. 
John McLaughlin. 
Joseph Moore. 
Hugh Montgomery. 
James Montgomery. 
John H. McGuinis. 
Benj, Miller. 
John Mitchell. 
El H. McDonald. 



j-r'^Li 



:vr 






INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIFPI IN 1816 



109 



Heads of Families. 

N. 

Wm. Neely. 
Isaac Noble. 
Thos. Nevil. 
Philip Nevil. 
Benj. Newman. 
Aaron. Neal. 
John Newbaker. 
Martin Nevil. 
James Noris. 
Est. Thos. L. Noris. 
Simeon Newman. 
James Nevil. 
Rush Nutt. 
D. C. Norton. 
David Need. 
Isaac Newman. 

, O. / 

Thomas Owens. 
Gabriel Ostrand. 
Wm. 0pp. 
John Odam. 
Francis Odam. 
Thos. Ostean. 
Simon Ostean. 
Thos. Ostean, Sr. 
Wm. Owen. 



Abner Pipes. 
Baker Phillips. 
Jacob Phillips. 
Caleb Potter. 
Ruth Platner. 
Wm. E. Parker. 
Mark Phillips. 
Thomas Phillips. 
Francis Patterson. 
Angus Patterson. 
Saml. Pitchford. 



Heads of Families. 
Joseph Parmalee. 
Russell Puckett. 
Nancy Pigg. 
John Pickens. 
Robert Prince. 
E. M. Pennington. 

R. 

Stephen Ritchey. 
Adam Rum. 
Ely K. Ross. 
John Robinson. 
E. P. Rees. 
Wm. Roberts. 
David Robinson. 
J. A. B. Ross. 
Aaron Rhoark. 
Isaac Ross. 
James Roberts. 
Isaac Roberts. 
Joseph Raney. 
John Q. W. Ross. 
Charles Riley. 
Stephen Rowland. 
Saml. Robb. 
Wm. Robb. 
Edward Roblin. 
Saml Raney. 
George Robinson, 

S. 

John Shorter. 
Henry Seeby. 
James Smith. 
James Spain. 
^ E. Shackelford. 
Wm. Selmon. 
Hugh Slater. 
Wm. Stampley. 
Nimrod Selser. 
John Stampley. 
Wm. Smith. 
John Still. 



110 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
James Stuart. 
Henry W. Stephens. 
George Selser. 
John Shanks. 
Jacob Sechrist. 
Isaac Scott. 
Stephen Shelton. 
Pheobe Stampley. 
David Stampley. 
James Shannon. 
Abram Shankle. 
Joel Selmore. 
Eliza Sullivan. 
Thomas Sims. 
Richard Scott. 
Wm. Shaw. 
Gasper Sinclair. 
Josiah Selser. 
Billop Soward. 
Huldah Scott. 
Arch. Smith. 
Saml. Stephenson. 
John Scarborough. 
John Smith. 
Wm. Shell. 
Jacob Stampley. 
John P. Smith. 
Abram Scriber. 
Stephen Scriber. 
Joseph Salter. 
Wm. B. Shields. 
Henry Stampley. 
Dixon Straud. 
Robert Steele. 
James Stuart. 
John Sly. 
Saml. K Sorsby. 
John Smith. 
John Stephenson. 
Law. Scarborough. 
John Snodgrass. 
Wm. Scott. 
Walter Sellers. 
I>anl. Sellers 



Heads of Families. 



Francis Tidwell. 
Dougal Torry, 
George Torry. 
Joseph Twilly. 
Stephen Terret. 
Robert Twilly. 
Charles Trefoe. 
James Truly. 
Wat. Trimble. 
John H. Truly. 
John Terret. 
States Travillian. 
James Terret. 
Wm. Terret. 
Joseph Tucker. 
Abram Taylor. 

Wm. Usher. 

V. 

Thomas Vick. 
David Vaughn. 
Wm. Voss. 
Thos. Vaughn. 

W. 

James Watson. 
Mary Waters. 
SamL Watkins. 
Thomas Ware. 
Margt. Wise. 
S. & C. Whitley. 
Jer. Watson. 
Cato West, 
Robert Williams. 
John Wetherly. 
Henry Wise. 
David Willis. 



:/ H:m 



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'LI >/ 



;i^t.; 



./■.■.- is ■ ' ;1 < , 1 



INHABITANTS OF MlSSISSIP*PI IN 1816 



111 



Heads of Fatnilies. 
Thos. West. 
George Wright. 
Earnest Watson. 
Abram Whitaker. 
James G. Wood. 
Jacob Winkles. 
John Wells. 
John Wax. 
R. W. Wheeler. 
Charles Watts. 



Asy Watkins. 
Nathan White. 
Wm. Wade. 
F. W. West. 
John M. Whitney. 
George Westnor. 



Hannah Young. 
Alexr. Young. 



I certify that the above list exhibits an accurate enumeration of In- 
habitants in the County of Jefferson, with the^proper distinction ot 
sexes, age and colour. 

P. B. Harrison. 

Nov. 1816. 



TAX-PAYERS OF LAWRENCE COUNTY, MISS. IN 1816. 



Names of Persons. 
Armstrong, Abner 
Armstrong, Jonathan. 
Armstrong, Jesse. 
Armstrong, Matthew 
Archibald, William L. 

Alexander, 

Adams, Zachary 
Bowman, Jesse 
Baldwin, Samuel 
Brittin, Jethrew 
Brittin, Bartell 
Ballard, Thomas 
Butler, John 
Butler, Luke 
Buckley, J. Ward 
Baley, James 
Barbet, George 
Barney, David 
Baley, Spencer 
Bond, James 
Banks, Levi 
Buckley, James 



Heads of Families. 
BuUen, William 
Barksdale, Collier 
Candler, Jacob 
Cooper, John 
Caskey, Hamilton 
Cooper, Hezekiah 
Crisler, Charles 

Cooper, 

Compton, Owen 
Cooper, Louisa 
Campbell, John 
Campbell, Mathew 
Compton, William, Sr. 
Compton, William, Jr. 
Corwin, John 
Colbert, Thomas 
Cook, Green 
Carpenter, Solomon 
Carpenter, William 
Dickerson, Caleb 
Dunn, John 
Delashmel, John 



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112 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Desmith, John 
Evans, Solomon 
Edwards, 



Fielder, William 
Ferguson, William 
Green, John 
Gracias, Ephraim 
Griffen, Edward 
Grantham, John, Sr. 
Grantham, John, Jr. 
Gardiner, Harper 
Gaines, Ely 
Green, Richaiyl 
Hicban, David 
Hooper, John 
Hollingsworth, Isaac 
Hall, Alexander 
Harmon, Thomas 
Herrington, Thomas 
Hancey, John 
Ives, Micajah 
King, Graves 
Kling, James 
Kiger, 

Kyle, Thomas 
" King, Mathew 

Knowles, Henry 

Holley, George W. 

Lofton, Ezekiel 

Loften, Asa 

Lewis, Baley 

Lewis, William 

Lewis, Arthur 

Lewis, Blunt 

Miller, Jesse 

McLellan, Benjamin 

Mitchel, Rite 

McGuffin, James 

Mercer, Wilson 

Maxwell, Jesse 

Marshall, Matthew 

McCrary, Matthew 

Maynard, James 



Heads of Families. 
Mayfield, Thomas 

^ Mercer, John 

McLaughlin, Laughlin 
Martinez, Jules 
Murry, Isaac 
Noble, Stephen 
Neilson, Christy 
Neilson, Christy, Sr. 
Noble, Levi 
Norton, Charlton 
Newsom, Thomas 
Oats, John K. 
PriesCly, Stephen 
Prestidge, Robert 
PuUen, Henry 
Peper, Samuel 
Prestidge, Samuel 
Prestidge, John 
Richardson, James 
Richardson, Nathan 
Roberson, W. R. 
Ross, Mark 



Rivers, Robert 
Ruck, Hand W. 
Runnels, Harmon M. 

Rozet, 

Stephens, Vince 
Simpson, Samuel 
Stanton, James 
Summers, Jonathan 
Sparkes, Richard 
Sparkes, William 
Sanders, Travis 
Smith, Ezekiel 
Soviel, Green 
Sumner, Owen 
Smith, Stephen W. 
Simpson, Isham, Sr. 
Simpson, Isham, Jr. 

— , James 

Sikes, Nathaniel 
Stone, William 



INHABITANTS OF ilTSSISSIFPI IN 1816 



113 



Heads of Families. 



Smith, Henry 
Smith, Stephen 
Smith, Nathan 
Smithson, William 

Smith, 

Smith, Levi 
Smith, William 
Ship, CoUinson 
Sutton, William 
Strother, James 
Stewart, James 
Stewart, John 
Seale, John 
Stallions, Allen 
Smith, Frances 
Sims, W^illiam 
Sleight, Robert 
Slaughter, John 



Names of Persons. 
Sleight, William 
Smith, Philip 
Slaughter, Richard 
Saul, John 
Tomlinson, John, Jr. 
Tomlinson, John, Sr. 
Guardian for the Heirs ot 

Arthur Tomlinson. 
Tomlinson, Anna 
Tomlinson, Athur 
Terrell, Samuel 
Terrell, Timothy 
Young, Green 
Wilson, Jesse 
Walton, John 
Wainwright, John 
Wainwright, Isham 
Wainwright, William 
Quin^ Henry, Jr. 
Quin, Henry, Sr. 



Harmon M. Runnels, Assessor T. C. L. C, October 14th, 1817. 



MADISON COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI TERRITORY. 
List of Taxable Property for 1815. 



Heads of Families. 
Allen, Saml. 
Adkins, Daniel. 
Allen, William. 
Acklin, Joseph 

- Acklin, Saml. 
Abernathy, David 
Anderson, Peter 
Allison, John 
Arban, Jacob 
Allen, Saml. 
Adams, Isaac 
Ar.bright, Jno. 
Allen, John 
Adams, Jonathan 
Alleson, John 
Alleson, James 



Heads of Families. 
Adare, William 
Adams, Thos. 
Adams, Joseph 
Anderson, Joseph 
Allman, John 
Allen, Walker 
Aldrige, William 
Adareo, William 
Ashburn, Lewis 
Alford, David 
Aminchelo, Jehu 
Austin, Thos. 
-Ashburn, Aden 
Adam, Littleberry 
Brandon, Thos. 
Bailess, Hezekiah 



'1 *-\' 






114 



IXHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IX 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Bradley, Thos. 
Black, William, Sen. 
Black, William 
Bailess, Andrew 
Bell, Valentine 
. — Blaylock, Jereimah 
Berry, Robt. 
Baker, Job 
Betcher, Joshua 
Bardwell, Robt. 
Bardwell, Win 
Brazelton, Henry 
Bartley, Joseph 
Brewton, James 
Boling, Alexr. 
Berrymon, Barrett 
Black, David 
Bard, Michael 
Baker, William 
Bonden, Janett 
Baxter, John 
Brued, Jowald 
Brawn, John 
Bass, John 
Bailey, William 
Bamell, Brazzellow 
Bordwell, John 
Bordwell, Moses 
Brock, Reuben 
Bledso, William 
Bledso, Lewis 
Bailey, William 
Bell, Thos. 
Bailey, David 
Bailey, James 
Ball, Spencer 
Barns, Patrick 
BHvens, Joseph 
Bunch, Jno. 
Baned, Nelson 
Bird, David 
Blivens, Gatewoode 
Bell, Francis 
Byram, Ebenezar 



Heads of Families. 
Blackard, Levy 
Bevel, Woodliff 
Byram, Levi 
Burleson, John 
Burleson, Jonathan 
Bell, Valentine 
Bell, James 
Bell, Edward 
Burleson, James 
Baker, William 
Bird, Michael 
Bloodworth, Tomette 
Bradley, Joseph 
Berges, Benj. 
Berks, Benjn. 
Bradley, Saml. 
Bryant, John 
Brewton, Isaac 
Baxler, James 
Baxler, Alexr.. 
Bird, John 
Babb, Esau 
Bond, Banester 
Burhart, David 
Bailess, John 
Bailess, George 
Bailess, Daniel 
Bird, Elizabeth 
Bird, Richd. 
Bragg, Benj. 
Bragg, Thos. 
Brlles, George 
Boggs, Saml. 
Bailess, Hezekiah 
Briles, Jacob 
Brunson, Joshua 
Bounds, William 
Bellar, Eli 
Beason, Joshua 
Burrough, Wm. 
Blnmen, Jno. 
Blair, Jonathan 
Blankenship, Edw. 
Berry, Enoch 



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INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IX 1816 



115 



Heads of Families. 
Bailey, Benj. 
Bibb, Thos. 
Bonn, Jacob 
Bird, Wm. 
Byram, Saml. 
Brawnlow, Isaac 
Bird, James 
Bands, Wm. 
Bailey,. Robt. 
Burns, Charles 
Burris, Joseph 
Brayhan, John 
Same for Hopkins. 
Christian, Allen 
Clarke, John 
Clarke, Wm. 
Cavender, Wm. 
Carter, John 
Cottrell, Richd. 
Cooper, Waid 
Cuch, Thos. 
Cannon, David 
Couch, John 
Cress, James 
Carmichael, Dan 
• Couch, John 
Carnes, James 
X:obb, David 
Cabiness, Charles 
Carleslee, Lawrence 
Cloud, Jeremiah 
Coley, James 
Childers, F. John 
Cojey, Zachariah 
Copeland, James» 
Cornelius, Absalom 
Childers, Thos. 
Clemonds, Jacob 
Childers, Jonn 
Childers, James 
Class, John 
Childers, John 
Cotton, Abner 
Crawford, Wm. 



Heads of Families. 

Cornileus, Ivy 

Capshaw, David 

Coil, Saml. 

Canterberry, John 

Campbell, Wm. 

Crawson, Richd. 

Chambless, Stephen ' 
^Conley, John 

Cox, Reed 

Cupp, John 

Cottingin; Jonathan 

Calvert, Joseph 

Calvert, Wm. 

Cotton, James 

Campbell, Wm. 

Cox, Henry 

Same for Jones. 

Same for Weaver. 

Clements, Edw. 

Christian, James 

Cornelius, Rowland 

Crowder, Grunham 

Cox, Peyton 

Campbell, W. 

Canterberry, Zachariah 

Carpe, George 

Chester, Nathl. 

Clay, Clemont 

Cash, Benj. 

Carter, Randolph 

Carroll, Stephen 

Cooper, George 

Cole, Marlen 

Clem, Jasper 

Clemm, Adam 

Clarke, Gillem 

Cress, Wm. 

Conley, Abner 
* Casey, John 
Coffman, Daniel 
Cuch, Nicholas 
Campbell, Wm. 
Cox, Benj. & Co. 
Crage, Adam 



.i/.r 



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116 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIP'PI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Carroll, Charles 
Cooper, Benj. 
Campbell, Oscar 
Childers, David 
Carroll, Wm. 
Chisliolm, John 
Coudren, John 
Cook, K. John 
Craft, Archiles 
Craft, Ezekial 
Cunningham, Josh 
Connway, Thos. 
Coel, Ilechact 
Conley, David 
Clann, Jacob 

Clann, Wm. Childers, Jesse 
Campbell, John 
Clarke, Saml. 
Childers, Wm. 
Carroll, Gruss 
Carroll, D. John 
Colwell, Absalom ' 
Deaton, James 
Deshore, Littlebery 
Davidson, John 
Dutton, Alexr. 
DeBowd, Stephen 
Davidson, I. John 
Dutton, Alexr. 
Debowd, Stephen 
Dean, Saml. 
Dupree, Wm. 
Derrick, Wm. 
Dalton, John 
Davis, Wm. 
Davis, Richd. 

Drake, James ^ 

Douglass, Jame& 
Davis, Robt. - 
Devan, Barnard 
Devall, David 
Doherty, Joseph 
Delworth, George 
Davis. Wm. 



Heads of Families. 
Davis, Saml. 
Devers, Mathew 
Davis, Saml. 
Donahoo, John 
Davidson, Andrew 
Dicky, David 
Dickey, Ephraim 
Dugan, Saml. 
Dickey, John 
Dickey, John 
. Donahoo, Saml. 
Dockery, Mathew 
Donahoo, Henry 
Dodd, Thos. 
Dublin, John 
Dosson, James 
Derrick, Tobias 
Derrick, Jacob 
Derrick, Adam 
Darmen, Wm. 
Deismond, Mary 
Dunnon, Richd. 
Dummond James 
Deupree, Wiley 
Durkin, Smith 
Day, David 
Dotry, Wm. 
Davis, Saml. 
Day, Dudley 
Dosson, John 
Derrick, John 
Denum, John 
Davis, K. Andrew 
Deal, Robt. 
Dameron, Wm. 
Derrick, George 
Eady, Lacqed 
Ellison, John 
Easley, Joseph 
Ellett, Richd. 
Eddings, Washington 
Elruen, William 
Eddins, John 
Easlee, William 



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INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



•117 



Heads of Families. 
Embry, Joseph 
Eldridge, Thos. 
Ellett, Willis 
Erven, William 
Elder, Saml. 
Edmonson, William 
Ellis, John 
Eady, Le\T^ 
Evans, Wm. 
Eady, Horatio 
Earp, CuUon 
Ewengs, Stephen 
Evans, Wm. 
Same for Jas. Woods. 
Eckford, John 
Ellett, Amos 
Elldridge, B. R. John 
Evans, Thos. 
Elder, Andrew 
Earbin, William 
East, William 
Evans, Harmond 
Edens, Benjn. 
Epler, Jonathan 
Edmonds, Wm. 
English, James 
Edens, Theopilus 
Ellison, Lrewis 
Evans, Thos. 
Ellis, James 
Estell, John 
Estell, Isaac 
Estell, James 
Ellington, Garland 
Forbes, John 
Fay, Saml. 
Forde, Richd. 
Fletcher, John 
Fltzg^rrell, Garrett 
Fuqua, Silas 
Fieldes, Enos 
Flepper, Wm. 
Fields, William 
Farnell, Edward 



Heads of Families. 
Farish, Robt. 
Fowler, John 
Franks, Benjn. 
Fitzgarrell, John 
Fulton, Saml. 
French, Jesse 
Felps, Littleton 
Fowler, Reuben 
Fearn, Thos. 
Fowler, Amencee 
Fields, Moses 
Fields, Saml. 
Fields, Isaac 
Forrest, William 
French; Amos 
Find, William 
Furgason, Henry 
Frost' John 
Findley, Saml. 
Franklin, William 
Fletcher, Wm. 
Garner, John 
Gr^enhaw, William 
Garrett, Mechgate 
Gray, William 
Glass, James 
Gordon, James 
Grayham, Nimrod 
Grayson, John 
Greenhaw, Jonathan 
Greenhaw, Clandsbery 
Glass, Vincent 
Griffith, Pleasant 
Gambrell, Robt. 
Gray, Mathew 
Gray, Levin 
Gray, Thos. 
Grassell, George 
Galbreath, Alexr. 
Gray, David 
Gordon, James 
Green, Reuben 
Galaspy, Robt, 
Galaspy, T. James 



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118* 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Gellett, Reace 
Gragg, Saml. 
Gresson, Aron 
Garrett, William 
Gillis, Daniel 
Gillen, John 
Gill, Andrew 
Gow, Bledso 
Gandy, John 
Galaspy, Jeremiah 
Galaspy, James 
Greenhaw, Jonathan 
Gallion, Isaiah 
Griffith, Stephen 
Garner, Sturdy 
Gipson, Jno. 
Gipson, Hugh 
Grayham, John ' 
Griffith. Isaac • 
Gilmore, Wm. 
Gwin, Charles 
Gwin, Henry 
Garner, Saml. 
Gunn, William 
Hinds, Levy 
Holmes, John 
Henderson, David 
Hester, John 
Hunt, K. Wm. 
Haskins, William 
Hughes, John 
Horn, William 
Haux, Saml. 
Harben, James 
Harless, Henry 
Head, Abraham 
Hanner, John 
Harless, John 
Harrison, Joseph 
Hutchinson, Joseph 
Han, Harmon 
Hubert, Ezekial 
Hargrove, James 
Hardy, Jonathan 



Heads of Families. 
Hardy, John 
Harris, Richd. 
Hancock, Robt. 
Harrison, Robt. 
Hancock, Javell 
Henkle, Henry 
Hodge, James 
Hinds, H. John 
Haynes, B. Jno. 
Holland, Thos. 
Heastell, Bidge 
Howard, Saml. 
Hicks, Jno. 
Hicks, Richd. 
Hicks, Jesse 
Hodge, Flemin. 
Harris, E. Frances 
Same for Payson & Repin. 
Harrison, Mechail 
Halmark, Richd. 
Howard, Arrington 
Hart, Warrenor 
Halmark, George 
Hughes, David 
Hammulten, James 
Hill, John 
Hamner, John 
Hughes, Joseph 
Harlen, Saml. 
Hawkins, P. John 
Hope, Adam 
Hodges, Jesse 
Hussey, Elijah 
Hays, John 
Harlen, James 
Howson, William 
Hargrave, Benj. 
Heslee, W^m. 
Harper, Robt. 
Hall, William 
Harris, William 
Heliums, John 
Heliums, Wm. 
Harden, John 



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INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



119 



Heads of Families. 
Hollingsworth, James 
Hopkins, Saml. 
Hill, Elijah 
Harless, Henry 
Hopkins, Ishara 
Hambleton, Barton 
Hoke, Joseph 
Hunt, Cain 
Harris, John 
Hutson, John 
Howard, John 
Howard, Saml. 
Harrison, Benjn. 
Hickman & Seay & Co. 
Hughes, Thos. 
Hughes, Rawley 
Ham, James 
Hancock, Wm. 
Hood, Frederick 
Hawson, John 
Hawson, Peter 
Hickman, H, John 
Hulell, Thos. 
Hunt, George 
Horten, "Wm. 
Hambleton, Isaiah 
Hulett, W. John 
Harper, Edward 
Homphreys, Jno. 
Humphreys, John 
Higginbotham, Reuben 
Hathcock, Denton 
Hodges, Johnson 
Harless, David 
Hill, Asaph 
Harrow, James 
Harrow, Enos 
Harrow, Evan 
Hassett, John 
Hendrick, William 
Hedgepeth, Charles 
Hedgepeth, Wm. 
» Haynes, Henry 

Hargrove, Valentine 



Heads of Families. 
Hagan, William 
Haden, William 
Johnson, Isaac 
Jackson, Sterling 
Jones, Allen 
Jordan, Anthony 
Johnson, Edmond 
Johnson, Joseph 
Jordan, Andrew 
Isham, James 
Johnson, Saml. 
Jack, John 
Inmon, John 
Inmon, Ezekiel 
Ice, John 
Jones, Lewellen 
Jordan, Jesse 
Jordan, Saml. 
Jones, George 
Jackson, John 
Jackson, Wm. 
Jones, Moses 
Johnes, John 
Jones, Saml. 
Johnson, Gruff 
James, John 
Isaacks, Saml. 
Johnson, William 
Johnson, William 
Johnson, John 
Johns, Azel 
Jordan, Stephen 
Johnson, Gavon 
Johnson, John 
Job, Daniel 
Ingrim, William 
Johnson, John 
Isbell, Hanner 
Jemmison, Edmd. 
imysmenger, Saml. 
Jackson, Isaac 
Jones, Hezekiah 
Jones, Moses 
Jones, Freeman 



[^fr 



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120 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIFT'I IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 

Johnson, Saml: 

Job, Nathan 

Jones, Obediah 

Jordan, Fleming 

Johnson, Burrel 
._ Jarrett, Devereux 
'^ Jones, Stephen 

Jones, John 

Kennedy, Charles 

Kendal, Peter 

Kirkpatrick, Ermd. 

Killingsworth, John 

Kezer, George 

Kemp, Nathan 

Kennard, James 

Kirksey, John 

King, Harmon 

King, John 

Kennimur, John 

Kenuimur, Jesse 

Kennimur, Saml. 

Kemsey, James 

King, Abram 

Kelley, Edwd. 

Kent, Wm. 

King, Charley 

Key, Job 

King, Elijah F. 

Ker, Hugh 

Lay, James 

Lennex, John 

Lend, Henry 

Lester, Robt. 

Lewis, William 

Lindsay, David 

Lindsay, David, Junr. 

Lay, John 

Lindsey, Elijah 

Ledbetter, Jowald 

Ledbetter, Ephraim 

Lawier, John 

Load, John. 

Lennard, Daniel 

Leuch, William 



Heads of Families. 

Looney, Absalum 

Lampkin, William 

Leslie, William 

Same for C. Williams. 

Same for Adkins. , 

Leuch, John 

Love, John 

Logan, John 

Lewis, Levy 

Lewis, Amos 

Lanman, Wm. 

Logan, John 

Lewis, Abel 

Lamberson, John 

Lawrence, El is ha 

Lovelady, William 

Lay, George 

Love, Saml. 

Le^yis, Washington 

Lanar, William 

Lance, A. George 

Lanham, Reason 

Landers, Henry 

Lee, Isaac 

Lee, William 

Lewis, Enoch 

Langston, Anthony 

Lawrence, Eisha 

Love, Thos, 

Linn, Benjn. 

Layed, Woody 

Lemley, George 

Lawier, James 

Lawier, John 

Lawley, Elisha 

Leonard, John 
, Lawlerd, Levy 

Leymon, John 

Lowery, Thos. 

Lankford, Robt. 

Laisay, Hopkins 

Langham, Salni. 

Lents, John 

McBroome, Thos. 



'"i '/: t 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



121 



Heads of Families. 
Maxwell, David 
Same for Dunnom. 
Mayson, Joseph. 
McFarlin, Alexr. 
Moore, Jno. 
Murptiey, Johii 
Murphey, E\'au 
Massingale, Salm. 
Massingale, Alfred 
Mawery, John 
Mitchel, Daniel 
Mounds, Harris 
Moore, Henry 
Mound, William 
McKey, David 
McDonnell, Archebel 
McCain, Mary 
Murror, John 
Moon, Jasper 
McCay, John 
Moorei' John 
Moore, Thos. 
Murrell, Ricnd. 
Murrell, Jeffery 
Moore, Ezekiel 
Mathews, James 
Mitchem, Banks 
McCarn, Daniel 
Mitchem, Marke 
Manaw, Thos. 
Mullens, James 
McCracan, James 
Manaw, Wm. 
Malam, Cornelius 
Maland, Salm. 
Moore, Gabriel 
McWilliams, Wm. 
McWilliams, Andrew 
McCartney, John 
McGary, Thos. 
Moore, Benjn. 
Moore, Joseph 
Moore, William 
Montgomery, John 



Heads of Families. 
Miller, Abraham 
McKinney, Thos. 
McClung, John 
McClung, William 
McClung, Francis 
Martin, John 
McWilliams, John 
McClung, Leslie 
Moser, Daniel 
Murphrey, Thos. 
McKinney, Wilson 
McPay, Hugh 
McWhirter, Hand 
McCutchen, Jno. 
Morris, John 
McKlemore, Presley 
McWhirter, Scruff 
Milligan, Robt. 
McGaughey, Robt. 
Manson, James 
Morris, Daniel 
McCullah, Andrew 
McClendon, Jesse 
Martin, John 
Messingale, Rencher 
Montgomery, Michel 
Millhouse, John 
Monroe, David 
Moon, John 
Morrison, Wm. 
Massingale, Allen 
McKenney, Jno. 
Marshall, thos. 
Mitchell, John 
Medford, Jonathan 
Moon, David 
Moore, P. John 
Saml. for Moore & — 
Morrison, Jno. 
Millar, Marten 
Murray, William 
Same for Lewis. 
Morgan, Luther 
Mitchel, Saml. 



,ur^lC 



1^^ 



Inhabitants of Mississippi in 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Moore, John 
McClaren, Robt. 
Murrell, Benjn. 
Martin, Zacliariah 
Mendenall, Elisha 
Mitchel, Flood 
Murphey, William 
MuUins, William 
Martin, William 
McKenney, Jno. 
Matheny, Walter 
Mathews, Joseph 
McMurtry, Joseph 
Mahan, James 
Ma-viTQs, Christian 
McVay, J'ohn 
McVay, Javon 
McFail, John 
Melam, Jarvis 
Moffett, Shederick 
McBroom, David 
McCarn, Archebel 
Millar, Henry 
Mardes, Saml. 
McCarn, Neil 
Masley, William 
Mitchell, Reede & Co. 
McCain, Moses 
McCadory, James 
Moore, James 
McCarty, Jacob 
McBroom, Wm. 
McCain, Robt. 
Martin, James 
Magawan, James 
Millar, Garland 
Mathews, George 
Mullins, James 
Middleton, Jno 
Mathews, Robt. 
Mardes, Reuben 
McKleroy, Gyles 
Malay, John 
Manning, James 



Heads of Families. 

Same for Donnell & Bird 
McMahon, John 
Moore, John 
McWhirter, Moses 
McWhirter, Jno. 
McCutcheh, Jno. 
McCartney, Charles 
McCartney, James 
Millar, Thos. 
Montgomery, James 
May, James 
Nesmith, Wm. 
Nesmith, Isaac 
Noblen, Wm. 
Neel, Davis 
^Nichols, Thos. 
Neil, Lewis 
Norwood, John 
Norwood, M. Jno. 
Norwood, Richd. 
Norris, Benjn. 
Neal, Stephen 
Same for 
Newsom, Daniel 
Nicholson, Jno. 
Newman, Benjn. 
Neel, John 
Nigbbours, John 
Nighbours, Wm. 
Nailey, Janus 
Nesmith, John 
Owens, Caleb 
Owen, John 
Owens, Ezekiel 
Obanion, Thos. 
Pattison, David 
Pattison, Andy 
Pawer, Nathaniel 
Same pro. 
Paree, Richd. 
Pride, Wesley 
Provence, John 
Pritchard, Joseph 
Powe, George 



■^-yjlji's^'in" 



.;-.a^/; 






INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



12a 



Heads of Families. 
Priest, Saml. 
Pyrant, William 
Phillips, Joseph 
Patterson, Thos. 
Peavy, Danl. 
Same for Grissold. 
Page, Lewis 
Patterson, Wm. 
Patton, David 
Pennington, Abel 
Pool, Adair 
Peters, John 
Posey, Jesse 
Parsons, William 
Parker, David 
Parham, William 
Plant, Charles 
Perkins, Abraham 
Philips, Andrew- 
Philips, Glenn 
Prewett, Jacob 
Powell, Joseph 
Prewett, William 
Pyrant, Pachd. 
Pennington, Theophilus 
Philips, Dunkin 
Pence, John 
Perkins, Peter 
Power, John 
Pond, Moses 
Pool, W^iishire 
Power, James 
Power, Thos. 
Pond, James 
Pence, Jacob 
Parrott, William 
Pope, Leroy 
Parker, Isham 
Pettis, John 
Rather, William 
Rude, John 
Same for Dunham. 
Rawark, John 
Rice, Laban 



Heads of Families. 
Rodgers, Isaac 
Rainey, James 
Rainey, Zebulon 
Rodgers, Robt. 
Rudy, John 
Russell, Benjn. 
Riley, Andrew 
Riley, Isaac 
Raggsda, Peter 
Rice, Iswall 
Roberts, Daniel 
Right, William 
Reaves, Mclabeath 
Rather, Wm. 
Russell, John 
Right, Daniel 
Ramenes, James 
Rabins, John 
Rabins, William 
Rainbatt, Elisha 
Ray, John 
Rawlor, John 
Rawlor, Jacob 
Right, Robt. 
Reynolds, Huston 
Rice, John 
Rudy, Nicholas 
Ragan, Benjn. 
Robertson', Wm. 
Reynor, Adam 
Russell, John 
Rather, Daniel 
Rbberson, B. Jonathan 
Roberson, Richd. 
Reynolds, John 
Rude, Reuben 
Riley, William 
Rowan, James 
Rodges, George 
Raper, Green 
Rice. Wm. 
Rodgers, Larkin 
Rice, Aron 
Rodgers, John 






■-; V 






i:^^;, 






124 



NHABITANTS OF MTSSISSIp-PI IN" 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Rodgers, Hugh 
Robertson, Henry 
Rodgers, Andrew 
Rodgers,, James 
Rodgers, James 
Rennex, William 
Rodgers, Seth 
Roundtree, Wm. 
Ray, Saml. 
Rheat, John 
Rodgers, Robt. 
Robertson, William 
Stewart, Isaac 
Speaks, Tbos. 
Shawmaker, Thos, 
btreet, Anthony 
Simons, Reuben 
Sively, Andrew 
Simmons, Charles 
Shoemaker, James 
Sturgess, Wm. 
Street, W^illiam 
Smith, George 
Standly, Thos. 
Stringfleld, Jno. 
Stracme, Michael 
Stracrae, George 
Snow, John 
Sanderson, Elisha 
Steel, Joseph 
Slawter, James 
Slawter, WilUam 
Scallion, John 
Scruggs, James 
Spradling, John 
Stewart, Mathew 
Stewart, Abram 
Sharp, John 
Sharp, Mathew 
Samon, Henry 
Sanders, L. Benjn. 
Saunders, N. George 
Sadler, George 
Standifer, Saml. 



Hrads of Families. 
Sampson, James 
Scruggs, Gross 
Simpson, William 
Smith, Stephen 
Scruggs, James 
Stokes, John 
Strong, Nathan 
Strong, Thos. 
Strong, Nathan 
Stears, Henry 
Shipman, Daniel 
Shipman, Jacob 
Stokes, Henry 
Somerville, Robt. 
Smith, Thos. 
Smith, Isaiah 
Smith, Sally 
Scraggs, Thos. 
Spar, Moses 
Smith, Eli 
Smith, David 
Smith, Robt. 
Smith, John 
Smith, William 
Sanderson, James 
Sanderson, Lewis 
Spring, Nicholas 
Sively, Jacob 
Stone, Reuben 
Stone, John 
Sulen, Henry 
Smith, Nathan 
Sprawl, John 
Standifer, Abraham 
Stamnen, Henry 
Sharp, George 
Spain, Marshall 
Scribner, Reuben 
Smith & Meggs 
Smith, John 
Simmons, Zachariah 
Simmons, William 
Sharp, John 
Suright, Andrew 



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INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1S16 



125 



Heads of Families. 
Standifer, Stephen 
Stegar, P. John 
Stegar, Ewd. 
Standifer, Ezekiel 
Taylor, M. John 
Teagiie, William 
Thompson, Allen 
Teague, Isaac 
Tratmon, Wra. 
Telwer, John 
Teague, Magness 
Thompson, George 
Thompson, "William 
Taylor, James 
Trux, George 
Tackall, George 
Tayland, Barnett 
Taylor, Argyle 
Tompson, Robt. 
Telass, George 
Tompson, H. Elbert 
Teer, Solomon 
Tompson, William 
Taylor, Lee 
Teague, Joseph 
Turner, Caleb 
Thrasher, William 
Tate, Waddy 
Thomas, Benjn. 
Tellimon, Lewis 
Tellimon, Robt. 
Thompson, David 
Tyrone, Adam 
Tillmon, Daniel 
Therell, David 
Tipton, William 
Tompson, Marks 
■ Thomas, John 
Townsend, John 
Townsend, Wm. 
Townsend, Henry 
Townsend, EU 
Titus, James 
Tatem, Abner 



Heads of Families. 
Teer, Daniel 
Teer, James 
Trump, H. Green 
Thompson, David 
Thompson, John 
Thompson, Farley 
True, John 
Tedford, Alexr. 
Tate, Zedekiah 
Thompson^ W. John 
Turner, John 
Tucker, Roden 
Vaughn, Wm. 
yallient, Robt. 
Vaughn, Littleberry 
Vaughn, Benjn. 
Vaughn, Hanley 
Vaught, Henry 
Vaught, John 
Varnom, Isaac 
Vaughn, Manoah 
Vincent, Moses 
Weaver, Jacob 
Weaver, John 
Walters, Saml. 
Wilson, Jesse 
Winn, Banestie 
Winn, Edward 
Wilson, Benjn. 
Wood, Bennett -*■ 
Walters, John 
Walters, Lemuel 
Walters, Tillmon 
Walters, Saml. 
Walters, John 
Wilson, Thos. 
Wilkinson, Merida 
Wilson, Harden 
Wiley, K. Harris 
Wardlaw, James 
Watkins, C. John 
Worde, Mathias 
Walters, Moses 
Walton, Robt, 



^■'^(>i. :'i .■< 



' -■'■ ■ . ::. •7'i' 



iui 



126 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Waldrupe, Michael 
Woolard, Hugh 
Williams, Saml. 
White, William 
Windham, Reuben 
Waod, Peter 
Webb, Jacob 
Watkins, William 
Wyatt, James 
Wenger, Joshua 
Williams, Thos. 
Wheat, William 
Webb, Dred 
Wheat," Saml. 
Wheat, Benjn. . 
Webster, Edward 
Webster, John 
Wheat, Josiah 
Williams, Curtis 
Williams, John 
W^atson, Joseph 
Wyatt, Wm. 
Weaver, Elijah 
Wilson, Saml. 
Wilhellum, Richd. 
Williams, John 
Williams, Gideon 
Watterson, John 
Worley, Frances 
Winslow, Liewis & Wm. 
Waddy, Saml. 
Worley, George 
Webster, Peter 
Walker, Jno. W. 
Wilson, James 



Heads of Families. 
W^est, George 
Webb, John 
W^ells, William 
Wilson, John 
Walker, James 
Williams, John 
White, James 
Walker, Robt. 
Whitson, Jeremiah 
Walker, James 
Wofford, Benjn. 
Winn, Robt. 
Worde, Ewd. 
Wainright, Wm. 
Williamson, Parkey 
/ Williamson, Hanley 
Williams, :M. Duke 
W^arrenor, Archibald 
Williams, William 
Webster, Shadrack 
Walls, William 
Winston, Jno. & Anthony 
Winston, *Wm. 
Wofford, Joseph 
Weathers, John 
Wofford, John 
Williams, Thompson 
Young, William 
Young, Henry 
Young, John 
Young, Daniel 
Young, Peter 
York, Uriah 
Young, Caleb 
Young, John 



James McCartney. 
Madison County list of taxable property for 1815, Entered in journal. 

page 396. 



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INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



127 



TAX-PAYERS OF MARION COUNTY, M. T., IN 1816. 



Heads of Families. 
Adams, Isaac 
Adams, John 
Applewhite, John 
Applewhite, Thomas 
Are, James 
Are, Thomas 
Applewhite, James 
Bracy, William 
Ballo, Sampson E. 
Beasley, Jesse 
Beasley, William 
Blue, Daniels 
Brown, Daniel 
Brown, Moses 
Berry, James 
Biggs, James 
Brent, Charnel 
Baker, Joseph 
Cooper, John 
Carson, John, Junr. 
Coborn, Ebenezer 
Crofts, Jesse 
Glower; John 
Carson, George 
Cbitham, Isham 
Cook, Lewis 
Craft, . Fredrick 
Duck, Ephreheim 
Duke, Simonson 
Duke, Jeptha 
Dear, John 
Ellis, John 
Erwin, Hugh 
Elliott, Samuel 
Freeman, John 
Floide, Grona 
Fonde John, Junr. 
Fartheree, Lewis 
Fartheree, Reding 
Fortenberry, Isaac 
Forde, Joseph 
Forde, Preference 



Heads of Families. 
Fartheree, Hilliard 
Ford, David 
Fargason, Moses 
Fargason, Eli 
Foxworth, Stephen M. 
Fargarson, Aaron 
Lord, John, Senr. 
Ford, Solomon 
Graham, William 
Gibson, James 
Gibson, William 
Gill, James 
Gill, Thomas 
Grantham, Matthew 
Graves, James 
Graves, Richard 
HoUiday, Agnes 
Hardy, Thomas, Senr. 
Harwell, Edward 
Harris, Noble W. 
Harvey, Richard 
Harvey, John W. 
Harvey, Henry P. 
Hooke, James 
Harvey, John 
Jinkins, Allen 
Jones, Benjamin, Jr. 
Jones, Thomas 
Jones, Benjamin, Sr. - 
Jones, William C. 
Jones, Lewis 
Johns, John 
Lanoir, Francis B. 
Lea, Alexander 
Lea, James 
Leavison, James 
Lewcas, John 
Lewcas, John 
Lea Aiserette 
Lott, Absalom 
Lott, Nathan 
Xvott, WUUaro, Senr. 












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128 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Lott, William 
Lott, William, Juiir. 
Lott, Simon 
Lott, Arthur, Senr. 
Lott, Arthur, Junr. 
Lott, Nathan 
Lott, Solomon 
Lott, John 
Lott, Arthur, Jr. 
Magee, Phillip 
Magee, John, Senr. 
Monee, Robert 
McGowen, Robert 
McGowen, James 
McGowen, William 
Mitchell, Hezekiah 
Mixon, Jesse 
Mixon, John 
May, Benjamin 
May, Joseph 
Mills, William 
McLaughUn, Dugald 
Mixon, William 
Mikell, John I. 
Mikell, James, Junr. 
Mikell, Sarah 
Mikell, Fanney 
Mikell, Edward 
McCrary, Thomas 
Magee, Daniel 
Magee, Jacob. Senr. 
Magee, Flute 
Magee, John, Junr. 
Magee, Nehemiah 
McGuffee, Alphred 
Mixon, Cornelius 
Mikell, James, Senr. 
Mixon, Vinson 
McGrew, James 
Middleton, Thomas 
Massey, Drury 
McGrew, Alexander 
McGrew, Williani 
McGrew, John 



Heads of Families. 
McGuffie, John 
McGuffie, John 
Martin, Aaron 
• Norton, Charles M. 
Nixon, George W. 
Nickols, David 
Nickols, Noah 
Oneal, Ransom 
Owins, Thomas 
Owins, Thomas 
. Purkins, Rease 
Purkins, James 
Purkins, Samuel 
Pleasant, Washington 
Phillips, Elias 
Phillips, James, Junr. 
Pope, Jacob 
Phillips, James 
Price, Joseph 
Pope, John 
Ratlift, James 
Reglez, Sarah 
Ratlift, John, Junr. 
Regall, Williby 
Rawls, Briant 
Rawls, Benjamin, Senr. 
Rawls, Jabus 
Rawles, James 
Stovall, Drury 
Sterns, Moses 
Sones, William B. 
-Sumrall, David 
Sumrall. Levi 
Sumrall, Thomas 
Sazars, Fredrick 
Simmons, James 
Simmons, Ralph 
Sumrall, Jesse 
Seale, Littleton 
Seale, Eli 
Seale, Moses 
Seale, Daniels 
Seale, Thomas 
Smith, HugU 



IXHABITAXTS OF MISSISSIPPI IX 1816 



129 



Heads of Families. 
Strong, John, Senr. 
Stovall, John 
Strong, Edward 
Strong, Thomas 
Strong, John, Junr. 
Scale, Joshua 
Smith, Thomasj 
Stovall, Gilbert 
Stovall, Charles 
Scarborough, David 
Smart, John 
Spencer, William 
Tynns, Minor 
Thompson, William 
Thompson, Jesse 
Thomas, James 
Tomlinson, Jacob 
Tomlinson, John 
Tynns, Fleming 



Heads of Families. 
Thornton, Linsey 
Tyson, William 
Terrell, Phillomon 
Tucker, John 
Thomas. Daniels 
Vlnce, William 
Wallis, Nazareth 
Weatherly, George W 
Warren, Solomon 
Warren, Joseph 
Walton, Harrison 
Warren, John, Senr. 
Warren, Daniel R. 
Warren, John, Junr. 
Warren, Hackley 
Watson, William 
Watts, Thomas 
Wright, Ruben 



TAX-PAYERS IN MOEILE COUNTY, IN 1816. 



Heads of Families. 
Samuel Ketchins. 
Aaron Williams 
Adam Balfour. 
Carson Kelley. 
Charles Trillion. 
Latbell K. Morson. 
Stewart Penfield. 

illegible 

illf^gible 
Thomas Conway. 
Henry Conwaj. 
John C. Ward. 
Daniel Patterson. 
Sidney DeLand. 
William Genre. 
Joshua Henesty. 
William E. Kennedy. 
Andrew Cooks. 
Ephraira Marks. 

9— m 



Heads of Families. 

Auguste Lascelles. 
Francisco Shevalle. 
Alexander Bordeaux. 
Joseph McCandless. 
Joseph Hales. 
Hermengarde Sullivan. 
Joseph N. Kennedy. 
Silarion Hobdell. 
Daniel Durrell. 
Lewis Julian. 
Tracy McE. Kerr. 
George Taylor. 
Mms. torn. 
Cushn-ian Fraz*^?-. 
Duvall Rowland. 
Pierre Lucien. 
Edmund Krebs. 
Stephen Spalding. 
William M. Fisher. 



i '■!/.]•« 



■ •".V\ 



130 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 

Bpnlamln DeCro!x. 
James Janaxarfty. 
Joiin Firbpss & Co. 
Alexander Mfller. 
Vlnce A. McVoy. 
Danfel "Robfnson. 
SnTTrmel H. Garrow. 
El!7abpth Berbee. 
TTieer Glf^s^ook. 
Wasbfnsrton OMha-m. 

S«mnel (nTesrfble) 

Mtcbael nUedble) 

AntoTiln Hpmrember?. 
ThoTTias Darton. 
BaT>t!?tp Trenfer. 
DfesTO Alvarez. 
Jobn Ohevannali. 
Lem Nlr^Mas. 
Sllvnln N^rnlqg. 
Aiiamstp Cobn. 
llnffe. r>pbroca. 
Jacob WbUmore. 
Daniel T)"8Te, 
Jacnnes rbfrWzela. 
HoTiore Colin. 
T?e<Hste Bprrn-ndv. 
wnilam M^tcbelT. 
Wfllfani Fl"=:ber. 
Mlcbapl MrKinney. 
Jobn Hiniard. 
Abram Boberbas. 



Heads of Families. 
Peter H. Hnbart. 
Thoma«; (T. Newbold. 
Claire Favre. 
Besrlste Dnrett. 
Francis Glranlt. 
James F. Lln^. 
Jobn Clement. 
"William Pollard. 
Jacob Pasre. 
Georee Harrnt. 
WllMam B^obardson. 
Mattbew Blobardson. 
Tbomas Lantrrn. 
Herln? Williams. 
Travis Gporsre. 
Jnmes "Wllfson. 
Clempste 5: Kellog:?. 
Cbarles Lvon?. 
Jobn B. Bazarge. 
Pierre Lnrrle. 
. James Bovey, 
Jobn Galloway. 
Feeder Nlcolaa, 
Tlmotby McGratn. 
Bartbolome-w Gnalott. 
Zenon Dnmav. 
Widow Cba«?tan?. 
Fnffene Mallory. 
Bernar'l Cba^tan^. 
Mlcbael Plranlt. 
David Inzan. 



Mobile 3rd December 1^1<5. 



Daniel DiTTal. 
Assessor for Oountv Motile. 



TAXPAYERS OF MONBOF COUNTY, M. T.. FOB THE YEAR Igie. 



Heads of Frrwi'li^s. 
Geor?:e W. Nolan. 
Samuel Mnnac. 
Peg?T McGilbray. 
Mahaja Ward. 
Jobn Mnnac. 



Heads of Famines. 
Abrabam Wiley. 
Vincent S. Alexander. 
Henry Haynes. 
William A. Melton. 
William H. Grovenor. 



rrj^r r. 



•^'■;'-^VA"-;^,:^T 



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ESTETABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



131 



Heads of Families. 
Elias Spencer. 
William Hearn, Junr. 
Peter Adams. 
John Wisdom. 
Eliza. Duncan. 
Eliza. Foster. 
Benj. Ward. 
Benj. McCormack. 
Richard Seaman. 
Thomas Cargal. 
Allsey Bruce. 
Fred Zimmerman. 
Eliza. Evans. 
William Sansum. 
William Evans. 
Delila Ship. 
William Fitz. 
William Chandler. 
Reuben Fitz. 
Zachariah White. 
William Baldwin, Junr. 
Bird Fitz Patrick. 
Eliza. Trayniun. 
Philip Fitz Patrick. 

Absolom Hall. 

Jesse Evans. 

Crump & House. 

Pressley Scurlock. 

Lee Kavanaugh. 

Henry Ligon. 

William Raysden. 

Peter Ragsdale. 

Robert McAughy. 

Thos. P. Hawkins 

Saml. Gordon. 

George Black. 

William Young. 

Isaac Hood. 

John Hood. 

William Mackey. 

Elija Miller. 

James Poore. 

Alexander Erov/ne. 

Mary Dearmon. 



Heads of Families. 
Joseph Guy. 
Arthur "Beardin. 
Golden Fields. 
Joseph Coker. 
Alexander Duvall. 
John Bush. 
John Gaston. 
Richard Murphy. 
William Cuttery. 
John Delany. 
Laban Rice. 
Alexander Farlane. 
Jonthn Reason. 
David Johnson. 
Moses Nunnely. 
Patrick Hayes. 
James Hamilton. 
Thomas Maguire. 
James Hayes. 
David Merideth. 
Andrew Yoast. 
Henry Robinson. 
George Carmichael 
Isaiah Bird. 

Moses Overton. 
David Broune. 

Nathaniel Nations. 

Joseph Nations. 

Daniel McCairn. 

Ruben Reed. 

Stansell Cobb. 

Joseph Nations. 

Wliliamson TTawkin; 

Andrew Sp^r-r. 

Sampson ;McCown. 

William E. Willis. 

Jonathan York. 

William Prude. 

William Adams. 

Jacobs Clements. 

John Wilbanks. 

Zachariah Sirapson. 

Wm. Davis. 

Ellja Bess. 



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132 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 

Creorge Pearce. 

Jeremiah Jones. 

William Birks. 
_ Isaiah Hunt. 
- John Millender. 

Jas. Finley. 

George IMatthews. 

Samuel Field. 

Isaac Field. 

Caleb Young. 

Ca?eb Friley. 

Micajah Landry, 

Andrew Phillips. 

Andrew McLaughUn. 

Pleasant Dukes. 

William Reese. 

Joseph Embry. 

Burril Johnson. 

William Browne. 

Joel Swindler. 

Thomas York. 

Jonathan York. 

Michael Box. 

John Prude. 

Thomas Cridley. ' 

William Speakman. 

James Trussel. 

John Liles. 

James Holley. 

Josiah Carr. 

Thomas Haines. 

William Hearst. 

William Hodges. 

Ed mend Vaughn. 

Samuel Reece. 

Joseph Tumborough. 

John Robinson. 

Allen Colton. 

John Browne. 

David Browne. 

Moses Walters. 

Tilman Walters. 

Thomas Moore. 

John Prestige. 



Heads of Families. 
Joseph Prestige. 
James Tear. 
Daniel Howard. 
Thomas Baley. 
Joshua Edvin. 
Uriah Jourdin. 
William Ellet. 
William Crowson. 
Rlchd. Crowson. 
Wililam Guinn.- * 
Solomon Hinson. 
John Canterberry. 
Joseph Person. • 
Isaac Johnson. 
Obediah Lovelady. 
Benjamin C. Haslett. 
William Hopkins. 
James Fansher.-^ 
Bennet Ware. •««. 
Jesse Wilson. 
Thomas Lindsay. 
James Smith. 
William Frasher. 
Aaron Stewart. 
James Haskey. 
John Mahan. 
Ebenezer Leath. 
William McCapshaw. 
Person Davis. 
Ransom Davis. 
Jacob Mayberry. 
Henson Sholtz. 
Benjamin Stewart. 
Solomon Stcv/art. 
John Parker. 
Thos. D. Montgomery. 
Isaac Tumbeau. 
James Coates. 
Larkin Stewart. 
Thompson Brister. 
Thomas Colston. 
George Fisher. 
Rich. Worrel. 
James Jones. 



■.•■ I'.', I '.' : .-^ 









INHABITANTS OP MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



133 



Heads of Families. 
John Morris. 
Daniel Mabry. 
Lewis Pugh. 
Moses Hill. 
Williams Summerlin. 
David Smith. 
Abner Aldridge. 
John D. Rodgers. > 
John Martin. 
Samuel Williamson 
John Hambleton. 
Charles Smith. 
Abraham Milstead. 
Joseph Brudon. 
Ed Dean. 
Demsey Joiirdan. 
William Duke. 
Harvey Herrington. 
Samuel Buckhannon. 
Benj. Kitchens. 
Willis Studevant. 
R. L. Deans. 
Clem Hall. 
Eathen Stroud. 
Francis McLendon. 
Lofton Cotton. 
Jas. R. Rodgers. 
George Kennedy. 
Zachariah Magirt. 
Richd. Tolbert. 
John Woods. 
Aram Robeson. 
Masheck Carter. 
William Robinson. 
James Robinson. 
Amos Robinson. 
William Jones. 
George Morgan. 
James Stean. 
John Sutton. 
William Matthews. 
W. Jones. 
William Lathen. 
David Simmons. 



Heads of Families. 
Isaac Luker. 
Samuel Ethridge. 
William Singleterry. 
John Tolbert. 
Elijah Lumsden. 
James Rodgers. 
Hays Rodgers. 
Ezeklel Dumas. 
Arthur. Kimball. 
Clabon Harris 
John Corkins. 
John Staton. 
Darius Mash. ' 
Thomas Newman. 
David Allen. 
Thomas F. Gray. - 
James Curnels. 
William Stewart. " 
Elbert Jones. 
Daniel Walker. 
James Everet. 
John B. Vaughn. 
William James. 
Thomas James. 
Terr el Moody. 
Wilson Russum. 
Henry L. Riviere. 
Jesse Luper. 
Welo Curris. 
Harrison Young. 
Daniel Mather. 
John M. Flinn. 
Moses H. Rivers. 
William Simmons. 
Augustus Hubbard. 
Daniel D. Shumate. 
Benjamin B. Patten. 
John Bradford. 
George I, Williams. 
Zach Godbold. 
Silas Morgan. 
Michael Carter. 
Alexander Smith. 
John L. Solomon. 






);'■]?:■ '^V 



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134 



INHABITANTS OP MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Alexr. Autry. 
Charles Finley. 
Norris Finley. 
Micaja Benge. 
Harris Benge. 
Susan Benge. 
Samuel Brashiers. 
Onesimus Futch. 
Matthew Gayle. 
Josiah Fisher. 
Arthur Sizemoor. 
John Henson. 
• Duncan Henderson. 
Daniel Sullivan. 

Semie 

Daniel Harrison. 
John McCombs. 
Ezekiel Cobb. 
James Cobb. 



Heads of Families. 
Uriah Blue. 
Ann Tarvan. 
Josiah Fletcher. 
Thomas H. Bogles. 
John Adcock- 
Lachlan Durant. 
Rachel Walker. 
Josie Parker. 
Theophilus Powgll-. 
Thomas Patton. 
L^vi Quarles. 
Dread Danson. . 
John Howard. 
George Stiggins. 
John H. McGoiinell. 
George Beneheid. 
Samuel Dale. 

Samuel Dale, Assessor, 
Monroe County, M. T. 
Parke Walton, Audr. Pub. Accts. 



CENSUS OF 1816, IN PIKE COUNTY, MISS. 



Heads of Families. 
Lazarus Reeves. 
Allen King. 
Robert Sims. 
Garner Anders. 
Elias Silmore. 
Isaiah Hamilton. 
Abraham Bryiey. 
Jeremiah Smith. 
John Strawther. 
Isaac Sadler. 
Lewellin Leggit. 
Moses Collins. 
Samuel Williams. 
John Newman. 
Barnabas Allen. 
Benjamin Youngblood. 
Edward Gallana. 



Heads of Families. 
John Williams. 
John Warren. 
Jonathan Carter. 
George Ellis. 
Vincent Gannir. 
Nathaniel Welles. 
Henry Quinn. 
Gabriel Allen. 
Jesse King. 
John Bond. 
John Bond, Jr. 
Philip Catchings. 
Joseph Catchings. 
James Roberds. 
James Hope. 
John Smith. 
Thomas Heard. 



''i'i: 



li^tLABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



135 



Heads o-f Families. 
William Love. 
Robert Bond. 
William Beard. 
Thomas Arthur. 
Francis Ross. 
Joshua Scockstiil. 
John Akins. 
Robert Fairchiids. 
Waiter Jacob. 
Brice Miiler. 
John Sialiiaus. 
David iUorgan. 
Wiiiis ;Simmoiids. 
Thompson WarxU?. 
Gideon Buna. 
Natuaniel Gon. 
Robert Smich. 
David Bullock. 
Silas BuilocK.. 
FredericK cratt. 
James Lrait. 
Joseph Dane. 
Feter Batsom 
William Isles. 
Archibald Thompson. 
Branarord Kemp. 
Thomas Batson. 
Robert StricKland. 
Keen Milton. 
Eli Batson. 
Isaac Milton. 
Polly Riley. 
John Heiiion. 
Seth Batson. 
James Batson. 
Henry Bond. 
John Thompson. 
Daniel Houghman. 
Thomas Bell. 
William Bond. 
Nancy Mullins. 
David Hines. 
John McDaniel. 



Heads of Families. 
Moses McCelvin. 
John Duries. 
John Henson. 
Benjamin Zachary, 
W^illiam Faris. 
James Daugherity. 
Asa Rutland. 
Ann Simmonds. 
Daniel McDanieJ. 
Zachariah Redmon. 
Thomas Batson. 
Peter Felder. , 
Peter Felder, Jr. 
Mark Cole. 
Jacob Summery. 
Micnaei FrescoC 
William Selieis. 
Laban Bacot. 
Ephi-aim Frescot. 
Nancy Roberson. 
Nathan Frescot. 
Henry Figor. 
Isaac Carter. 
Sarah Pardarvas. 
Leonard Varnedo. 
Moses Varnedo. 
Samuel Varnedo. 
Samuel Carter. 
Hardy Carter. 
W^illiam Carter. 
John Cutrair. 
Daniel Dunnahoo. 
JoL::. DunnaLoo. 
Samuel Isaacs. 
William Jenkins. 
Samuel Barbar. 
John Sherrin. 
. Catherine Addison. 
Elijah Isaac. 
Abner Barksdale. 
- William F. Barksdale. 
William Cooper. 
. William Dunnahoo. 



iiwi 



A'tiJXU ix-^:'-ui,., 






ii/.!;,.;/ nAi^l 



136 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN iSl^ 



Heads of Fanalies. 

Richardson Bowman. 
John Low. 
James Y. McNabb. 
Cornelius Martin. 
Clark Hall. 
Jeremiah Cawley. 
Daniel Sandal. 
Nicholas Yawn. 
James Ballard. 
John Ballard. 
Henry Dickerson. 
James Gordan. 
William Green. 
George Hartsuck. 
Henry Sandal. 
John Dickerson. 
Daniel Sandal. 
Lunsford Law. 
Frederick Law. 
John Smih. 
Thomas Cook. 
Jeremiah Thomas. 
Green Cook. 
Peter Quinn, Sr. 
Joel Denman. 
Obed Kirkland. 
Swan Thompson. 
Thomas Thompson. 
Peter Quinn, Jr. 
David McGraw, Jr. 
Benjamin Bagley. 
William Bullock. 
John H. Marsh. 
Robert Love. 
Loften Fairchilis. 
Isaac Foster. 
Thomas Roberts. 
Enous Daughtery. 
Elizabeth Hoover. 
Joseph Brown. 
John Brown. 
Daniel Quinn. 
Bartholemew James. 



Heads of Families. 
Joseph Strong. 
Robert Gray. 
Thomas Rule. 
Richard Smith. 
Paul Toosing. 
Poly dor e Coats. 
Gideon Smith. 
Richard Parker. 
Jesse Bell. 
Dred May. • * 
Eleazer Bell. 
John Oquinn.- 
John May. 

Bartholomew Girtman, 
Jacob Cawley. 
Solomon Causey. 
Richard Stone. 
Joseph ThorChill. 
Jeptha Green. 
Jacob Magee. 
Henry Magee. 
James Dawdle. 
Lemuel King, 
Lawrence Dillen. 
John Hilton. 
Mary Smith. 
Clarkson Dillen. 
Richard DiFen. 
Samuel W. Jones. 
John Slaliians. 
Nathan Morris. 
George Magee. 
Abraham Breede'and. 
Wiiiis Magee. 
Lewis Rewil. 
Daniel Makenzie. 
David Makenzie. 
Joseph Lewis. 
John Magee. 
Solomon Magee. 
David Murr. 
John Carr. 
Seth Cawley. 



a:;mi 



0^1. 



;,-. f'. ,.*,,-.- 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



137 



Heads of Families. 
John Night. 
Owen Ellis. 
Duke W. Wilcher. 
John Ship. 
Mathew Cook. 
Benjamin Toney. 
Richard OduUi. 
William Thornkill. 
William Odum. 
William Eliott. 
Thomas Jones. 
Robert Thornkill. 
William Prichard. 
Hannah Collts. 
John Sartin. 
Joseph May. 
William Barnes. 
James May. 
Evin Harvey. 
Michael Harvey. 
Daniel Glower. 
Reuben Ponder. 
Ralph Stovall. 
Frederick Newsoro. 
Marble Stone. 
William Ellis. 
Hans Hamilton. 
John Tullis. 
Briton Drake. 
Temple Tullis, Jr. 
Wiloby Tullis. 
Temple Tullis. 
William Smith. 
James Anders, Jr. 
John Brent, Jr. 
William Tait. 
John Brent, Sr. 
James Day. 
Abel Simpson. 
Daniel Davis. 
Hiram Normon. 
James Normon, 
Abraham Trewit. 



Heads of Faynilies. 

James McCillie. 

Presley Normon. 

William Williams. 

Zachariah Williams. 

Isaac Alexander. 

Robert Middleton. - 

William Rolan. 

Caleb Bright. 

Peter Glover. 

John Hickman 

Amiziah Yardenaan 

Jeremiah Var'taeman. 

Mathew McEIin. 

Jacob Miller. 
Andrew Boyd. 

Joseph Dunnaway. 
William McCullie. 
John Wood. 
William Gates. 
John Walker. 
Jacob Keen. 
Howel Prestidge. 
Nehemiah Williams. 
Alexander Harper. 
Absolom Harper. 
Jesse Harper. 
John Mathews. 
John Hog. 
Nathan Sims. 
William McAnulty. 
Britton Jons. 
James Lpg-gptt. 
Thomas Galland. 
James McAnulty. 
Spellsby Trebbles. 
Jonathan Catching. 
Charles King. 
Allen Carter. 
Reuben Williams. 
Thomas Warren. 
Caleb Worldley 
Isaac Tabor 
Ephraim Esthers. 



;>in. 



ifu^'iS'K',;, 



138 



I^^IAB1TA^'TS of Mississippi in isie 



Heads of Families. 
Jolin Johnson. 
Thomas Keevy. 
Charles Reals. 
Andrew Moke. 
Joel Merrill. 
Jacob Coon. 
William Forgey. 
William Morrow. 
John Wells. 
George Johnson. 
Nathaniel Johnson. 
Andrew Richmond. 
George Whaley, 
Thomas Beekmond. 
Samuel Boyd. 
Joseph Turner. 
Mathew Turner. 
Bedy Goldman. 
Josiah Martin. 
Hendrick Vaughn. 
Elijah Martin. 
. Moses Miller. 
William Woodale. 
John Gordan. 
Richard Conn. 



Heads of Families. 
Joseph C- Smith. 
David Smith. 
William Gamer. 
William Martin. 
James Roberson. 
William Dunnahoo. 
William Barbar. ' 
William Goldman. 
Young Goldman. 
John Felder. 
Elizabeth Findley. 
David Chesnul. 
Lewis Howel. 
Hendrick Lumpkins. 
Salathiel Morris, 
Henry Hale. 
William Vincent. 
Isham AUdridge. 
Charles White. 
Mary Trentham. 
David Bruland. 
Daniel Thomas. 
Berry May. 
William Xewsom. 
Isaac Newsom. 



I do hereby certify the pages 1, 2, 3, 4, o, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 to contain the 
true enumeration of the census of Pike County, taken by me as as- 
sessor of taxes for said county for the year 1816, agreeable to an act 
in that case made and provided. 

David C level a^^-d. x 



CENSUS OF 1816. IN WARREN COUNTY, MISS. 



Heads of Families. 
Andrew Glass. 
Robert McClure. 
John Lobdell. 
Jacon Hyland. 
James Steele. 
Mrs. Eve Hyland. 
p. & I. Anthony. 



Heads of Families. 

Edw'^rl Hinds. 

Robei-r Hanen. 

Jas. Kirkwood, Sr. 

Jas. Kirkwood, Jr. 

Richard Duty. 

James Knowland. 
* Joshua Marsh. 



•^ .'I 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



139 



Heads of Families. 
Andw. 'Anderson. 
Zephaniah Goodie. 
Rachel Boothe. 
Setli Gaston. 
Green G. Gaston. 
James Lon^s:. 
John Huffman. 
Saml. Barclay. 
Joseph Ferguson. 
Mrs. Joicy Jones. 
Joseph Jones. 
Sarah & Colly Ferguson. 
John Cook. 
William Barclay. 
Elijah Rogers. 
James Ferguson. 
Hugh Russel. 
•John Tumbull. 
John Gibson. 
Murdoch McLeod. 
William Lewis. 
John Simms. 
Royal Pace. 
Gilbert Johnston. 
James Gibson. 
Jordan Gibson. 
John W. Ksrr. 
Johnsoj Sv'eat. 
Mary Glass. 
I. Clarke. 

John & Gharles Dana. 
David Kline. 
Burwell Vick. 
Isaac Rapalje. 
Thos. Fortner. 
C. H. Hamer. 
Robt. Galloway. 
James Hyland. 
Moses Evans. 
Aaron Fryer. 
Gabriel Burnham. 
Thos. K. McElrath. 
John Stevens. 



Heads of Families. 
Booker & Sharky. 
Anne Hicks. 
Margaret Stevens. 
Lewis Savoy. 
John SelTars. 
John Clair. 
James Huse. 
Mrs. Hullums. 
Mary Evans. 
Mourning Evens. 
William George. 
Archld. Erwin. 
Saml. Blackman. 
William Goodwin. 
Eliza SImpklns. 
James Oliver. 
Polly Shook. 
Esther Blackman. 
Claudius Rolls. 
Elizabeth Berry. 
Jame Wright. 
Joseph Cloyd. 
Thos. Sharidan. 
Pharaoh Kn owl and. 
Elinor Gibson. 
William Fagan. 
Joel Gamron. 
Alexr. Black. 
John Treadwell. 
Saml. Treadwell. 
Robt. Hatcher. 
Wm. Fers:iison. 
George Downs. 
Solomon C. Phillips. 
Thos. H. Woods. 
Thos. & Francis Grlffln. 
S. D. Gervols. 
Wm. Bay. 
Robt. Trimble. 
Joseph Hanna. 
John Jenkins. 
Wm. Briscoe. 
John Sevier. 



'^ - 



140 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Mrs. Austin. 
Thos. Daniels. 
Dempsey Williams. 
Richard Williams. 
Mrs. Goodwin. 
Nathan Vickery. 
Henry Colliers. 
Martin Davis. 
Peter Bradshaw. 
Henry C. Downs, 2nd. 
Joshua Downs. 
James Dyer. 
Noah Rushing. 
Thos. Jones. 
Wm. McClary. 
Reuben Powell. 
David Ross. 
Mrs. Downs. 
Solomon Nobles. 
Moore. 

James Gaskins. 
Smith & Horton. 
John McAlister. 



Heads of Families. 
Foster Cook. 
Edwin Cook. 
Alexr. Cook. 
Hartwell Vick. 
Nowilt Vick. 
Abraham Crownover. 
William Oliphant. 
Mrs. Griffin. 
Thos. Travis. 
Gideon Gibson. 
Mrs. Burbridge, 
Patsey Gibson. 
John Blamhard. 
Henry D. Downs. 
Sarah Gibson. 
. Absalom Baker. 
Isaac Newman. 
Russel Smith. 
Henry Turner. 
S. F. Chisolm. 
Henry Bradford. 
Jeremiah Thompson. 



TAX-PAYERS OF WASHINGTON COUNTY, M. T., FOR THE YEAR 

1816. 



Heads of Families. 
Allison, Jonathan 
Atcheon, Henry 
Allison, Moses 
Allison, Thomas 
Archer, John 
Bryant, John 
Buchanan, George 
Butler, John 
Bedwell, James 
Berry, Thomas 
Becknell, William 
Bailey, James 
Bond, John 



Heads of Families. 
Bassers, Thomas 
Beard, John 
Bowling, William 
Brewer, George 
Bemus, James 
Bloomfield, Saml. 
Bosworth, Richard 
Baldwin, William 
Baldwin, Ben 
Baker, John 
Buttock, James 
Blackwell, Widow 
Boykin, Frances 



i}H 



..<^ili. 



''''s'^'i'l 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



141 



Heads of Families. 
Brown, John W. 

Crosby, 

Carter, Frances 
Curry, John 
Cato, Lewis 
Callahan, James 
Cartright, Peter 
Carson, Joseph 
Coleman, Daniel 
Culler, Robert 
Cassity, James 
Coleman, Francis 
Coleman, Jesse 
Colton, Joseph 
Carson, Jasper 
Cooper, Jesse 
Capell, Archer 
Cato, Stirling 
Cato, Wych 
Caller, James 
Calbrith, Nehenh 
Devan, John S. 
Devan, James 
Davis, Sam 
Denson, Nathan 
Dupree, David 
Dunn, John 
Denson, James 
"Darling, Davison 
Espy, Wiley 
Echols, Elijah 
Easton, Thomas 
Erby, John 
Everett, John F. 
Gillespy, Joseph 
Gandy, Elisha 
Galeger, Warren 
Gordon, Isaac 
Griffin, William 
Gess, Thomas . 
Garbais, Ebenezer 
Goff, Enoch 
Gaines, Young 
Goodwin, George 



Heads of Families. 
Gaines, George S. 
Gaines Gedridge (?) 
Gaines, Godfrey 
Gilbert, Michael 
Godfrey, William 
Johnston, John 
James, Benj. 
James, Enoch 
Joiner, James -^ 

, W^illiam — 

Jourdan, Isaac 
Johnston, Wiley 
Jervis, Joseph 
Harris, John 
Huna, Obediah 
Holcomb, Gardner 
Hurd, Bailey 
Heard, John 
Hall, John 

Hays, John 
Hailey, Richd. 

Hailey, John 

Harwell, Ishmael 

Henly, John 

Henry, William 

Hailey, William 

Hailey, Richd. Sen. 

Harwell, Ann 

Hainsworth, Joseph 

Hainsworth, James S. 

HoUinger, Mrs. 

Hanes, John 

Keiin, Sami. 

Keen, Joseph 

Keen, John. 

Kade, 

Lipscomb, Abram S. 

Lyon, Joseph 

Lester, Isaiah 

Landram, Benj. 

Landram, Wm. 

Landram, Zachr. 

Lacky,. Archd. 

Lawrence, Mrs. 



JK-if 



[:■:,} 



u.a 












142 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1S16 



Heads of Families. 
McCrory, John 
McCrory, James 
McMillan, William 
McCrory, John Age 
May, David 
McCarty, John 
McAllister, William 
McCarly, Joseph 
McCariy, Saml. 
McCloud, Alexr. 
Moor, James 
Mitchum, Richd, 
Mills, James 
Mills for Shanan, 
Mills for Desha. 
Miller, Charles 
Moody, Martin 
Malona, Thomas 
McCray, Christ 
Marley, John 
McGofhn, James 
Miller, Robert 
Morgan, Thomas 
Murrell, William 
Moore, Gibson 
McDonald, John 
Moor, Eli 
McArthur, Neal 
McGrew, John F. 
McDonald, Wm. 
Moor, Joseph 
Moor, Charles 
Price, Shedrick 
Pickering, John 
Philips, John 
Prophet, Robert 
Powell, William 
Phillips, Abrm. 
Prince, Henry 
Perrell, John 
Pierce, William 
Pace, John 
Potter, Robert D. 
Phillips, Isaac 



Heads 'Of Famines. 
Page, Thomas 
Phillips, Isham 
Robertson, Charles 
Rolling, Isaac 
Ross, Nathaniel 
Raulten, William 
Rudder, David 
Rollins, Mark 
Rankin, Robert 
Renfro, James 
Rainwater, Jesse 
Rush, Saml. S. 
Richardson, John 
Springer, Joab 
S tailings, William 
Stringer, Frances 
Sarles, Richard 
Sarles, John . 
Simpson, Eiisha 
Shaw, W^iliiam 
Stanley, Jordan 
Shaw, Matthew 
Stone, Saml. 
Smith, Edward 
Stinson, Michael 
Smith, Saml. 
SegJdert, Joshua 

Spears, 

Smith, Isaac 
Springer, Jacob 
Stokes, Jas. S. 
Small, James 
Smoot, Benj. S, 
Sewall, Levvis 
Suserman, John 
Smith, Thomas 
Sempeck, Charles 
Thompson, Reuben 
Turner, Hugh 
Thompson, Joseph 
Thompson, Tabitha 
Thompson, David 
Vanzant, John 
Vanzant, Berry 



tr;.:-:. i, 









*:"S-jS«<A ,,;iUi.'.*/0, 



INHABITANTS" OF iMISSISSTPPI IX 1816 



143 



Heads of Families. 

Vaughn, Wm. 

Vanderender, Christ. 

Verner, John 

Walton, William 

Weir, Benj. 

Willson, Alatthew B. 

Welsh, James 

Wells, Martin 

Wells, Charles 

Warham, Jeremiah 

W^halin, Joab 
. Warham, John 

Welsh, George 
. Wells, Reid 

Wells, Achilles 

Walker, Richard 



Heads of Families. 
Womack, William 
Williams, Joshua 
Womack, James 
West, Randolph 
Womack, John 
Womack, Richd. 
Wegar, David 
White, Thomas 
Wells, Dorcas 

" W^ells, William 
Williams, David 
Womack, Frances 
Wells, Absolom 
Woodard, Walter 
Yates, William 



Josiah D. Lister, Tax Collector ^ Assessor, Washington County, M. T. 



CENSUS OF 1816, IN WAYNE COUNTY, MISS. 



Heads of Families. 
. William Patton. 
Joseph Patton. 
Margaret Patton. 
James Patton. 
Willis Lang. 
Dempsey Dyess. 
Daniel McRae. 
Thos. Sumrall. 
James Watts. 
John Slay. 
David Slay. 
Isaac Sumrall. 
Christopher Collins. 
James Jones. 
Agnes Bounds. 
James Powell. 
Joshua Collins. 
John Parker. 
Jonathan Parker. 
Richard Conn. 



Heads of Families. 
Josiah Middleton. 
Marshal Minor. 
James Proctor. 
Burwell Pitman. 
William Webber. 
Duncan McCali. 
John McRae. 
Scherwood Parker. 
John Finch. 
William Spradley. 
John Crager. 
William McFarron. 
William Windham. 
John Stricklin. 
Reuben Windham. 
Daniel McMurry. 
Nathan Corley. 
Howel Brewer. 
Solomon Stricklin. 
James Deprest. 



144 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Simeon Stricklin. 

William Smith. 

Dilly Farr. 

John Hood. 

Nathan Brewer. 

Harris Mounger. 

Sary Paterick. 

Green B. Gorden. 

John Gorden. 

William Casity. 

Moses Pepkin. 

Jourden Williford. 

Notley Norris. 

George Brewer. 

John Young. 

Reuben Hayse. 

John Fontain. 

Hugh Black. 

Richard Welch. 

Henry Chambers. 

Jonah Chambers. 

John Smith. 
Edward McLauchlin. 
Moses Sumrall. 
John Magee. 
Nathan Slay. 
Willey Jones. 
Neil Smiley. 
Malaki Aden. 
James Russell. 
Gray Syms. 
William Crane. 
Jesse Arnold. 
William Russell. 
Isaac Stanley. 
James Bams. 
Matthew Moss. 
Josiah Watts. 
Josiah Evans. 
Whitmel Craft 
Martin Crane. 
John Phillips. 
Menan Monk. 



Heads of Families. 

James McDaniel. 

David Tool. 

Henry Killen. 

Jeremiah Crane. 

Robert M. Lauchlin. 

Alex. Tinning. 

Thos. McFall. 

Henry Irby. 

James Bounds. 

Thos. Dean. 

Abraham Bird. 

Jesse Cole. 

Robert Cooper. 

Anthony Burn. 

Bennet Blackman. 

Thos. Davis. 

William Pace. 

Jacob Parker. 

Robert Drake. 
Lewis Blackman. 
Archibald Nicolson. 
Mark Cole. 
Zachariah Graham. 
Robert Graham. 
Abner Horser. 
Pleasant Moore. 
Samuel Cole. 
James Marshall. 
George Evans. 
John Hubberd. 
William Cothen. 
Zachariah Jourden. 
Matthew Alexander. 
Nathan Coor.or. 
Sabert Crafforc:. 
James McCaine. 
Mark Porter. 
John Brewer. 
William Snell. 
William Gats. 
Richard McLemore. 
Aaron Raynor. 
Solomon John.son. 
John Tiner. 



■r, : :.-j -.lii^o' 



■i {•.H.i'- 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIFT^I IN 1816 



145 



Heads of Families. 

Solomon Dearman. 
T. Hollemaix 
Edward Arnold. 
Ocbourn Reece. 
Hugh Rogers. 
Joseph Frost. 
Joshua Peters. 
Larkin Rogers. 
William Pennington. 
Elizabeth Williams. 
Archibald Howell. 
Wm. Eastes. 
Allen C. Yats. 
- James Ivey. 
James Read. 
Eryski Ivey 
Reuben Grason 
Balem Self. 
Joel Scarber. 
John Phillips. 
Jacob Page. 
John Easley. 
Mary Lones. 
James B. Rogers. 
Alexr. Paine. 
James Courtney. 
Robert Courtney. 
Polly Irby. 
William Morris, Sr. 
William Morris, Jr. 

John Brown. 

Hardy Hargraves. 

Samuel Brown. 

Moses Cop&len. 

Clinch Gray. 

John Keahey. 

Jesse Clater. 

John Nicolson. 

James Burns. 

Henry Hendry. 

Jacob Johnson. 

John Carson. 

John Carson. 

James Garner. 
10 — ^m 



Heads of Families. 
Samuel Crafford. 
John Andersou. 
Francis Huff. 
Daniel Wafford. 
Moses McLemore. 
William Killen. 
Joseph Chapman. 
John Upton. 
Lewis Crane. 
Abner Kelley. 
Thos. Gibbs. 
J"esse Scrivner. 
Isham Hodges. 
James Hambrick. 
J. Bankson. 

Peter Stubs. 
John Thomas. 

Edward Terrell. 

John Terrell. 

"Willis Owens. 

Thomas Bird. 

Isaac Evans. 

John Martin. 

Molley Birk. 

David Scarber. 

Josiah Houston. 

Benj. Cooper. 

William Powe. 

Joseph Rogers 

Daniel Williams. • 

John Evans. 

J. P. Campbell. 

Benj. Scarber. 

James Henderson. 

James Burk. 

Zachariah Rogers. 

Bryant Welch. 

Stephens Reynolds. 

Jesse Boyekin. 

Nathan Chapman. 

Stacey Collins. 

John Briggs. 

James Briggs. 

Josiah Evans. 



TMiy.Hv:: 



~i s-jv-L 









146 



INIL\BITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Benj. Morris. 
Micajah Bradley. 
Joseph Barnes. 
Nathaniel Clark. 
Dempsey Smith. 
James Whitehead. 
John Thomas. 
Wm. Robinson 
Patsey Dease. 
Isham Brown. 
Thomas Holleman. 
Henry Houston. 
Wm. Corby. 
Berriman CorDy. 
Purtiman Corby. 
Valentine Corby. 



Heads of Families. 

George Templeton. 
Dempsey Crane. 
Jesse Cooper. 
Asa Chaddick. 
George Bunch. 
Jeremiah Willingham. 
Polly Wilis. 
Levi Miles. 
Thos. McCardel. . 
James Freeman. 
Thos. Jourdeii. 
John Alexander. 
John Hays. 
James Earthman. . 
Samuel Huff. 
Sol Buchman. 



I hereby certify the above to be correct to the best of my knowledge. 

Wm. Patterson, 
Assr. Wayne County. 



CENSUS OF 1816, IN WILKINSON COUNTY, MISS. 



Heads of Families. 
Audabert, John 
Andrews, Henry 
Andrews, David 
Andrews, William 
Atwood, Thomas 
Anderson, Robert 
Anderson, W^m. 
Anderson, Daniel D. 
Ailesbury, Jacob 
Atwater, Asaph 
Armstrong, Elizabeth 
Alford, Hutson 
Anderson, Wm. 
Ailesbury, Joseph 
Burton, Edmond 
Buford, James 
Barron, Samuel 
Barron, Thos. 
Brandon, Gerard C. 



Heads of Families. 

Brassfield, Zachariah 
Belk, Susannah 
Bryan, William 
Brassfield, Peggy 
Boatner, Wm. 
Bifler, Jacob 
Bailey, David 
Beitison, David 
Beasley, Robert C. 
Bruce, Ann 
Brown, George 
Brooks, Wm. 
Bailes, Piatt 
Burton, Wilson 
Bush, Isaac 
Bailey, James 
Bush, Samuel 
Boyd, Wm. 
Berry, Anderson 



}'i) Jr\-l. (i;:">i 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN IS 16 



147 



Heads of Families. 
Berry, Prestley 
Benthal, Thos. 
Barckley, Glass 
Bird, John 
Bovard, William 
Bruce, Charles 
Brice, Wm. 
Brown, Wm. 
Branaugh & Patterson 
Baker, Matthew 
Bell, John 
Butler, Richard 
Barrow, Wm. 
Bell, Wm. 
Booth, Reuben 
Bethany, Matthew 
Bethany, Jacob 
Bradley, James 
Beauford, Bird 
Benthal, John 
Brannum, Wm. 
Buckner, David 
Brown, John G. 
Brown, John 
Brice, Samuel 
Bird, Nancy 
Boatner, Elias 
Bunch, Jacob 
Connel, Hugh 
Qook, Bela 
Crow, James 
Collins, Dillard 
Coulter, John 
Conns, Jasper 
Collins, Dicey 
Calliham, John 
Cason, Thomas, Jr. 
Cole, William 
Coats, Elijah 
Collier, Eenj. S. 
Cooper, Micajah 
Cox, Henry 
Cason, Thomas, Senr. 
Cason, Lewis 
Cain, Allen 



Heads of Families. 
Cain, Wm. 
Cain, James 
Cheney, David 
Coatney, Richard 
Cole, Matthew 
Clarkston, Joseph 
Curtis, James 
Carrol, Rebecca 
Carrol, Alex 
Cummins, Thos. 
Carraway, James 
Gates, Zachariah 
Coleman, Wm, 
Crow, Levi 
Crow, John 
Cooper, David 
Connor, Mary 
Comer, John 
Canada, Samuel 
Chambers, Jacob 
Chambers, Isaac 
Curry, Barnabas 
Castin, Gabriel 
Castles, Reuben 
Castles, William 
Cahall, John 
Carter, Isaac 
Cosby, Peggy 
Collinsworth, James 
Carmichaei, John F. 
■ Cartright, Jesse H. 
Coons, Lewis 
Curtis, Benj. 
Cass, Joseph W. 
Campbell, John 
Combs, Jonathan 
Dunckley, John 
Downs, Jeremiah 
Davis, David 
Dubose, E. Mary 
Dixon, James 
Davis, John H. 
Dixon, Hugh 
Davis, Samuel 
Dancer, Ulrick M. 



148 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Davis, William 
Devaul, John 
Dawson, Thos. 
Dawson, William 
Davis, Samuel 
Davidson, Richard 
Deloach, Ruffin 
Dewit, John 
Daniels, Charles 
Dorset, Theodore 
Dixon, John 
Deloach, Jesse 
Door, William 
Door, Rebecca 
Donoly, Wm. 
Duffie, George 
Davis, Austin 
Davis, Landon 
Davis, Hugh 
Delahuff, George 
Erwin, William 
Edwards, Edmund 
Eldred, Randal 
Ellis, William 
Edwards, Charles 
Edwards, Jesse 
Embray, Curtis 
Edwards, Thos., Senr. 
Edwards, Thomas, Jr. 
Ellis, John, Estate of 
Elliot, R. M. D. I. 
Fuqua, Joseph 
Fenner, John M. 
Fenner, John 
Fenner, James 
Ferguson, Isona 
Fant, John F. 
Fenner, Joseph 
Foley, Patrick 
Foster, John 
Fost, Peter 
Ferguson, Benj. 
Finley, Elijah 
Flinn, Nancy 
BYazer, Micajah 



Heads of Fai)}iUes. 
Fenner, William 
P^iqua, William 
Gains, David 
Gaulding, Zachariah 
Grimball, Thomas 
Graves, Benjamin 
Glover, Matthias 
Glover, W^illiam 
Glover, Anderson 
Groves, Richard 
Gildart, Sophia 
Gordon, Moses 
Germany, John 
Germany, Benjamin 
Geter, Argles 
Glass, Joel 
Grayson, Robert 
Grayham, John 
Grimball, Paul 
Gray, David I. 
Godley, Blade 
Groves, Thomas 
Hammett, Wm. 
HoUoway, Lewis 
Holloway, Daniel 
Hatfield, Wm. F. 
Hunter, Wm. 
Hodge, John 
Hunter, Henry 
Harson, Joseph 
Hadley, Moses 
Hammett, Robert B. 
Huffman, Daniel 
Hux. Benjamin 
Henderson, Joseph 
Harrison, John 
Hester, Charles 
Harris, Daniel 
Hennington, John 
Hollomon, Jacob 
Hart, George 
Hayes, James 
Heape, John 
Hunter, Joseph 
Hook, Moses 



ja>3-i: :"■' 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



149 



Heads of Families. 
Hampton, Henry 
Hunter, Narsworthy 
Hunter, Thomas 
Hunter, Field P. 
HoUomon, "William 
Hackley & Henderson 
Haines, Bythel 
Harper, Samuel 
Hasten, Milly 
Holmes, Benj. 
Hopkins, SoUomon 
Howard, John 
Hamilton, James 
Hampton, Wade 
Holmes, William R. 
Hanberry, Moses 
Harrison, Robert L. 
Harris, Victor 
Howard, Thomas 
Hutchins, Thos. H. 
Hollldy, D. C. & J. R. 
Hamilton, Benjamin 
Henderson, Charles 
Jackson, Sarah 
Jackson, George 
Jaggers, Daniel 
Jones, John 
Jackson, Alexander 
Irwin, David 
Insco, Ebenezer 
Inman, Richard 
Jones, Charles 
Johnson, Thomas 
Jones, Ann 
Tier, Abram 
Jones, Nancy 
Jones, John J. 
Jones, Hardin 
Joor, John 
Jones, James 
Johnson, Isaac 
Johnson, Joseph 
Keller, Thomas 
Kaigler, John 
Keller, George 



Heads of Families. 
Keller, Jacob 
Kirkman, Thomas 
Kelson, Daniel 
King, John 
Keen, David 
Kaigler, William 
Keller, George 
Knight, Henry 
Kelsey, Thomas 
Keith, Daniel 
Kennebrew, Leonard 
Keller, Francis 
Keen, Josiah 
Ketler, Margaret 
Lewis, John S. 
Landrum, Burton 
-^Land, Thos. C. 
Lainhart, Adam 
Lilly, Thomas 
Linsey, William M. 

.Land, James 

— Land, Benjamin 
Lilly, Mills 
Leatherman, Dan'l 
Leich, Joseph 
Leatherman, David 
Lovelace, Thomas 
Lovelace, Wm. C. L. 
Lawson, Wm. 
Liddell, Moses 
Leckie, Robert G. 
Lasenby, Henry 
Logan, Jeremiah 
Lang, John 
Lusk, Jacob 
Lusk, William 
Lusk, Samuel 
Lusk, Eli 

Langford, Benjamin 
Leatherman, John 
Moss, George 
Miles, Moses 
McGraw, Darling 
McGraw, Paul 
McGraw, Peter 



150 



INHABITANTS OF MISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
McGraw, Uriah 
Mitchell, Samuel 
Mathers, William 
McComb, Robert 
McGee, Francis 
Matthews, John 
McCrane, Murdock 
McGehee, A. & N. 
Meeks, James 
McCarty, John 
Macky, Charles 
Mcintosh, John 
Marlow, Mary 
Munson, Samuel 
McMorris, Rachel 
Malott, Isaac 
Marlow, Charles 
Martin, Charles 
Mitchell, Benjamin 
McNeeley, James 
McCastles, Zalmon 
McCollister, John 
Mackey, William 
McCartney, Thos., Senr. 
McCartney, Thos., Junr. 
McCartney, John 
McCalop, James 
Measles, Mary 
McDowel, James 
McCullouah, Matthew 
' McClennon, Helion 
Milles, James 
Miller, William 
McCroy, Wm. 
McCuilough. Jane 
May, Samuel 
McGehee, Edmund 
Morris, Maybury 
Montgomery, John 
Maybury, William 
McPhates, Alexander 
Moor, Samuel 
Moor, John C. 
McMuIlin, James 
McClennon, Hollow 



Heads of Families. 

McCausland, Martha 
Nugent, John 
Nordon, Wm. 
Nicholson, James 
Nicholson, Henry 
Netterville, Jeremiah 
Netterville, William 
Nicholson, Samuel 
Nelson, Hugh 
Noland, Philip 
Netterville, Ann 
Noland, Jeremiah 
-Noland, Wm. F. 
Netterville, Thos. 
Netherland, James 
Nettles, Isom 
Norwood, Noel 
Norwood, Samuel 
Norman, Elizabeth 
Norman, William 
Nicholson, Wm. 
Neesmith, John 
Netterville, Charles 
Oliver, Robert 
Ogden, Daniel 
Olds, Charles 
Ogden, John 
Ogden, Edmund 
Ogden, Isaac 
Ogden, George 
Olds, Chastien 
Ogden, Rebecca 
Orr, Elizabeth 

Oo-fTor;. E]T7P.bPth 

Ogden, Richard 
Ogden, Isaac D. 
Ogden, William 
Owings, Thomas 
Parker, William F. 
Paxton, John 
Pinson, Daniel B. 
Parker, Elijah 
Plaster, Thos. R. 
Partin, Barnabas 
Pool, Abram 



INHARITAXTS OF MISSISSirPI IN 1816 



151 



Heads of Familirs. 
Patton, John 
Panot, Thorp 
Price, Lafard 
Pate, John 
Pope, Elizabeth 
Parker, William H. 
Phipps, James 
Phipps, Jesse 
Phipps, Henry 
Poindexter, George 
Price, Elijah 
Perrr, Ge-orge 
Penton, William 
Phipps, Elijah 
Prestley, Peter 
Pate, James 
Pearce, Joshua 
Parhara. Peterson 
Price, Martha 
Quinn, Easter 
Qninn, Henry' 
Quinn, Robert 
Quinn, James 
Quinn, William 
Reagan, William 
Richardson, Eliza 
Robert, Daniel 
Rutlege, Joseph , 
Richardson. James 
Robertson, Wm. H. 
Richardson, Richard 
Rutledge, Dudley 
Reed, John 
Reed, Hugh 
Richardson, John G. 
Robertson, Henry 
Right, Joseph 
Roach, Wm. 
Read, Abner 
Randal, Benajah 
Randal, Joel 
Rogers, Benj. 
Roberts, Abram 
Ray, Andrew 
Randolph, Edward 



Hi ads of FnvnJlf'S. 
RulTm, Wm. H. 
Robertson, Samuel 
Roberts, Wm. 
Robertson, David 
Reiley, Samuel 
Richardson, Francis 
Robert, Joseph 
Rawlins, Benj. 
Rogers. Lewis 
Stark, John 
Spurlock, Drury 
Sikes, Benj. 
Skinner, Immanuel 
Sapp, Dill 
Shannon, Mary 
Sibley, West 
Sapp. Asa 
Stewart, Temple 
Spurlock, Robert 
Shaw, Duncan 
Stocket, Samuel 
Stewart, John 
Sutton, Joshua 
Simmons, Mary 
Smith, Prestwood 
Smith, Peter 
Stewart, James 
Sapp, Elijah 
Scott, Thos. 
Sibley, Jesse 
Seals, James 
Smith, James 

' Smith, John 
Smith, Zachariah 
Sapp, John 
Stewart, Walter 
Sample, Isabella 
Simpson, John 
Stephenson, Wm. 
Simmons, John 
Stewart, Charles 

. Scudders, Natn. 
Singlpston, R. & H. 
Six, Philip 
Slocum, Joseph 



.•7T/'-T 



152 



INHABITANTS OF IMISSISSIPPI IN 1816 



Heads of Families. 
Shelby, Evan 
Stewart, Duncan 
Swayse, Sarah 
Saunders, Wm. 
Shannon, Robert W. 
Strother, Benj. 
Smith, Francis 
Shuffield, William 
Stafford, John 
Scott, Alex. I. 
Shaccleford, Mary 
Scott, Joseph I. 
Scott, Ab. M. 
Stark, Horatio 
Thomas, John C. 
Thomas, Joseph 
Thompson, Littleberry 
Tickles, Jesse 
Terrel, Justice 
Tigner, William 
Therrel, Benjamin 
Turner, John- 
Thomas, David 
Therrel, Elijah 
Trask, James L. 
Travasos, Antonio 
Therrel, Koker 
Tanner, Cullin E. 
Tanner, James B. 
Thompson, Joseph 
Tison, John 



Heads of F\nniUes. 
Veil, Peter 
Vining, Uriah 
Vining, Jeptha 
Ventress, Lovick 
Vaughan, Wm. 
Welsh, James 
Westberry, William 
Westberry, Thomas 
Walker, Zachariah 
Winings, Wm. 
Williams, Daniel 
Wiggins, William 
Walker, Alexander 
Whetstone, Joseph 
White, Robert 
Welboan, William 
Woodard, Mark 
Wilson, John 
White, Lucy 
Wilson, Hugh 
Wilson, George 
White, Andrew 
Ware, Nat. A. 
Williams, Rachel 
Wade, Abm, M. 
White, H. G. 
Williams, Isaac 
Wall, Sarah 
Waddill, Noel 
Watkins, Mary 
Yerby, William 



I certify that the above list exhibits an arcnrate emimpration of the 
number of inhabitants in the County of Wilkinson, with the proper 
distinctions of sex, age and colour. 

Abm. M. Scott, 
' October, 1816. 




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STATEHOOD. 



December 10, 1817. 

The Georgia settlement or articles of cession and agreement, pro- 
vided "that the territory thus ceded shall form a State, and be ad- 
mitted as such into the Union, as soon as it shall contain sixty 
thousand free inhabitants, or at an earlier period if congress shall 
think it expedient." The census of 1810 showed a population of 
only 4 0,000 both free and slave. Nevertheless, the inhabitants were 
restive under the Territorial status. Mingled with this discontent 
and ambition were the remoteness as well as the rivalries of the 
three separated regions, the Natchez, Mobile and Huntsville dis- 
tricts, which bred desire for a division of the territory. The peo- 
ple of the Mobile region had petitioned congress for a division of 
the Territory in 1803 and 1809, without reference to statehood. 

In 1810, the Baton Rouge revolution gave an opportunity for 
the annexation of West Florida to the United States, and as it was 
claimed as a part of the ancient province of Louisiana it was expe- 
dient that Governor Claiborne of New Orleans should first annex 
it, as far as Mobile bay, to his Territory. It was realized, however, 
that the coast at least belonged of right to Mississippi Territory, 
and Delegate Poindexter took this position in congress. After this, 
late in the year 1811, a formidable opposition to Poindexter arose 
east of Pearl River, led by Col. Carson. <"n] Caller :ind Major Ken- 
nedy, and Cowles Mead wrote to Poindexter that Carson's ground 
of opposition was that he believed the delegate to be covertly in 
favor of dividing the Territory. It is stated by J. F. H. Claiborne 
that Poindexter contemplated a division of the Territory by an east 
and west line, and admitting the southern part immediately as a 
State. But this was made difficult of achievement by the annexa- 
tion of the Florida region west of Pearl river to Louisiana. But 
Poindexter's propositions in congress were for the extension of state- 
hood to the entire Territory. As chairman of the committee on 
the subject, January 31, 1811, he reported an enabling bill for the 



A -lid J 



■1 a i-> 






154 STATEHOOD 

Territory as then constituted, from the Mississippi to the Chatta- 
hoochee, as one State, and this passed the house. 

In the general assembly oi November, 1811, Kennedy of Wash- 
ington County introduced a Memorial to congress, which set out: 
"That according to the tenor and practice of the American govern- 
ment, every citizen v.ithin the scope oi its operation, is entitled to 
all the rights and privileges of freedom. Taking this principle as 
the basis ot this Memorial, we shall attempt to show, that this peo- 
ple ought to be admitted to all the rights which are enjoyed by 
the citizens of the States constituting the federal compact. We 
do not expect anyone to deny to your honorable bodies the right 
to remove our political shackles, and raising us up from menial 
vassalage to the splendid rights of national independence. But 
we expect to lind those who Vv'ill resist by force, an attempt to de- 
feat the purpose of this Memorial. Believing that the people of 
this Territory are purely American, and of course competent to 
self-government, we respectfully solicit that the Mississippi Ter- 
ritory, with its present limits, may be admitted into the federal 
union at the present session of congress, invested with all the 
rights, privileges and immunities used and enjoyed by the States 
of the Union."' It was claimed that the immigration v.as such that 
the population would be over 6U,UO0 before the organization could 
be effected; at any rate, "We are Americans; we are the legitimate 
offspring of Seventy -six," and forty thousand were as capable of 
self-government as sixty thousand. It was also said: "The sales 
of land have been long withheld and greatly retarded by the forms 
of Territorial government. Visitors, traversing our lands, 
seeing the evil effects of Teritorial government, and the arbitrary 
and unconstitutional acts of men in power, would turn with loath- 
ing, the honest man from our country, and only invite the sycophant 
and bending Tool. . . . Your memorialists verily believe, that 
a change of political state would operate as a strong inducement to 
emigrafj-Gii, ixiLu. noi. omy iitid to tu'-j piospv;cts ui di^cuai^iug tue 
debt due to the State of Georgia, but thereby bracing the trontier 
of the United States, the latter being important, in view of the 
prospect of war. The memorial was adopted; but Samuel Post- 
lethwait and Philander Smith voted against it, and entered their 
protest on the journals, because there had been no decided expres- 
sion of the whole people on the subject; because the population 
was too thinly dispersed over an immense area, and a large part 
were slaves: because there were only 1,719 freeholders bearing the 
public expenses of the whoie Trritory; and because an overbearing 
majority had most ungraciously urged the action taken. 



(■^..■l 'v::^ov 



STATEHOOD 155 

At the next session of congress, in December, ISll, the memorial 
of the general assembly and the petition oi citizens for the same 
object, were referred to a committee, of which Poindexter was 
chairman, also a counter petition asking postponement of the mat- 
ter, because such additional expense was not desired when war 
was in prospect, nor was it desired to make it easier with a Federal 
district court for the prosecution of land claims under British 
grants and the Yazoo frauds. Poindexter reported December 17, 
1811, an enabling bill for a State to include West Florida in ^ad- 
dition to the Mississippi territory. April 17, IS 12, the senate com- 
mittee on the subject advised that consideration of the Mississippi 
enabling bill be postponed until December. The committee '"'could 
not avoid being struck with the size of the Territory proposed to 
be erected into a State, a size disproportionate to the size of any 
of the largest States which now compose our confederation. It 
embraces, in its present form, and without any extension, to the 
gulf of Mexico ... an area of twice the^ surface of the State 
of Pennsylvania." The committee recommended division on this 
line: "Up the Mobile river to the point nearest its source which 
falls on the llth degree of west latitude from the city of Wash- 
ington; thence a course due north until the line intersects the 
waters of Bear creek; thence down the said creek to the confluence 
with the Tennessee river; thence down the said river to the north- 
ern boundary line of the said territory." The postponement was 
made in order to give time to obtain the consent of Georgia to a 
division, which \vas granted; buc the war came on meanw^hile, and 
stopped further consideration until early in 1815, when .William 
Lattimore was delegate. 

The petition of the general assemblv of Mississippi Territory for 
admission as a State, was presented to the third session of the 13th 
congress January 21, 1815, and referied to a committee of which 
Delegate Lattimore was chairman. He sugge?^ted in his report of 
February 23, that since the census of 1810 Mobile and the coast 
had been annexed, and there had been coa-iderable immigration. 
The opinion of the committee was "that there vrould be no im- 
propriety in principle, and no injury in effect, to the interests of 
the nation, in providing without further delay, for the admission 
of the Territory in question into the Union of the States. This 
Territory has been, as your committee believe, a longer time un- 
der the restraints of political minority than any other Territory of 
the Tlnited States; and they can perceive no good reason why its 
enlargement should still be deferred, merely on account of its pres- 
ent deficiency of numbers, .since a like deficiency did not prevent 
others, or one other at lease, from the enjoyment of a similar boon. 
Hitherto your committee have considered this subject as though 



in 






156 ' STATEHOOD 

the admission solicited were desired by all the inhabitants of the 
Territory without delay, but they cannot undertake to state that 
such is the fact. While it is true that it has been prayed for and 
urged with much interest and zeal at several successive sessions, 
it is also true that at last one at which the subject was brought 
before congress there were counter-petitions praying that it might 
be postponed." The committee did not venture to say there would 
not be counter petitions in the case of the petition before them, 
but "the extinguishment of the Yazoo claims having removed what 
was perhaps the most general objection to admission, it is prob- 
able that many who were opposed to it are now in favor of it, 
and since peace is restored, it is probable also that many others 
will desire to exchange the restrictions of a Territory for the rights 
of a State."' Consequently the committee reported a bill authoriz- 
ing a convention of delegates of the people of Mississippi territory, 
with powers to form a constitution and State government prepara- 
tory to admission to the Union, if they so desired. 

At the session of the 14th congress in December, 1815, the pe- 
tition of the legislature was again referred to a committee headed 
by Lattimore, and another petition from the legislature was re- 
ceived; also a petition of inhabitants east of Pearl for a census, 
and the erection of the whole Territory into a State. Another peti- 
tion, arriving in February, asked that representation in the pro- 
posed convention be apportioned among the counties on the basis 
of white population. 

On March 31, 1816, a bill for "an act to enable the Mississippi 
Territory to form a constitution and State government and for 
the admission of such State into the Union on an equal footing 
with the original States," was read and debated. Stanford of North 
Carolina objected that the bill contained no provision for future 
division, and he considered the territory entirely too large in re- 
lation to other States. Lattimore and Hardin (Ky.) replied that 
if the Territory were now divided, it would be twenty years before 
the half of it would be sufficiently populous to ask a State gov- 
ernment; that it was an older Territory tiian Indiana, in whose fa- 
vor a bill had just passed. The bill was passed by the house, 7 to 
53. In the senate both the Indiana and Mississippi bills w^ere re- 
ferred to the committee on the Mississippi memorial, April 2, 1816, 
and after that it was resolved to obtain a census of both Territo- 
ries, and consideration of the Mississippi bill was postponed until 
July. But congress was not in session in July, 

In the second session of the 14th congress, December 9, 1816, 
the petition of the general assembly presented in December, 1815, 
praying for admission as one State, was referred to a committee 
of which Lattimore was chairman. He reported December 22, that 






J A 



,ii : . r..t i. 









STATEHOOD 157 

"the Mississippi Territory contains, according to a census lately- 
taken under an act of the legislature, 75,512 souls, of whom 45,085 
are free white persons, 356 free people of color, and 30,061 slaves. 
. ' . . It would seem to be superfluous to your committee to 
recommend that considerations of a deficiency of numbers be waived 
in this case, seeing that ' the house of representatives have passed 
three bills, at different periods, for the admission of this Terri- 
tory, when its population was much smaller than it is at this time. 
But it becomes a question whether the object of the memorialists 
can be ultimately attained, or ought to be attained, in the way in 
which it is asked. . . . Your committee . . . beg leave 
barely to remark, that they cannot believe a State of such un- 
precedented magnitude as the one contemplated by the memorialists 
can be desirable to any section of the United States." The com- 
mittee also pointed out that the three principal settlements, the 
Natchez district, the Mobile region, and the Huntsville region, were 
separated by distances of 300 and 400 miles. "Between the Ten- 
nessee and the Mississippi settlements and between the Mississippi 
and the Mobile settlements there is not and probably never will be 
any commercial intercourse whatever; but between the Mobile and 
the Tennessee settlements, such an intercourse cannot fail to take 
place when the intervening country shall be settled, and its fine 
navigable streams explored 'and improved. The w^hole Mississippi 
Territory formed into a single State would not only be very incon- 
venient to a vast majority of those of its inhabitants whose duty or 
interest might call them to the seat of government, but would also 
prove, in the opinion of your committee, too extensive for its exec- 
utive to suppress internal disorders in all its parts and repel ex- 
ternal invasions at all points with necessary promptness, energy and 
effect. . . . Another objection to an entire admission of the 
Territory arises from the want of a continuity of settlement and a 
reciprocity of interest between its distant parts." For these reasons 
Mr. Lattimore's committee recommended a division of the Territory 
by a north and south line, the admission of the western part as a 
State, and the continuance oi a Territorial government for the 
eastern portion. They reported two bills for these purposes. 

The committee was disposed to take the Tombigbee river for a 
boundary line or the Pascagoula in part, and according to Latti- 
more, Judge Harry Houlmin, who appeared as the representative 
of the Pearl River convention, demanded if division were made, a 
line between the Pascagoula and Pearl rivers. Lattimore's propo- 
sition was that the line should run "from the gulf of Mexico to 
the northwest corner of Washington county (northeast corner of 
Wayne) in such a way as to throw all these counties (west of Mo- 
bile) into the proposed western State." (The east boundary of 



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158 STATEHOOD 

Jackson was then the high pine ridge west of Mobile bay.) North 
of the Choctaw line, he would conform somewhat to the natural 
boundaries by making a jog east on the Choctaw line to the Tom- 
bigbee, which he would follow to Cottongin Port; then a direct 
line to the mouth of Bear creek. But, there was danger of ihe 
Pascagoula river being adopted in the south, and the compromise 
was made of a line due south from the northwest corner of Wash- 
ington, and northerly from the same point straight to Bear creek. 
Lattimore complained that Toulmin's advocacy of the Pascag-oula 
or a more western line as the boundary endangered the passage of 
the bill; which is undoubtedly what Toulmin desired as his plat- 
form was "Mississippi, one and indivisible. After the Lattimore bill 
was reported, another petition of the general assembly for ad- 
mission as one State, was presented; also a petition from a large 
number of the members in support of division. January 9, 1817, 
Mr. Pickens (N. C.) presented a petition from a convention of del- 
egates of fifteen counties, against division and asking admission 
entire. This, undoubtedly the petition of the Pearl River conven- 
tion, brought by Judge Totilmin. was referred to a committee of 
which Mr. Pickens was chairman, which reported, January 17, a bill 
to admit without division. 

The report of Mr. Pickens gives the arguments for admission with- 
out division. It was much more important to the people of the 
Territory and to the nation, he said, to decide whether the Mississippi 
Territory should form one State or two, than to decide regarding 
immediate admission. He declai;ed that the fear of its future great 
strength if admitted as a unit was exaggerated, because it was prob- 
able that much of the land was untit for cultivation. "Your commit- 
tee cannot apprehend that the whole Territory is -capable of such a . 
strong population as ever to render it a formidable State compared 
with the largest sized of the northern, middle and western States." 
He referred to the land office sales in southern Mississippi to prove 
the undesirability of the lands. Central and Northern Mississippi 
was, of course, not yet opened to settlers. "It appears, from the con- 
current testimony of persons acquainted with the territory in ques- 
tion, that an uncommon proportion of its land is unfit for cultivation; 
much thereof consisting of poor pine barrens; while, on the other 
hand, it is certain that there is much fertile soil on the margin of the 
rivers, and interspersed over different parts, capable to sustain a 
sufficient population for a respectable State. Its political strength 
will also be held in check by the great proportion of slaves it is des- 
tined to contain. This circumstance, added to the climate and soil, 
will render its numbers (entitled to political calculation) relatively 
small compared with its extent. As to the wishes of the people 
themselves, various representations have been made showing a dif- 



»fn 



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.!iO ' ; ? 



STATEHOOD 159 

ference of sentiment to exist among them in regard to a division. 
It is, however, worthy of notice that for several successive years the 
legislature of the Territory have petitioned Congress for admission 
as a State; in none of which have they intimated a wish to be 
divided." The form of the proposed State would be nearly square, 
the center as easy of access from one extreme as another. The dif- 
ferent parts 'would have different avenues to market, by the naviga- 
tion of the Mississippi, Mobile and Chattahoochee rivers. "It is^ not 
seen that this will create any material diversity of interests, or in- 
terfere with the internal policy and harmony of the State, all parts 
of which will be agricultural and capable of similar products." The 
large State would be more likely to cherish its institutions with a 
liberal policy; its military defence would be more effective. Ac- 
cording to the house bill, "the western division will contain 25,037 
free white inhabitants, and 22.834 slaves, by the census lately taken. 
By the census taken in 1810. there were west of the line of division 
16,602 white inhabitants and 14.523 slaves, including in the last 
census the county of Jackson, formerly a part of Florida, making an 
increase of 8,435 white and 8,311 slave inhabitants, in the last period 
of six years, including a new county from Florida." 

But the enabling bill for Indiana had been passed, and the con- 
stitution of that new State, which had three or four times the 'white 
population of all the Mississippi territory, was approved December 
16, 1816. This act increased the number of States north of the 
Mason and Dixon line and the Ohio river to ten. The admission ot 
Louisiana in 1812 had served to balance the strength of the two 
sections in the senate. The sense of sectional divergence was felt at 
that time. It had been realized from the earliest days of colonial 
history, and was at this time becoming more intense. The time was 
near at hand for the beginning of the memorable and lamentable po- 
litical struggles over "the balance of power." But now, apparently 
without contest, two points were conceded to the Southern political 
leaders, the immediate admission of half of :\iississippi Territory 
to make the columns stand ten to ten, and the promise of another 
State in the eastern half, which was now given the nam« of Alabama. 
So Mississippi escaped that focal place in the history of sectional 
warfare that Missouri assumed a year or two later. 

Senator Charles Tait, of Georgia, chairman of the senate commit- 
tee on the petition of the legislature, reported two bills, as Latti- 
more had done, for a western State and an eastern Territory, and 
they were passed January 31; the house adopted the senate bill with 
amendments, February 26; the senate concurred in the amendments 












£1? v?8j:;i 



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X60 STATEHOOD 

February 28, and the enabling act was signed by President Madison, 
March 1, 1817. 

In pursuance of this enabling act the constitutional convention 
assembled at Washington, and adopted a constitution and form of 
government. When congress met in December, a resolution admit- 
ting the State thus organized was passed by the house December 8. 
The senate, December 1, referred the inquiry if any legislative meas- 
ures were necessary for admission of the State of Mississippi to a com- 
mitTee composed of James Barbour of Virginia. Rufus King of Massa- 
chusetts, and John Williams of Tennessee, (brother of Gov. Wil- 
liams). The question was somewhat interesting, because the elec- 
toral vote of Indiana had been offered for Monroe, on the basis of an 
election taken before the State had been admitted by resolution of 
Congress. Objection was made, but the vote was counted. Barbour 
presented a resolution for admission, had read a copy of the consti- 
tution, and the resolution was passed December 3, the day before the 
arrival of an official copy of the constitution accompanied by a let- 
ter from Governor Holmes. 

The Barbour resolution passed the house December 8, and was 
signed by President Monroe. December 10, 1817. The resolution in 
its "whereas" recited the passage of an enabling act and the forming 
of a state constitution and form of government, which was declared 
to be republican and in conformity with the Ordinance of 1787, and 
it was "Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States of America, in Congress assembled. That the State 
of Mississippi shall be one, and is hereby declared to be one, of the 
United States of America, and admitted into the Union on an equal 
footing with the original States, in all respects whatever." 

The new senators, Waiter Leake and Thomas H. Williams, and the 
representative, George Poindexter, were sworn in December 11th. 

An act extending the laws of the United States to the new State, 
originated in the house, and was adopted by the senate, March 30, 
1818, and was approved April 3, 1818. 

The reflection cannot be avoided, in view of the modern develop- 
ment of the territory, that they were wise who planned one great 
State. Such a State now would combine such a variety of resources 
as would contribute to high social development under one govern- 
ment. It would have been in the South such a commonwealth as 
Ohio or Pennsylvania is in the north. But these considerations did 
not outweigh the political anxiety for more votes in the United 
States senate. It is interesting to observe also, if the wisdom of 



r^ *''ii:I 



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.Xr L? 












STATEHOOD 161 

division be conceded, that if President Madison and his Congress had 
not let "I dare not wait upon I would, like the cat in the adage," 
the port of Pensacola would have been secured for Alabama, and 
the^dividing line of the two States would have been the Tombigbee 
river and Mobile river and bay. One may imagine that if the mat- 
ter had been left to xVndrew Jackson and Henry Clay, both Mobile 
and Pensacola would have been annexed to the Mississippi Territory. 



11— m 



■}ii}i'V.... Tri. 



■ ■.{:::,: 



PART III 



State Government of Mississippi, 1817—1917. 

Lists of Officials of the Executive Department. 

Lists of Officials of the Judicial Department. 
Biographies of Governors of the State of Mississippi. 
Supreme Court of the State of Mississippi. 
The Judiciary of Mississippi. 
An Outline History of Mississippi. 



/o3'/^i 



% %»'\ ■ 1^'; 



^\ 



STATE GOVERXMEXT OF MISSISSIPPI. 
1817-1917. 



'Name County. Bate. 

David Holmes Adams Oct. 7, 1817, to Jan. 5, 1820 

George Poindexter Wilkinson ..Jan. 5, 1820, to Jan. 7, 1822 

Water Leake Hinds Jan. 7, 1822, to Nov. 17, 1825 

Gerard O. Brandon^ ,. Wilkinson. .Nov. 17, 1825. to Jan. 7, 1826 

David Holmes Adams Jan. 7 to July 25, 1826 

Gerard C. Brandon- Wilkinson. .July 25, 1826, to Jan. 9, 1832 

Abram M. Scott' Wilkinson Jan. 9. 1832. to June 12, 1833 

John M. Stone Lawrence June 12 to Nov. 20, 1833 

Hiram G. Runnels Lawrence . Nov. 20, 1833, to Nov. 20, 1835 

John A. Quitman* Adams Dec. 3, 1835, to Jan. 7, 1836 

Charles Lynch Lawrence . . Jan. 7, 1836, to Jan. 8, 1838 

Alexander G. McNutt Warren Jan. 8, 1838, to Jan. 10, 1842 

Tilghman M, Tucker Lowndes. .Jan. 10, 1842 to Jan. 10, 1844 

Albert G. Brown Ccpiah Jan. 10, 1844, to Jan. 10, 1848 

Joseph W. Matthews Marshall. .Jan. 10, 1848, to Jan. 10, 1850 

John A. Quitman Adams Jan. 10, 1850, to Feb. 3, 1851 

John I. Guion=* Hinds Feb. 3 to Nov. 4, 1851 

James Whitfield^ Lowndes. .Nov. 24, 1851. to Jan. 10, 1852 

Henry S. Foote Hinds Jan. 10, 1852, to Jan. 5, 1854 

John J. Pettus' Kemper ...Jan. 5 to Jan. 10, 1854 

i Governor Leake died November 17, 1825, and was succeeded by Lieutenant'Oovernor 
Brandoa. 

2 Governor Holmes resigned in July, 1826, and -was succeeded by Lieutenant-Governor 
Brandon. 

2 Governor Scott died June 12, 1833, and was succeeded by Charles Lynch, President 
of the Senate. 

* Governor Runnels vacated the executive oflQee November 20, 1835, and was succeeded 
by John A. Quitman, President of the Senate. 

^ Governor Quitman rc.-ietifed February 3, 1S51, and was succeeded by John I. Guion, 
Presi<lent of the Senate. 

" Govenior Ciiiion's term u= Senator expired November 3. 1K31. The SV^ate met 
Novenibfn- tT) and elect^.-d James Whitfield President, who served as Governor until 
January lo, i>s}2. 

" Governor Foote resigned January 5, 1854, and was succeeded by John J. Pettus, 
President of the Senate. 
11— m 



STdA 












166 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1S17-191/ 

John J. McRae _. Wayne Jan. 10, 1854, to Nov. 16, 1857 

Wm. McWillie Madison. .Nov. 16, 1857, to Nov. 21, 1859 

John J. Pettus Kemper. .Nov. 21, 1859, to Nov. 16, 1S63 

Charles Clark Bolivar. .Nov. 16, 1863, to May 22, 1865 

William L. Sharkey^ Hinds June to Oct. 16, 1865 

Benjamin G. Humphreys .. Sunflower. Oct. 16, 1865, to June 15, 1S6S 

Adelbert Ames* Maine.. June 15, 1868, to March 10, 1870 

James L. Alcorn Coahoma March 10, 1870, to Nov.. 30, 1871 

Ridgley C. Powers'" Ohio Nov. 30, 1871, to Jan. 4, 1874 

Adelbert Ames Maine Jan. 4, 1874, to March 29, 1876 

John M. Stone" Tishomingo March 20. 1876, to Jan. 9, 1882 

Robert Lowry Rankin Jan. 9, 1882, to Jan. 13, 1890 

John M. Stone Tishomingo. Jan. 13, 1890, to Jan. 20, 1896 

Anslem J. McLaurin Rankin Jan. 20, 1896,' to Jan. 16, 1900 

Andrew H. Longino Washington Jan. 16, 1900, to Jan. 19, 1904 

James Kimble Vardaman .. Leflore. .. .Jan. 19, 1904, to Jan. 21, 1908 

Edmond Favor Noel Holmes Jan. 21, 1908, to Jan. 16, 1912 

Earl LeRoy Brewer Coahoma. .Jan. 16. 1912 to Jan. 18, 1916 

Theodore Gilmore Bilbo ...Pearl River Jan. 18, 1916 to — 



SUPREME JUDGES OF THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI. 

1818-1832 
Name Commissioned. 

William B. ■ Shields 1818 

John P. Hampton 1818 

Powhatan Ellis 1818 

Joshua G. Clarke .1818 

Walter Leake 1820 

Louis Winston 1821 

Bela Metcalfe 1821 

Richard Stockton 1822 

Edward Turner 1824 

Joshua Child 1825 

Isaac Caldwell 1825 

John Black 1826 



* Governor Clark was removed by Federal soldiers ilay 22, lS6o. and was succeeded 
by Judge W'llliara L. Sharkey as provisional Governor by appointment of President 
Johnson. 

* Governor Humphreys was rfr'moved by Fe<Jeral soldiers June 15, 1868, and wa5 
succe*xk'd by AdeJlH'rt Arn-s as Mi:itar\' Governor. 

^0 Governor Alcorn resigned Noven.wr So, i-^Tl, and was .succeeaed by Lieutenant- 
Governor Powers. 

11 Governor Ames resigned March 20, 1876, and was succeeded by John M. Stone. 
President of the Senate, the Lieutenant-Governor having been impeached. 



H-rO--^ 3Ta v'< 



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7^ 'aiiCJ 






STATJa GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 167 

George Winchester 1827 

William B. Griffith 1827 

Harry Cage 1828 

Isaac R. Nicholson 1828 

Alexander Montgomery 1831 

William L. Sharkey 1832 

George W. Smyth 1832 

Eli Huston '. .1832 



JUDGES OF THE HIGH COURT OF ERRORS AND APPEALS OF 

MISSISSIPPI. 

1833-1870. 
Name. Commissioned. 

William L. Sharkey 1833 

Cotesworth P. Smith 1833 

Daniel W. Wright , 1833 

James F. Trotter 1838 

William L. Sharkey 1838 

P. Rutillius R. Pray .* . . , 1838 

Edward Turner 1839 

Reuben Davis 1842 

Alexander M. Clayton 1842 

Joseph S. B. Thatcher 1843 

William L. Sharkey 1 1847 

Cotesworth P. Smith 1849 

Collin S. Tarpley 1851 

William Yerger 1851 

Ephraim S. Fisher 1852 

Alexander H. Handy 1853 

William L. Harris 1858 

David W. Hurst 1863 

Henry T. Ellett 1866 

Thomas Shackelford 1868 

Ephraim G. Peyton 1868 

E. Jeffords 1868 

Geo. F. Brown 1868 



[■// 






7,- - . a 



168 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

JUDGES OF THE SUPREME COURT OF MISSISSIPPI. 
1870-1917. 

Name. Commissioned. 

Ephraim G. Peyton 1870 

Jonathan Tarbell 1870 

Horatio F. Simrall 1870 

Ephraim G. Peyton 1873 

H. H. Chalmers .1876 

J. A. P. Campbell 1876 

J. Z. George 1878 

Tim E. Cooper 1881 

H. H. Chalmers 1884 

J. A. P. Campbell 1884 

Tim E. Cooper 1884 

James M. Arnold 1886 

Thomas H. Woods 1889 

Thomas H, Woods 1891 

Albert H. Whitfield 1894 

Thomas R. Stockdale t 1896 

Samuel H. Terral 1896 

S. S. Calhoon 1900 

Albert H. Whitfield .- 1903 

J. H. Price .1903 

Jeff Truly 1903 

R. B. Mayes 1906 

R. V. Fletcher 1908 

S. M. Smith 1909 

W. D. Anderson 1910 

W. C. McLean , 1911 

S. C. Cook : 1912 

R. F. Reed * 1912 

J. M. Stevens 1915 

C. D. Potter 1916 

E. 0. Sykes 1916 

J. B. Holden 1916 

G H. Ethridge , 1917 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 169 

LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS. 
1817-1832. 

Duncan Stewart, October 7, 1817, to January 5, 1820 
James Fatten, January 5. 1820, to January 7, 1822. 
David Dickson, January 7, 1822, to January 7, 1824. 
Gerard C. Brandon, January 7, 1824, to November 17, 1825. 
Gerard C. Brandon, January 7 to August, 1826. 
Abram M. Scott, January 9, 1828, to January 9, 1830. 
Abram M. Scott, January 1830, to January, 1832. 
Fountain Winston, January 9, 1832. to October 26, 1832. 
Note. — The office of Lieutenant-Governor was abolished by the Con- 
stitution of 1832. 

The office was again established by the Constitution of 1869. 



LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS. 
1870-1917. 

Ridgley C. Powers, January, 1870, to November 30, 1871. 

A. K. Davis (Negro). January, 1875, to March 17, 1876. 

William H. Sims, January, 1878, to January 3, 1882. 

G. D. Shands, January 3, 1882, to January, 1890. 

M. M. Evans, January, 1890, to January, 1896. 

J. H. Jones. January, 1896, to January, 1900. 

James T. Harrison, January, 1900, to January, 1904. 

John Prentiss Carter, January 18, 1904, to January 20, 1908. 

Luther Manship, January 21, 1908, to January 15, 1912. 

Theodore Gilmore Bilbo, January 15, 1912, to January 17, 1916. 

Lee Maurice Russell, January 17, 1916, to — 



SECRETARIES OF STATE. 
1817-1917. 

Daniel Williams, December, 1817, to January, 1821. 
John A. Grimball, January, 1821, to January, 1833. 
D. C. Dickson, January. 1833. to January, 1835. 
Barry W. Benson, January, 1835, to January, 1837. 
David Dickson, January, 1837, to January, 1839. 
T. B. Woodward. January, 1839, to January, 1841. 
L. G. Galloway, January, 1841, to January, 1843. 



■r.>;u> :^5T'^'n 



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170 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Wilson Hemingway, January, 1843. to January, 1847- 

Samuel Stamps, January, 1847, to December. 1850. 
Joseph Bell, December. 1850, to January, 1852. 
James A. Home, January, 1852, to January, 1854. 
William H. Muse, January, 1854, to January 9, 1855. 

A. B. Dilworth, January, 1855, to January, 1860. 

B. R. Webb. January 10 to January 16, 1860. 

C. A. Brougher, January 16, 1860. to June, 1865. 
A. Warner, June, 1865, to August, 1869. 

Henry Musgi'ove, September, 1869, to December, 1869. 
James Lynch (Negro). December, 1869, to December, 1872. 
H. R. Revels (Negro). December, 1S72, to September. 1873. 
H. C. Carter (Negro). September 1 to October 20, 1873. 
M. M. McLeod (Negro). October 20 to November 13. 1873. 
H. C. Carter (Negro), November 13, 1873. to January 4, 1874. 
James Hill (Negro), January, 1874, to January, 1878. 
Kinloch Falconer, January to September. 1878. 

D. P. Porter. September 25 to November 15, 1878. 

Henry C. Myers, November 15, 1878, to January 14, 1886. 
George M. Govan, January 14, 1886, to January 20. 1896. 
J. L. Power, January 20. 1896. to September 23, 1901. 
J. W. Power, September 24, 1901, to . 



ATTORNEYS-GENERAL. 
1818-1917. 

Lyman Harding, 1818 to 1820. 

Edward Turner, 1820 to 1821. 

Thomas E. Reed, 1821 to 1825. 

Richard Stockton, 1825 to 1828. 

George Adams, 1828 to 1829. 

Robert H. Buckner, 1829 to 1830. 

R. M. Gaines, 1830 to 1S34. 

M. D. Patton, 1834 to 1S37. 

T. F. Collins, 1837 to 1841. 

John D. Freeman, 1841 to 1853. 

D. C. Glenn, 1853 to 1857. 

T. J. Wharton, 1857 to 1865. 

Charles E. Hooker, 1865 to 1868. ^ 

Jasper Myers, 1868 to 1870. 

Joshua S. Morris, 1870 to 1874. 

George E.' Harris, 1874 to 1878. 

Thomas C. Catchings, 1878 to 1885. 



'.TI.T 



i ■:■ \ 






STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 171 

Thomas S. Ford. 1885 to 1886. 

T. Marshall Miller. 1886 to 1893. 

Frank Johnston, 1893 to 1896. 

Wiley N. Nash, 1896 to 1900. 

Monroe McCliirg, 1900 to 1902. 

William Williams, 1902 to 1907. 

R. V. Fletcher, 1907 to 1909. 

J. B. Sterling, 1909 to 1910. 

S. S. Hudson, 1910 to 1912. 

Ross Collins, January 15, 1912 to . 



STATE TREASURERS. 
1817-1917. 

Samuel Brooks, 1817 to 1818. 

Peter Schuyler, 1818 to 1821. 

Samuel C. Wooldridge, 1821 to 1828. 

James Phillips. Jr., 1828 to 1836. 

Charles C Mayson. 1836 to 1838. 

James Phillips, January to September 12. 1838. 

J. A. Vanhoesen, September 12 to January, 1839 

Silas Brown, 1839. 

S. Craig, 1839. 

James G. Williams, 1839. 

Joshua S. Curtis, 1840 to 1841. 

Richard S. Graves, 1841 to 1843. 

William Clark, 1843 to 1847. 

Richard Griffith, 1847 to 1851. 

William Clark, 1851 to 1854. 

Shields L. Hussey, 1854 to 1860. 

M. D. Haynes, 1860 to 1865. 

W. B. Weaver, 1865. 

John H. Echols, 1865 to 1869. 

William H. Vassar, 1869 to 1874. 

G. H. Holland, 1874 to 1875. 

M. L. Holland, 1875. 

William L. Hemingway, 1875 to 1890. 

J. J. Evans, 1890 to 1896. 

A. Q. May, 1896 to 1900. 

J. R. Stowers, 1900 to 1901. 

G. W. Carlisle, 1901 lo 1902. 

T. D. Lampton, 1902 to 1904. 



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172 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

W. J. Miller, January 18, 1904, to January 20, 1908. 
George R. Edwards, January 20, 190S. to Jan. 15. 1912. 
P. S. Stovall, January 15, 1912 to January 17, 1916. 
J. P. Taylor, January 17, 1916 to . 



AUDITORS OF PUBLIC ACCOUNTS. 
1817-1917. 

John R. Girault, 1817 to 1821. 

John Richards, 1821 to 1822. 

Hiram G. Runnels. 1S22 to 1830. 

Thomas B. J. Hadley, 1830 to 1833. 

John H. Mallory, 1833 to 1837. 

A. B. Saunders, 1837 to 1842. 

J. E. Matthews, 1S42 to 1847. 

George T. Swann. 1847 to 1851. 

Daniel R. Russell, 1851 to 1855. 

Madison McAfee, 1855 to 1859. 

E. R. Burt, 1859 to 1861. 

A. B. Dilworth, November 6, 1861. to January, 1862.. 

A. J. Gillespie, 1862 to 1865. 

Thomas T. Swan, 1865 to 1869. 

Henry Musgrove, 1869 to 1874. 

William H. Gibbs, 1874 to 1878. 

Sylvester Gwin, 1878 to 1886. 

W. W. Stone, 1886 to 1896. 

W. D. Holder, 1896 to 1900. 

W. Q. Cole, 1900 to 1904. 

T. M. Henry, January 18, 1904, to January 20, 1908. 

E. J. Smith, January 20, 1908, to January 15, 1912. 

D. L. Thompson, January 15, 1912 to January 17, 1916. 

Robert A. Wil.Sv)n, January 17. 191? to . 



REVENUE AGENTS. 
1876-1917. 

John H. Echols, 1876 to 1880. 

Wirt Adams, 1880 to 1888. 

Wirt Adams, Jr., 1890 to April 25, 1914. 

J. C. Johnston, April 27, 1914, to January 17. 1916. 

S. V. Robertson, Jr., January 17, 1916 to . 



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STATE G0VERN:MENT of MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 173 

SUPERINTENDENTS OF EDUCATION. 
1870-1917. 

Henry R. Pease. 1870 to 1874. 

T. AV. Cardoza (Negro), 1874 to 1876. 

Thomas S. Gathright, April to September, 1876. 

Josepli Bardwell, 1876 to 1878. 

James A. Smith. 1878 to 1886. 

J. R. Preston, 1886 to 1896. 

A. A. Kincannon, 1896 to 1898. 

H. L. Whitfield, 1898 lo 1907. 

J. N. Powers, 1907 to 1914. 

W. H. Smith, 1914 to Sept. 15, 1916. 

W. F. Bond, Sept. 15, 1916 to -. 



DIRECTOR DEPARTMENT OF ARCHIVES AND HISTORY. 

1902-1917. 
Dunbar Rowland, March 15, 1902, to . 



RAILROAD COMMISSIONERS. 
1884-1917. 

John M. Stone, 1884 to 1886. 

W. B. Augustus, 1884 to 1886. 

William McWillie, 1884 to 1888. 

J. F. Sessions, 1SS6 to 1306. 

J. C. Kyle, 1886 to 1800. 

Walter McLaurin, 1890 to 1896. 

J. H. Askew, 1890 to 1896. 

M. M. Evans, 1896 to 1900. 

J. J. Evans, 1896 to 1900. 

John D. Mclnnis, 1896 to 1904. 

A. Q. May, 1900 to 1904. 

J. C. Kincannon, 1900 to 1908. 

R. L. Bradley, January 18, 10O4. to January 20, 1908. 

S. D. McNair, January 18, 1904, to January 20, 1908. 

W. R. Scott, January 20, 1908, to January 15, 1912. 



f-.M nj 



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174 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1S17-191? 

' J.'A. Webb, January 20, 1908, to January 15," 1912. 
F. M. Lee, January 20, 1908, to 1910. 
F. M. Sheppard, 1910 to . 



G. R. Edwards, January 15, 1912 to 
W. B. Wilson, January 15, 1912 to — 



CLERKS OF HIGH COURT OF ERRORS AND APPEALS. 
1833-1870. 

John M. Duffield, 1833 to 1847. 
Wilson Hemingway, 1847 to 1851. 
Caswell R. Clifton, 1851 to 1856. 
George T. Swann, 1856 to 1858. 
Samuel Livingston, 1858 to 1869. 



CLERKS OF SUPREME COURT. 
1870-1917. 

James M. McKee, 1870 to 1874. 

A. W. Little, 1874 to 1878. 

Oliver Clifton, 1878 to 1896. 

E. W. Brown, 1896 to 1903. 

George Clifton Myers, September 22, 1903, to - 



LAND COMMISSIONERS. 

1877-1917. 



John M. Smylie, 1877 to 1884. 
P. M. Doherty, 1884 to 1886. 
John R. Enochs, 1886 to 1888. 
J. W. McMaster, 1888 to 1890. 
Edgar S. Wilson, 1890 to 1896. 
John M. Simonton, 1896 to 1898. 
E. H. Nail, 1898 to 1912. 
J. L. Gillespie, 1910 to 1912. 
M. A. Brown, January 15, 1912 to 






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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 175 

STATE LIBRARIANS. 
1841-1917. 

William Wing. 1841 to 1842. 

James M. Lewis, 1842 to 1848. 

Jolm W. Patton, 1848 to 1852. 

M. M. Smith, 1852 to 1854. 

James McDonald, 1854 to 1856. 

R. C. Kerr, 1856 to 1858. 

B. W. Saunders, 1858 to 1861. 

F. W. Johns, 1861. 

Marion Smith, 1866. 

John Williams, 1870. 

J. D. Worles (Xegro), 1870. 

I. N. Osborn, 1872 to 1876. 

J. B. Harris, for Mrs. Mary Morancy, 1876 to 1880. 

S. M. Shelton, for Mrs. Mary Morancy, 1880 to 1884. 

Frank Johnston, for Mrs. Mary Morancy, 1884 to 1892. 

T. J. Buchanan, for Miss Rosa Lee Tucker, 1892 to 1896. 

Mrs. Helen D. Bell, 1896 to 1900. 

Miss Mattie Plunkett, 1900 to January 17, 1916. 

Mrs. W. F. Marshall Jr., January 17, 1916 to . 



TRUSTEES STATE PENITENTIARY 

APPOINTED BY THE GOVEBXOR. 



C. C. Smith, Chairman, 1907. 
Howard Jones, 19u7 to 1908. 
M. P. Bishop, 1907 to 1908. 



ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE. 



C. C. Smith, 1908 to 1912. 
W. A. Montgomery, 1908 to 
L. T. Taylor, 1908 to 1914. 
J. H. Thames, 1913 to 



T. E. Matthews, 1913 to 1916. 
L. Q. Stone, January 17, 1916, to 



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176 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

SUPREME AND CIRCUIT JUDGES. 
1818-1832. 

Name. District. Commissioned. 

William B. Shields First 1818 

John Taylor Second 1818 

John P. Hampton Third - 1818 

Powhatan Ellis Fourth 1818 

Joshua G. Clark First 1818 

Walter Leake Second 1820 

Louis Winston Second 1821 

Bela Metcalf First 1821 

Richard Stockton First 1822 

Edward Turner Second 1824 

Joshua Child First 1825 

Isaac Caldwell Fourth 1825 

John Black Fourth 1826 

George Winchester Third 1826 

William B. Griffith Third 1827 

Harry Cage Third 1828 

Isaac R. Nicholson Fifth 1828 

Alexander Montgomery First 1831 

William L. Sharkey First 1832 

George W. Smyth Third 1832 

Eli Huston Fourth 1832 

C. P. Smith Third 1832 



CIRCUIT JUDGES. 
1833- 1917. 

Name. District. Commissioned. 

T. A. Willis Fourth 1833 

A. M. Keegan .Third 1833 

J. F. Trotter Second 1833 

Alexander Montgomery First 1833 

E. C. Wilkinson Second 1833 

T. S. Stirling Fifth 1834 

.lames Scott Socond 1834 

James Walker Third , 1835 

J. J. H. Morris Fifth 1835 



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STATE GOVEKXMEXT OF .MISSISSIPPI. 1^17-1917 177 



Name. "'"''" '""''' District. " Commissioned. 

Robert Hughes Fourth 1835 

ri^eorge Irish First 1835 

J. M. Maury -....Second 1836 

R. S. G. Perkins .Fifth 1837 

('. R. Clifton Second 1837 

Euckner Harris Fourth 1837 

f ). O. Shattuck Second 1837 

Oeorge Coalter First 1837 

T. S. Sterling Fifth 1837 

William S. Boadley First 1838 

T{. S. Bennett Sixth 183S 

I saac R. Nicholson Seventh 1838 

.1. A. Marshall ...First 1838 

V. T. Crawford Eleventh 1840 

F. W. Huling Eighth 1840 

John Battaille Tenth 1840 

F. E. Plummer Seventh 1841 

George Coalter First 1841 

C. C. Cage Third 1841 

A. G. Brown Fourth 1841 

J. H. Rollins Seventh 1841 

M. L. Fitch Tenth ...1841 

Stephen Adams Ninth 1841 

H. S. Bennett Sixth 1841 

V. T. Crawford Eleventh 1841 

B. F. Caruthers Second 1841 

Henry Mounger Fifth 1841 

J. M. Howry Eighth 1841 

T. A. Willis Fourth 1843 

Stanhope Posey First 1845 

T. A. Willis Second 1845 

George Coalter Third 1845 

A. B. Dawson Fourth 1845 

R. C. Perry Fifth 1845 

F. M. Rogers Sixth 1845 

H. R. Miller Seventh '. . . 1845 

Wiley P. Harris Second 1847 

G. W. L. Smith Third 1850 

Stanhope Posey First 1853 

John E. McNair Second 1853 

John I. Guion Third 1853 

E. G. Henry F'ifth 1853 

William L. Harris Sixth 1853 

P. T. Scruggs Seventh 1853 

12— m 



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178 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 , 

Name. District. Conimissvoned. 

John Watts Fourth 1853 

John M. Moore Third 1853 

J. S. Yerger Third 1855 

J. M. Acker Ninth 1856 

William Cothran Tenth 1856 

William H. Hancock Eighth 1856 

J. F. Cushman Seventh .1858 

Stanhope Posey First '. 1858 

J. E. McNair Second 1858 

J. S. Yerger Third 1858 

John Watts Fourth 1858 

E. G. Henry Fifth 1858 

J. S. Hamm Sixth 1858 

J. W. Thompson Seventh 1858 

W. M. Hancock Eighth 1858 

Joel M. Acker Ninth 1858 

William Cothran Tenth 1858 

J. S. Hamm Sixth 1858 

Hiram Cassedy First 1859 

Jas. W. H. Harris Warren County 1860 

Robert S. Hudson Fifth 1862 

Hiram Cassedy First .1862 

John E. McNair Second 1862 

J. S. Yerger Third 1862 

John Watts Fourth 1862 

Robert S. Hudson Fifth 1862 

J. S. Hamm Sixth 1862 

J. F. Trotter Seventh 1862 

William M. Hancock Eighth 1862 

William Cothran Tenth 1862 

D. 0. Merwin Warren County 1862 

W. H. Kilpatrick Ninth 1862 

J. M. Smiley First 1865 

J. E. McNair Second 1865 

J. S. Yerger Third 1865 

John Watts Fourth 1865 

J. A. P. Campbell Fifth 1865 

H. W. Foote Sixth 1865 

J. F. Trotter Seventh 1865 

W. M. Hancock Eighth 1865 

W. H. Kilpatrick Ninth 1865 

William Cothran Tenth 1865 

Alexander M. Clayton Seventh 1866 

H. H. Miller Warren County 1866 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 179 

Name District. Commissioned. 

James M. Smiley First 1866 

J. E. McNair Second 1866 

J. S. Yerger Third 1866 

John Watts Fourth 1866 

J. A. P. Campbell Fifth 1866 

H. W. Foote Sixth 1866 

Alexander M. Clayton Seventh 1866 

W. M. Hancock Eighth '. 1866 

W. D. Bradford Ninth 1866 

William Cothran Tenth 1866 

E. J. McGarr Warren County 1866 

Thomas Shackleford Third 1867 

B. F. Trimble Third 1867 

Charles C. Shackleford Fifth 1867 

William Vannerson Second 1867 

B. B. Boone Ninth , 1867 

E. S. Fisher Tenth 1867 

George E. Harris Seventh 1867 

Jas. J. Morehead Second 1867 

Uriah Millsaps Second 1867 

Geo. F. Brown Sixth 1867 

Jonathan Tarbell Fourth 1867 

William Kellogg Tenth 1867 

J. W^ Vance Seventh 1867 

James L. Herbert Ninth 1867 

Amos Lovering Ninth 1867 

John McRae Sixth 1867 

E. Gifford Tenth 1867 

George F. Brown Fifteenth 1870 

Jehu A. Orr Seventh 1870 

John W. Vance Third 1870 

Robert Leachman Sixth , 1870 

B. B. Booiie Ninth 1870 

Orlando Davis Tenth 1870 

James M. Smiley Second 1870 

Uriah Millsaps Fifth 1870 

A. Alderson Third 1870 

W. D. Bradford Eighth 1870 

W. B. Cunningham Fourteenth 1870 

W. M. Hancock Fourth .' 1870 

G. G. Chandler First 1870 

C. C. Shackleford Eleventh 1870 

Jason Niles ' Thirteenth 1870 

Ephraim S. Fisher Twelfth 1870 



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IgO STATE GOVERX^£EXT OF :M1SSTJ?STPPI, 1817-1917 

Name. District. Commissioned, 

J. S. Hamm Seventh 1S76 

S. S. Calhoon Ninth 1876 

J. W. C. Watson Second 1876 

James M. Smiley Tenth 1876 

William Cothran Fifth 1876 

J. A. Green First 1876 

B. F. Trimble Fourth 1876 

Upton M. Young Eleventh 1876 

A. G. Mayers Eighth 1876 

James M. Arnold Sixth ^ 1876 

Samuel Powell Th ird 1876 

J. B. Chrisman Tenth 1878 

Ralph North Twelfth 1878 

Charles H. Campbell Fifth 1880 

J. W. Buchanan First 1882 

W. S. Featherston Second 1882 

A. T. Roane Third 1882 

B. F. Trimble Fourth 1882 

J. M. Arnold Sixth 1882 

S. H. Terral Seventh 1882 

A. G. Mayers Eighth 1882 

S. S. Calhoon Ninth 1882 

Warren Cowan Eleventh 1882 

T. J. Wharton Ninth 1882 

J. B. Chrisman Tenth 1884 

Ralph North Tv/elfth 1884 

William M. Rogers Sixth 1885 

J. H. Wynn Fourth 1886 

Charles H. Campbell Fifth 1886 

L. E. Houston First 1887 

S. H. Terral Seventh 1888 

A. G. Mayers Eighth 1888 

George Winston FoiTrth 1SS9 

Ralph North Sixth 1890 

John G. Gilland Ninth 1890 

J. B. Chrisman Seventh 1890 

R. W, Williamson Fourth 1893 

James T. Fant Third 1890 

William P. Cassedy Sixth 1890 

Eugene Johnson Third 1892 

C. H. Campbell Fifth . 1892 

Newman Cayce First 1S93 

A. G. Mayers Eighth 1894 

S. H. Terral Second 1894 



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STATE GOVERX-MENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 181 

Name. District. Commissioned 

William P. Cassedy Sixth 1894 

Robert Powell Seventh 1896 

William K. McLaurin Ninth 1896 

Z. M. Stephens Third 1896 

F. A. Montgomery Fourth 1896 

W. F. Stevens ;Fifth 1896 

John W. Fewell Tenth 1896 

Green B. Huddleston. . , Tenth ...1896 

T. A. Wood Second 1896 

E. O. Sykes First 1897 

John R. Enochs Eighth 1898 

Jeff Truly Sixth 1898 

Robert Powell Seventh 1900 

Patrick Henry Ninth 1900 

E. O. Sykes First 1900 

T. A. Wood Third 1900 

F. A. Montgomery Fourth 1900 

W. F. Stevens .Fifth 1900 

Jeff Truly Sixth 1900 

J. R. Enochs T^:g^.th 1900 

Frank E. Larkin Fourth 1900 

G. Q. Hall Tenth 1900 

P. H. Lowrey Third 1900 

George Anderson Fifth 1901 

James H. Neville Second 1901 

E. O. Sykes First 1901 

John R. Enochs Eighth 1902 

Samuel C. Cook Eleventh 1902 

Jeff Truly Sixth 1902 

A. McC. Kimbrough Fourth 1903 

D. M. Miller Seventh 1903 

Will T. McDonald Second 1903 

J. B. Boothe Third 1903 

M. H. Wilkinson Sixth 1903 

R. F. Cochran Tenth 1904 

W. F. Stevens Fifth ' 1904 

J. T. Dunn Fifth 1904 

0. W. Catchings Ninth 1905 

E. O. Sykes First ' 1905 

J. N. Bush Ninth 1905 

W. H. Hardy Second . 1905 

Samuel C. Cook Eleventh 1906 

W. H. Cook Twelfth 1906 

J. R. Byrd Eighth 1906 



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182 STATE GOVERXr^LENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. District. Commissioned. 

R. L. Billiard Thirteenth 19i)'6 

S. M. Smith Fourth 1906 

W. H. Potter .Seventh 1907 

M. H. Wilkinson Sixth 1907 

W. A. Roane Third 1907 

J. H. Mitchell First 1909 

T. H. Barrett Second 1910 

H. K. Mahon Third - 1911 

J. M. Cashin .Fourth 1909 

G. A. McLean , Fifth 1908 

E. E. Brown Sixth 1911 

W. A. Henry Seventh 1911 

C. L. Dobbs Eighth 1911 

H. C. Mounger Ninth 1910 

J. L. Buckley Tenth 1908 

S. C. Cook Eleventh 1910 

P. B. Johnson Twelfth 1910 

W. H. Hughes Thirteenth 1910 

D. M. Miller Fourteenth 1910 

A. E. Weathersby Fifteenth 1910 

T. B. Carroll Sixteenth 1910 

N. A. Taylor Seventeenth 1910 

T. B. Watkins. Eleventh 1912 

Monroe McCIurg Fourth 1912 

Jas. A. Teat Fifth 1912 

J. D. Carr Eighth 1912 

Claude Clayton First 1913 

Jas. H. Neville Second 1913 

F. C. Everett Fourth 1913 

R. E. Jackson Sixth . 1913 

E. L. Brien Ninth 1913 

W. A. Alcorn, Jr. Eleventh 1913 

Paul B. Johnson Twelfth 1914 

J. B. Holden Fourteenth 1914 

J. L. Bates Third 1914 

H. H. Rogers Fifth 1914 

W. H. Potter Seventh 1914 

W. H. Hughes Thirteenth 1914 

A. E. Weathersby .Fifteenth . 1914 

T. B. Carroll Sixteenth 1914 

W. W. Venable .Tenth 1915 

E. D. Dinkins Seventh 1916 

R. W. Heidelberg Tenth 1916 

J. F. Guynes Foxirteenth 1916 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 183 

SUPREME COURT OF CHANCERY. 

1821-1857. 



CHANCELLORS. 

Joshua G. Clarke, from 1821 to 1828. 
John A. Quitman, from 1828 to 1835. 
Edward Turner, from 1835 to 1839. 
Robert H. Buckner. from 1839 to 1846. 
Stephen Cocke, from 1846 to 1853. 
Charles Scott, from 1853 to 1857. 

VICE-CHANCELLORS, NORTHERN DISTRICT. 

Joseph W. Chalmers, from 1842 to 1843. 
Henry Dickinson, from 1843 to 1850. 
George W. Daugherty, from 1850 to 1855. 
James H. Trotter, from 1855 to 1856. 
George W. Daugherty, from 1856 to 1857. 

VICE-CHANCELLORS, SOUTHERN DISTRICT. 

James M. Smiley, from 1846 to 1850. 
B. C. Buckley, from 1830 to 1857. 

CHANCELLORS. 
1870-1917. 

Name. District. Comviis stoned. 

Theodoric C. Lyon Fifth ; 1870 

Edwin P. Harmon Fifteenth 1870 

E. G. Peyton Twentieth ..1870 

James M. Ellis Nineteenth 1870 

G. S. McMillan Second 1870 

Samuel Young Thirteenth 1870 

William G. Henderson First 1870 

Edwin Hill Fourteenth 1870 

T. R. Gowan Seventeenth 1870 

J. F. Simmons Tenth 1870 

Wesley Drane Third 1870 

D. W. Walker Eighteenth 1870 



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Ig4 STATE GOVERX.MEXT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. District Commissioned. 

DeWitte Sterns Ninth 1870 

Dallas P. Coffee , Eleventh 1870 

Edwin W. Cabiness Sixteenth 1870 

A. E. Reynolds .Eighth 1870 

Thomas Christian Fourth 1870 

Austin Pollard Seventh 1870 

J. J. Hooker Twelfth 1870 

O. H. Whitfield Sixth ,..1870 

E. Stafford Fifteenth 1872 

W. A. Drennan .Twelfth 1873 

Thomas Walton Twelfth 1874 

E. H. Osgood Eighteenth 1874 

C. A. Sullivan Fifth 1874 

Hiram Cassedy, Jr Nineteenth 1874 

W. B. Peyton Sixteenth 1874 

J. D. Barton Eighth 1874 

J. J. Dennis Fourth 1874 

W. D. Frazee Seventh 1874 

P. P. Bailey .Eleventh 1874 

L. C. Abbott Ninth 1874 

H. W. Warren Tenth : 1874 

Rasselas Boyd Third 1874 

R. B. Stone Seventeenth 1874 

William Breck Thirteenth 1874 

Thomas Christian Fourth 1874 

J. F. Simmons Tenth 1874 

T. R. Gowan ." Seventeenth 1874 

A. E. Reynolds Eighth 1874 

J. J. Dennis Fourth 1874 

H. W. Warren Tenth 1874 

R. B. Stone Seventeenth 1874 

J. D. Barton Eighth 1874 

J. N. Campbell Tenth 1874 

H. R. Ware Si xtttiiia 1S73 

R. Boyd Third 1875 

J. J. Dennis Fourth 1875 

J. N. Campbell Tenth 187.5 

R. B. Stone Seventeenth 1875 

C. C. Cullens Eighth 1875 

E. G. Peyton Twentieth 1875 

E. Hill Fourteenth 1875 

O. H. Whitfield Sixth 1875 

J. B. Deason Nineteenth 1875 

G. S. McMillan Second 1875 



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STATE GOVERXMEXT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1S17-1917 185 

Naine. District. Commissioned. 

W. G. Henderson i First 1875 

George Wood Seventh 1876 

Charles Clark Fourth 1876 

L. Haughton First 1876 

R. W. Williamson Fifth 1876 

U. M. Young Eleventh 1876 

J. C. Gray Third 1876 

E. G. Peyton, Jr Ninth 1876 

T. Y. Berry Tenth J.876 

L. Brame Sixth 1876 

T. B. Graham Eighth 1876 

A. B. Fly Second 1876 

W. G. Phelps Fourth 1878 

Ralph North Twelfth 1878 

J. B. Morgan Third 1878 

L. Haughton First 1880 

A. B. Fly Second ..1880 

W. G. Phelps Fourth 1880 

R. W. Williamson Fifth 1880 

F. A. Critz Sixth 1880 

George Wood Seventh 1880 

T. B. Graham Eighth 1880 

E. G. Peyton, Jr Ninth 1880 

H. S. Van Eaton Tenth 1880 

U. M. Young Eleventh 1880 

J. G. Hall Third 1882 

Ralph North Twelfth 1882 

Warren Cowan Eleventh 3882 

Lauch McLaurin Tenth _883 

Sylvanus Evans Seventh 1883 

Baxter McFarland First 1883 

F. A. Critz Sixth 1884 

T. B. Graham Eighth 1884 

E. G. Peyton, Jr Ninth 1881 

R. W. Williamson Fifth 1884 

B. T. Kimbrough Second 1884 

W. G. Phelps Fourth • 1886 

Warren Cowan Eleventh 1886 

J. G. Hall .Third 1886 

W. R. Trigg Fourth ,.1886 

Warren Cowan Fifth 1886 

Lauch McLaurin Tenth 1887 

Baxter McFarland First 1887 

Sylvanus Evans Seventh 1887 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 18? 

Name. District Commissioned. 

Sam Whitman, Jr Second 1908 

D. M. Kimbrougli Third 1911 

j. S. Hicks Fourth 1910 

o'. G. Lyell Fifth 1910 

J. F. McCool Sixth 1911 

.vl. E. Denton Seventh 1908 

T. A. Woods Eighth 1908 

. N. Thomas.. Ninth 1910 

R. E. Sheehy Tenth 1910 

J. M. Stevens .'Eighth 1912 

Jos. A. May Seventh 1912 

G. C. Tann Second 1912 

P. Z. Jones Fifth 1913 

Jas. G. McGowen Third 1913 

O. B. Taylor Fifth 1914 

A. J. Mclntyre First 1914 

A. Y. Woodward Sixth 1914 

R. W. Cutrer Fourth 1914 

W. M. Denny, Jr Eighth 1914 

D. M. Russell Tenth 1914 

E. N. Thomas Ninth 1914 



SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE 
STATE OF MISSISSIPPI. 

1817-1917. 

Name. Conntij. Session. 

Thomas Barnes Claiborne 1817 to 1819 

Edward Turner Adams 1819 to 1821 

B. R. Grayson Adams 1821 to 1822 

G. C. Brandon Wilkin-on 1822 to 1823 

Cowles Mead Jefferson 1823 to 1827 

I. R. Nicholson Copiah 1827 to 1829 

C. B. Greene Adams 1829 to 1830 

W. L. Sharkey Warren 1830 to 1831 

Joseph Dunbar Jefferson 1831 to 1832 

M. P. Degrafenreid Wilkinson 1832 to 1833 

David Pembel Amite .1833 to 1834 

A. L. Bingaman Adams 1834 to 1836 

John Irvin Carroll 1836 to 1837 

William Vannerson Lawrence 1837 to 1838 

J.W.King Rankin ...1838 to 1840 






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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 W 

Name. District Commissioned. 

Sam Whitman, Jr Second 1908 

D. M. Kimbrougli Third 1911 

j. S. Hicks Fourth 1910 

o. G. Lyell Fifth 1910 

J. F. McCool Sixth 1911 

.vl. E. Denton Seventh 1908 

T. A. Woods Eighth 1908 

. N. Thomas.. Ninth I910 

R. E. Sheehy Tenth 1910 

J. M. Stevens :Eighth 1912 

Jos. A. May Seventh 1912 

G. C. Tann Second 1912 

P. Z. Jones Fifth 1913 

Jas. G. iVlcGowen Third 1913 

O. B. Taylor Fifth 1914 

A. J. Mclntyre First 1914 

A. Y. Woodward Sixth 1914 

R. W. Cutrer Fourth 1914 

W. M. Denny, Jr Eighth 1914 

D. M. Russell Tenth 1914 

E. N. Thomas Ninth 1914 



SPEAKERS OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES OP THE 
STATE OF MISSISSIPPI. 

1817-1917. 

Xamc. Cminty. Session. 

Thomas Barnes Claiborne .1817 to 1819 

Edward Turner , Adams 1819 to 1821 

B. R. Grayson Adams ; 1821 to 1822 

G. C. Brandon Wilkin^-on 1822 to 1823 

Cow les Mead Jefferson 1823 to 1827 

I. R. Nicholson Copiah 1827 to 1829 

C. B. Greene Adams ...1829 to 1830 

W. L. Sharkey Warren 1830 to 1831 

Joseph Dunbar Jefferson 1831 to 1832 

M. P. Degrafenreid Wilkinson 1832 to 1833 

David Pembel Amite 1833 to 1834 

A. L. Bingaman Adams 1834 to 1836 

John Irvin Carroll 1836 to 1837 

William Vannerson Lawrence 1837 to 1838 

J. W. King Rankin •. . .1838 to 1840 



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188 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. Countii. Session. 

Jesse Speight • Lowndes 1840 to 1841 

J. A. Ventress Wilkinson 1841 to 1842 

R. W. Roberts Scott 1842 to 1844 

J. L. Totten Marshall 1844 to 1846 

James Whitfield .Lowndes 1846 to 1848 

John J. McRae Clarke 1848 to 1852 

William S. Patton Lauderdale .^..1852 to 1854 

Hiram Cassedy Franklin 1854 to 1856 

William S. Barry Lowndes 1856 to 1858 

James L. Aiitry Marshall 1858 to 1859 

J. A. P. Campbell Attala 1859 to 1861 

William A. Lake Warren 1861 to 1862 

J. P. Scales Carroll 1862 to 1863 

Lock E. Houston Monroe 1863 to 1865 

S. J. .Gholson Monroe 1865 to 1870 

F. E. Franklin Yazoo 1870 to 1871 

H. W. Warren Leake 1871 to 1872 

John R. Lynch (Negro) Adams 1872 to 1873 

H. M. Street Prentiss 1873 to 1874 

L D. Shadd (Negro) Warren 1874 to 1876 

H. M. Street Prentiss 1876 to 1878 

W. A. Percy .Washington 1878 to 1880 

B. F. Johns .Amite 1880 to 1882 

W. H. H. Tison Lee 1882 to 1884 

W. M. Inge Alcorn • 1884 to 1886 

J. H. Sharpe Lowndes 1886 to 1888 

C. B. Mitchel Pontotoc 1888 to 1890 

J. S. Madison Noxubee 1890 to 1892 

H. M. Street Lauderdale 1892 to 1894 

J. K. Vardaman Leflore 1894 to 1896 

J. F. McCool Attala 1896 to 1900 

A. J. Russell* Lauderdale 1900 to 1902 

Emmet Nicholson Thomas Washington January 5, 1904, to 

January 7, 1908 
Hugh McQueen Street .Lauderdale January 7, 1908, to 

January 2, 1912 

Hillrie Marshall Quin Hinds January 2, 1912 to 

January 1916 
M. S. Conner Covington January, 1916 to ■ 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 189 



LIEUTENANT-GOVERNORS AND EX OFFICIO PRESIDENTS OF 
THE SENATE OF THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI. 

1817-1832. 

Duncan Stewart, October 7, 1817, to January 5, 1820. 
James Patton, January 5, 1820, to January 7, 1822. 
David Dickson, January 7, 1822, to January 7, 1824. 
G. C. Brandon, January 7, 1824, to November 17, 1825. 
G. C. Brandon. January 7 to August, 1826. 
, A. M. Scott, January 9, 1828, to January 9, 1832. 
Fountain Winston, January 9, 1832, to October 26, 1832. 
Note — The Constitution of 1832 abolished the office of Lieutenant- 
Governor. 



PRESIDENTS OF THE SENATE. 
1833-1870. 

Charles Lynch, 1833 to 1834. 

P. Briscoe, 1834 to 1836. • » 

W. Van Norman. 1836 to 1837. " 

A. G. McNutt, 1837 to 1838. ' ' 

A. L. Bingaman, 1838 to 1840. 

G. B. Augustus, 1840 to 1842. 

Jesse Speight, 1842 to 1843. 

A. Fox, 1843 to 1844. 

Jesse Speight, 1844 to 1846. 

G. T. Swan, 1846 to 1848. 

Dabney Lipscomb, 1848 to 1851. 

James Whitfield, 1851 to 1854. 

J. J. Pettus, 1854 to 1858. 

James Drane, 1858 to 1865. 

J. M. Simonton, 1865 to 1869. 

Note. — The Constitution of 1869 re-established the office of Lieu- 
tenant-Governor. 



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190 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

MEMBERS OF MISSISSIPPI LEGISLATURE. 
I 1817-1917. 



SENATORS. 

Name County. Session. 

Abbay, R. F Coahoma, Tunica, Quitman 1900, 1902 

Abbott, F. M Chickasaw, Monroe 1870 to 1S74 

Acker, Joel M Monroe 1846, 1854, 1856 

Adams, B. C .Yalobusha, Grenada 1900, 1902 

Adams, Daniel Hinds 1852 to 1856 

Adams, J. J Chickasaw, Calhoun, Pontotoc 1908-10 

Adams, N. Q Oktibbeha, Choctaw 1896, 1898 

Adams, Simeon R.... Jasper, Newton, Scott, Smith 1844 to 1848 

Albright, George Marshall 1874 to 1878 

Alcorn, James L Coahoma, Tallahatchie, Panola 1848 to 1856 

Alexander, E. M Benton, Tippah, Union 1872, 1873 

Allen, H., Jr Calhoun. Yalobusha 1854 to 1857 

Allen, J. P Attala 1892, 1894 

Allen, R. H Itawamba, Lee 1872 to 1880 

Alsbury, Hanson Wayne, Greene, Jones 1836, 1837 

Alsbury, Hanson Perry, Greene, Jackson, Hancock. ..1838 to 1842 

Anderson, A. C Union, Tippah, Benton, Marshall, Tate. .1912-14 

Anderson, J. H Monroe 1865, 1866 

Anderson, Thomas Lawrence 1822 

Anderson, W. D Monroe, Lee, Itawamba 1908-10 

Anderson, "W, S Issaquena. Sharkey, Washington 1880 

Arthur, A. H Warren 1854 to 1859 

Augustus, George B Winston. Noxubee 1837, 1842 

Austin, R. P Newton, Scott, Neshoba 1886 to 1890 

Bailey, John A Lauderdale 1908-16 

Bailey, J. B Scott. Newton 1900, 1902 

Baker, J. Holmes Washington, Sunflower 1892, 1894 

Balch, Hezekiah J .Jefferson 1817 

Ballard, H. N DeSoto 1870, 1871 

Ballenger, J. I Chickasaw, Calhoun, Pontotoc 1900 

Banks. G. H Scott. Newton 1908-10 

Banks, M. A Copiah, Simpson 1854 to 1858 

Barron, J. W Clay, Choctaw, Oktibbeha, Webster. 1886 to 1888 

Barrow, P. B Warren 1872, 1873 

Barry, Bartlett C Wayne, Covington Monroe 1822 to 1826 

Barry, F. G Clay, Oktibbeha, Lowndes. .. .1876 to 1880, 1908 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 191 

Name. County. Session. 

Batchelor, G. M Warren 1886 to 1890 

Beene, Russel Pontotoc, Itawamba 1844 to 1857 

Beene, William Itawamba 1857 to 1859 

Belk, W. A Union. Tippah, Benton, Marshall, Tate 

1904, 1906 

Bell, John Chickasaw, Itawamba, Pontotoc, . . .1837 to 1841 

Bell, Joseph Noxubee, Winston 1842 to 1844 

Bennett, Joseph Rankin, Smith 1852, 1854 

Bennett, Joseph Hinds, Rankin, Simpson 1870 to 1876 

Berry, J. H Tippah 1850 to 1857 

Bilbo, T. G Simpson, Covington, Marion, Pearl River, 

Lamar 1908-10 

Bills, John D Alcorn. Prentiss, Tishomingo 1877 to 1882 

Binford, J. A Carroll 1865 to 1867 

Binford, J. R Carroll. Leflore, Montgomery- 1886, 1888 

Bingaman, Adam L. . . Adams 1822, 1825, 1826, 1838, 1839 

Birchett, G. K Warren 1880 

Bloomfield, H Hancock, Harrison. Jackson 

1890, 1892, 1904, 1906 

Boddie, Van B Washington, Sunflower 1912-14 

Bond, James Choctaw 1842 to 1846 

Bond, A. W Hancock, Harrison, Jackson 1912-14 

Bonney, Caleb D Yazoo 1841 

Boone, F. M Tishomingo, Alcorn, Prentiss 1882 to 1890 

Boone, R. H Tishomingo .1856 to 1850 

Booth, William Carroll 1844 to 1848 

Boothe, J. B Panola 1886 to 1890 

Bowman, Joseph Adams 1819 

Bowers, E. J Hancock, Harrison, Jackson 1896, 1898 

Bowles, C. M Bolivar, Coahoma 1872, 1873, 1874 

Bowles, James R Lafayette 1861 to 1865 

Boyd, Gordan Attala, Neshoba 1837 to 1840, 1844 

Boyd, John D Leake, Neshoba 1844 

Boyd, W. A Benton, Tippah. Union 1884 to 1888 

Boyd, W. A Union, Tippah, Benton, Marshall, Tate, 

1896, 1898, 1904, 1906 

Bradford, Benjamin. . .Monroe 1857 

Bradford, John A Pontotoc 1848 

Bradley, R. L Hinds, Warren 1900, 1902 

Bradshaw, H. W Rankin, Smith 1912-14 

Eramlet, A. C I^eflore, Tallahatchie... 1896,1898 

Brandon, Gerard Adams 1906 

Brasher, L Calhoun, Yalobusha 1858 to 1861 

Brenham, A. H, , , . , . », Adams , , , , , , 1880 to 1888 



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192 _ STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Breland, R. L Leake, Neshoba 1908-10 

Brewer, E. L Yalobusha, Grenada 1896, 1898 

Bridges, James E Choctaw, Winston, Webster 1878 to 1880 

Bridges, N, B Oktibbeha, Lowndes 1874, 1875 

Briscoe, Parmenas Claiborne, Jefferson 

18S0, 1831, 1835, 1844 to 1848 

Brooke, Walker Holmes, Sunflower 1850 

Brooks, J. W Newton, Lauderdale : . . 1866 

Brougher, Frederick. . . Tippah 1842 to 1846 

Brown, E. R Simpson, Copiah 1861, 1862 

Brown, James Lafayette 1865,. 1866, 1867 

Brown, John R Franklin 1822 to 1827 

Brown, J. W Yalobusha, Grenada 1914-16 

Brown, L. B Clarke. Lauderdale 1880 to 1882 

Brown, Silas Hinds 1835 

Brown, William M Tallahatchie 1837 to 1840 

Brown, W. N Carroll 1837 to 1840 

Broyles, H, F Monroe, Lee, Itawamba 1892 to 1905, 12-14 

Buchanan, William Rankin. Smith 1886 to 1890 

Buchanan, W. R Tippah 1858 to 1861 

Buck, C. L Warren 1859 to 1865 

Burdine, J. C Lee, Itawamba, Monroe 1888, 1890 

Burkett, H. L Clay, Choctaw, Oktibbeha 1884 to 1888 

Burkett, Frank Chickasaw, Calhoun, Pontotoc. 1912-14 

Burnet, Daniel Claiborne 1827 

Bush, F. M Lincoln, Lawrence .1908-10 

Burrus, J. C Bolivar 1908-10 

Byars, John M. .' Calhoun, Pontotoc. Chickasaw 1896, 1898 

Byrd, Adam Scott, Newton, Neshoba 1890 to 1894 

Cage, William C Marion, Pike 1831 

Cain, W. F Lawrence, Pike 1865, 1866, 1867 

Caldwell, Charles Hinds, Rankin, Simpson 1870 to 1876 

Caldwell, Isaac Hinds 1831 

Callicott, C. G DeSoto, Tate, Tunica 1876 to 1880 

Calvit, Samuel Hinds 1822, 1823 

Cameron, John R Madison 1888, 1890 

Campbell, M Tunica, DeSoto (Tate, 1875) 1872 to 1876 

Campbell, R. B Washington, Sunflower.- 1900, 1902 

Campbell, Robert C Yazoo 1840 

Campbell, T. H Yazoo 1912-14 

Cannon, W. R Oktibbeha, Chickasaw 1848, 1850 

Carmichael, W. D Hinds, Warren 1892, 1894 

Carter, Asa R Newton. Scott, Jasper 1878, 1880 

Carter, H. C Kemper, Winston 1912-14 



•vr/'f, 



V'J 



Jo If a 









STATE GOVERX^TEXT OF ^'T'-p^cor- -^ ^-i 

Vo-nie, County. S< sai'j . 

Carter, J. P Hancock, Harrison, Jackson, Greene, 

Marion, Perry 1874 to l^S 

Carter, J. P "..Lauderdale 1848 to 185 

Carter, W. P Xewton. 1848, 1850 

Caruthers, C. K Panola 1890, 1894 

Casey, D. C Issaquena, Sharkey 1SS6. 1888 

Cassedy, Hiram, Jr Lawrence, Lincoln, Pike 1872 to 1874 

Casteel, H. H Holmes 1912-14 

Castle, Thomas W Choctaw, Winston 1870 to 1874 

Catchings, P. C Copiah.' Simpson 1848 to 1852-1858 to 1862 

Catchings, T. J Hinds 1856 to 1859 

Catchings, T. C Warren 1876 to 1877 

Cavit, Samuel Jefferson 1822, 1823 

Cayce, Newnan Lowndes 1902 

Chalmers, James R Bolivar, Coahoma 1876, 1877 

Chrisman, Charles Lincoln, Lawrence 1900, 1902 

Chrisman, J. B Lawrence, Pike 1859 to 1865 

Clarke, James C Attala 1896 

Clarke, Frederick Clarke 1837 

Clements, W. H Sharkey. Issoquena 1912-14 

Cleveland, David Marion, Pike 1830 

Clinton, James A Adams 1896, 1898, 1900, 1902 

Cobb, Joseph B Lowndes 1854 to 1857 

Cocke, Stephen Lowndes, Monroe, Rankin 1833, 1836 

Coffee, Thomas J Rankin, Simpson 1837 to 1842 

Coffey, C. S Claiborne, Jefferson 1892,' 1894 

Collier, S. N Hinds, Warren 1912-14 

Cook, James V Quitman. Tunica, Coahoma 1S96, 1898 

Cooper, Hamilton Covington, Jones, Wayne 1827 to 1830 

Cooper, Joseph Lawrence, Simpson 1829, 1830 

Cooper, Thomas L Attala, Leake '. 1880 to 1884 

Cooper, T. L Union, Tippah, Marshall. Benton, 

TatG 1900, 1902 

Cothran, William Carroll 1856 

Covington, J. B Noxubee, Winston 1858 to 1861 

Cowan, Warren Warren 1878 to 1884 

Cox, Alfred Coahoma, Washington, Tunica 1840 

Crawford, N. B Chickasaw. Calhoun, Pontotoc 1900, 1902 

Crigler, John L Clay, Oktibbeha 1880, 1882 

Critz, Frank A Clay, Webster 1894 

Croom, W. J Hinds, Warren 1904, 1906 

Crumpton, J. W Tishoniin?;o, Alcorn, Prentiss 1908-10 

Cullens, Clarence Benton, Union, Tippah 1874, 1875 

Cummings, M. C Itawamba , 1861, 1862 

13— m 






:;1 Tj^n 



::, '■));r^f'^ 









■u;'.Vi^;i 



194 STATE GOVERNMENT OF ^^IISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

'Name. County. ' Session. 

Cunningham, J. A 0':til)beka, Choctaw 1914 

Currie, M. M Franklin, Jefferson 1S77 to ISSO 

Cutrer, John W 3oIivar. Sunflower, Coahoma 1888, 1S90 

Dabney, A. ^Y Xoxubee, Winston . ...1846 to 1850 

Dalton, J. H Benton, Union, Tippah 1880 to 1884 

Darden, G. L DeSoto 1908-10 

Davidson, Truxton "uilkinson ' 1841 

Davis, A. P Kemper, Winston 1892, 1894 

Davis, David Franklin 1835 

Davis, E. McCoy .Pike. Amite .1848 to 1852 

Davis, I. N : . .P?noIa. Tallahatchie, Coahoma 1856 to 1859 

Davis, J. L Calhoun, Yalobusha 1861, 1862 

Davis, J. R Madison, Scott 1859, 1860, 1861 

Dean, R. A Lafayette 1SS6 to 1896-1910 

Dease, Oliver C Xewton, Smith. Scott, Jasper 1837 to 1840 

Denson, S. J ^ladi^^on, Scott 1856 to 1859 

Dent, A. T Xoxubee 1902 to 1908 

Dent, A. W Simpson. Covington, Marion, Pearl 

River 1900, 1902 

Dickson, David Franklin, Pike, Marion 1S17, 1820, 1821 

Dickson, T. A Copiah, Lawrence, Simpson, 

Covingi:on 1884, 1886 

Dillard, George G Xoxubee 1884 to 1892 

Dinsmore, J. R X^oxmbee 1900 

Dockery, T. C DeSoto 1892, 1894 

Dodds, George S Covineton, Copiah, Lawrence, 

Simpson 1886 to 1890 

Donald, J. D ."'\Vavne, Jones, Perry, Forrest, Greene. . .1912-14 

Doss, J. D Kpmper, Winston 19C4. 1906 

Dowd, A. S Bolivar, Tunica. Coahoma 1870, 1871 % 

Dowd, W. C ^p>m-per. X>'=hoba 1878 

Dowsing, William Covincron, iMOiiroe, Wayne 1^26 

Downs, Henry D Claiborne. V\ arren 1819, 1S20 

Drake, Joseph Carroll 1864 

Drane, James Choctaw 1852 to 1863 

Duke, William H Cbi'-ka^aw. Itawamba, Pontotoc 1841 

Dulaney, L. C Sharkey, Lssaquena 1900, 1902 

Dunbar, Robert T Ad^tras 1831 

Duncan, H. L Calhoun. Yalobusha 1872 to 1874 

Duncan , W. L TishomJneo 1865 

Dunn, C. C .L./nid'^'rdale 1900 to 190S 

Durr, E. A Kemper, Lauderdale 1844 to 1848 

Pupree, James Hinds .: 1844 to 1848 



> 






•^■fj(I 



STATE GOVERNMEXT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 



195 



Name, 
East, W. J 

Eaton, James S. 



Eddins, John M 

Ellett, Henry T 

Ellis, Armstrong. . . . 
Ellis, George W 

Ellis, Jesse 

Ellis, W. A 

Elmore, H. H 

Engle. C. F 

Enloe, Isaac 

Evans, \^L G 

Evans, W. J 

Everett. J. E 

Pairley, Alex 

Falconer, Tlioiiias P. 

Falkner, J. W. T 

Farley, L. J .' 

Farrar, A. K 

Farrar, Preston W. . 

Farish, H. P 

Parish, VT. S 

Fatheree, J. D 

Ferguson, A. G 

Fewell, John W 

Fitzgerald, W. H 

Foote, H. L 

Foote, H. W 

Ford. 'P'^.^^'d. 



Comity. Session, 

Union. Tippah, Benton, Marshall, 

Tate 1S02, 1S94, 1908-10 

Covin£:ion, Jones, Simpson, Smith, 

^.'avne ' 1SS2, 1884 

[^ni'Mi. Tippah, Bentcn. Z^Iarshall, Tate. .1912-14 

Jef:er.-^on. Franklin. Claiborne . .1854 to 1865 

.Jefferson. Franklin 1819, 1820 

.Simpson. Covington. Pearl River, 



Afp' 



ion 



1896 

.P.ci.nkin. Smith 1867 

.Leake, Xeshoba 1912-14 

.Holmes 1904, 1906 

. Adams . 1908-10 

.Kemjjer. Xeshoba 1858 to 1861 

.Hancock. Harrison. Jackson 1900 

.Chickar=av.-. Calhoun, Pontotoc 1912-14 

.Yazoo 1874 to 1878 

. Copiah, Simpson, Covington ISSS, 1890 

. Greene. Hancock, Jackson, Jones, 

Perry, Vv\ayne 1833 

.Lafayette 1896, 1898, 1900, 1902 

.DeSoto 1900 to 1908 

.Adams. Franklin, Wilkinson 1852 to 1858 

,."Vindnson 1838 to 1841 

.Shrrkey, Issaquena 1908-10 

. Sharkey. Ti^aquona. "Washington 1878 

. Jasper, Clark 1912-14 

. Tones, TVa:.-ne, Greene, Perry. ." 1890, 1892 

. C''-rke. Lauderdale 1876 to 1880 

..Greneda. Sunflower. Tallahatchie. . .1876 to 1884 

.Issaqtiena. Sharkey ,1890 

.Kemper. Noxubee. X-^shoba .1876 to 1880 

.Xr II:. -. Yc.-oo 1833 

Ford, Thoma- E Lincoki, Pike, Tvuii ; -i 1888, 1890 

Foster, James Adams 1825 

Fox, Arthur Lowndes. Marion, Lawrence 1841, 1848 

Fox, A. F Webster. Clay 1892 

Franklin, M. A Lonndes 1904, 1912 

Frceland, Thomas Ckilhorne. Wai-ren 1823 to 1827, 1830 

Franklin, C. E Chickasaw, Calhorin. Pontotoc 1904, 1912 

Freem.an, A. J Scott", Newton 1892, 1894 

Frith, C. H Amite. Wilkinson 10<"'2, 10*^4 

Furlong, C. E Warren. 1874 to 1880 

Gage, John J ,,.. Grenada, Quitman, Tallahatchie 1884, 1886 



i;M 



':)3 



V7 M //k^o'i^ 






. 196 STATE GOVERX^TEXT OF MTSSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Xame. County . Session. 

Gardner, A. F L^-flore. Tallahatchie 1900, 1902 

Gartman, John Pike. Covington. Lawrence 1870 to 1871 

Gayles. G. W Bolivar, Coahoma. Sunflower, 

Quitman 1880 to 1888 

George, A. H Carroll, Montgomery 1900, 1902 

Gibbs, W. D Yazoo 1878 to 1882, 1908-10 

Gibbs, W. H ^Vilkinson 1870- to 1874 

Gibert. Stanley "^"avne, Jones, Covington, Smith, 

Simpson 1878, 1880 

Gilleland. Samuel N L?ake. Attala, Neshoba 

1840 to 1844, 1850, 1856, 1857 

Gillum, Littlebury Chickasaw, Oktibbeha 1848 

Gilmer, J. P ^'^rnner, Noxubee, Neshoba 1873 

Gleed. Robert. Lowndes. Oktibbeha 1870 to 1876 

Glover, J. A Coal^oma. Tunica, Quitman 1904, 1906 

GoIIaday, George S Yalobusha 1850 to 1854 

Gordan. George H Ada-is. Wilkinson 1859, 1860, 1861, 1862 

Gordon, Adam Claiborne 1833 

Gordon, James Chickasaw. Calhoun. Pontotoc 1904, 1906 

Graham., T. B Scott. Nevrton, .Jasper 1874 to 1877 

Granberry, Seth.. Copiah 1836 to 1844 

Graves. Robert .Jones, Greene, Covington, Wayne 1854 

Gray, Henry Attala, Leake 1848 

Gray, Truman Wayne. Jones, Perry, Greene. . . . . .,1896 to 1898 

Gray, William Issaquena, Washington 1872, 1874 

Grayson, Spence M Yazoo 1837 to 1840 

Greaves, C. B Madison 1896, 1898, 1912-14 

Greaves, H. B ^Jadison 1902 to 19TI8 

Green, Charles B Adams 1820, 1821 

Green, Thomas J Warren 1838 to 1842 

Greer, R. S Marshall 1848 to 1858, 1861, 1862 to 1865 

Gregory, F, M Ttonroe. Lee, Itawamba 1896, 1898 

Griffin, Henry C. ...... .Adams 1876, 1877 

Griffin, J. T Chickasaw, Monroe 1878 to 1882 

Griffin, J. T Chickasaw 1861, 1862 

Groves, Presley Vttala, Leake , 1888, 1890 

Groves, Presley Leake, Neshoba 1904, 1906 

Guice, G. A \ Franklin, Jefferson 1888 

Guion, John I ..Washington, Warren 1831 to 1835 

Gulon, John I Warren 1842 to 1846 

Guion, John I Hinds 1848 

Gully. H. J r: mper, Winston 1886, 1888 

Guy, C. H Calhoun. Yalobusha 1857 

Guyton, David T Attala, Leake 1884 to 1888 



f=-r 



T :.;!' 



STATE GOVERNilENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 197 

:tfame. County. Session. 

Hadley, T. B. J... Hinds 1537 to 1840 

Haley, David W .Madison ■ 1S36 to 1840 

Hall, R. S Wayne, Jones, Perry, Greene . -. 1906 

Hallam, James D Bolivar, Coalioma, DeSoio, Tunica, 

Vv'ashington 1S37, 183S 

Hamilton, J. G Holmes 1SS2 to ISSS, 1S92, 1894 

Hamilton, J. S ..Hinds 1SS4 to 1S88 

Hancock, AVilliam M. . . Jasper, Jones, Clance, vv'ayne 1870 

Hardy, Thomas H '.Vayne, Jones, Smiiii, Coviiigton. . .1S70 to 187-i 

Hardy, W. H Lauderdale 1S36, 1898 

Hargis, Richard ....... Covington, Simpson. Lawrence 1335 

Harker, J. J Sunflovrer 1865, 1S66, 1867 

Harley, W. R r.iarshall 1841 

Harper, F. H Yalobusha. Grenada 1908-10 

Harper, Jesse "larion. Pike 1835 

Harrell, E. B :>Iadi3on 1908-10 

Harris, Buckner Jefferson, Copiah 1832, 1833 

Harris, C. E Leflore, Tallahatchie 1901, 1905 

Harris, J. V Lowndes. Oktibbena 1S59 to 1861 

Harris, Wiley P Pike, Marion 1S25 to 1830 

Harrison, James E .Monroe 1848 

Harrison, J. T Lowndes 1892, 1894, 1896, 1898 

Harrison, Richard r^.Ionroe 1858 to 1861 

Harvey, George I.Iadison 1S84 £5 1888 

Hathorn, S. B Covington, Wayne, Jones, Greene. . .1856 to 1859 

Hawkins, J. M Hinds 1865, 1866, 1867 

Heard, J. W Clay, Webster 1900, 1902 

Hebron, John L Washington, Sunflower 1904, 1912 

Heidelberg, W. W Jasper, Clarke 1892, 1894, 1304,1906 

Heming^vay, C. F Carroll 1852 to 1856 

Henderson, Elliott 3,Iarion, Perry, Jackson, Harrison, 

Hancock, Greene -. .1882 to 1886 

Henderson, John V/ilkinson 1835, 1836 

Henderson, S. G L-ake 1S74. 1875 

Henry, Patrick Rankin, Smith 1904, 1906 

Henry, Patrick Warren ...1890 to 1894 

Herbert, William Lawrence 1823 

Hibler, Stacy Clay, Webster 1910 

Hicks, A. M Yazoo 1890 to 1908 

Hicks, George Attala, Neshoba, Leake 1846 

Higgason, George :,ronroe, P^ankin, Lov/ndes 1833 

Hightower, G. R Lafayette 1904, 1908 

Hill, J. H Rc.ni:in, Smith 1890 

Hill, N. C ..Wayne, Jones, Perry, Greene 1892, 1894 



..•(,.) 






198 STATE GOVERXrvIEXT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-191 7 

Na7ne, County. Sessmn. 

Hill, Thomas B Panola, Lafayette 1840 to 1844 

Hinton, Samuel tnicn, Tippah, ^Marshall, Benton, 

Tate 1900, 1902 

Hobbs, G. A Lincoln, Lawrence 1012, 1914 

Hodges, I. V Rankin, Smith 1S48 to 1S52 

Holloway, J. G DeSoio, Tunica (Tate, 1875) 1S72 to 1876 

Hooker, Henry S Ilolmes 1876 to 1880 

Hooker, J. J Holmes 1865, 1866, 1867 

Hoover, Christian Pike. . .' 1842 

Horn, John H -Harke, Oovingi&n, Jones, Wayne 1844, 1846 

Hough, K, N Clarke, Jasr^er 1852 to lS5b> 

Houston, Yv. T Chickasaw, Pontotoc 1SS6, 1S8S 

Houston, R. E ....onrce, Lee, Itavramba 1904, 1506 

Howry, J. M Lafayette 1858 to 1861 

Hughes, Thomas J iCoxubee, Winston 1850 to 1854 

Hughes, P. Pi-anrilin, Jefferson 1840 to 1844 

Hughes, W. H Rankin, Smith 1900, 1902 

Huie, George AitcCa, . Leake 1859 to 1865 

Humphreys, B. G Ckjoorne - 1840 to 1844 

Humphreys, W. W x.cwndes 18S0 to 1884 

Hussey, S. L Laucerdale, Ne'wton 1852 

Hyer, W. F iCarshail 1882 to 1886 

Irwin, John L Jefferson, Copiah 1827 to 1830 

Ives, Thomas B Yalobusha 1838 to 1846 

Jacksou, Moses ACams, Wilkinson. .. .1865 to 1867, 1878, 1880 

Jackson, R. E Cmite, Wilkinson 1912 to 1914 

Jackson, William Franklin 1829 to 1833 

Jarnagan, H. L Noxubee 1880 to 1884 

Jayne, Joseph M Tfashington. Sunflower 1892, 1894 

Jayne, Joseph M .Cashingion 1882, 1884 

Jeffords, H. R Charkcy, Issa-uena, Washington. . 1882 to 1SS6 

Johnson, David Itawamba, Lee. . ., 1880, 1882 

Johnson, Edward Cocraw isif;, 1848 

Johnson, Joseph C.'ilklnscn 1S18. 1^20, 1^2^, lS2't 

Johnson, Stephen : arroil, Lellore .1870 to 1874 

Johnson, W. L Joiivar 1852, 1854 

Johnston, Amos R Hinds, Rankin : .1875 to 1878 

Johnston, W. L Cazoo, Vv'ashington, Issaquena 1852, 1854 

Jones, G. L Cnion, Tippah. Marshall, Benton, 

Tate 1900, 1902 

Jones, J. H Tfilki-son 1890, 1894 

Joor, John '-'iikin-on .....1821, 1823 to 1825 

Jordan, Charles R "CUf::' saw, Okiibbeha 1857, 1858 

Jordan, Moses Lov/ndes, Oktibbeha 1861. 1862, 1864 



STATE GOVERXMEXT OF IMTSSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 199 

Name. County. Session, 

Kearney. W. G r^Iadison 1892, 1894 

Keegan, A. M Covington. Simpson, Lawrence 1831 

Keirn, Garrett Holmes 1837 to 1846 

Keith, Thomas Xewton, Scott, Jasper 1882, 1884 

Kemp, Thomas M r-Iarshall 18S6 to 1890 

Kendrick, C Tishomongo, Alcorn, Prentiss 

1890 to 1900, 1904, 19o6, 1912, 1914 

Kennedy, Benjamin Jefferson. Copiah 1820 to 1823 

Kennedy. B Carroll 1848 to 1852 

Kerr, John C .-^.tanis 1840, 1841 

Key, J. H Kenu^er. TVinston 1900. 1902. 1908 to 1910 

Kiger, ^Y. G I-Iinds, Y.'arren 1892 to 1904 

King, Benjamin Simpson, Copiah 1865, 1866, 1867 

King, Benjamin Copiah, Claiborne 1878, 1880 

Knox, Andrew Coahoma, V/ashington, Ttmica, 

DeSoto, Bolivar 1842 to 1846 

Koger,. Joseph >7oxubce. AVinston 1854 to 1858 

Kyle, A. S FarLOla 1912. 1914 

Kyle, Claiborne : larshall 1837 to 1841 

Kyle, John C Fanola 1882 to 1886 

Labauve, Felix DeSoto, Washingtcn, Coahoma. Sun- 
flower, Tunica, Bolivar, Issaquena 

1846 to 1848 

Lake, William A IVarren 1848 

Lamar, J. W Y^.IoLusha. Calhoun 1890, 1894 

Lamb, T. L Clay, Webster 1896 

Lampkin, John W Panola, Tallahatchie 1844, 1846 

Land, S. W ^.ttala, Leake 1865, 1867 

Land. Thomas Madiscn. Yazoo. Holmes 1831, 1836 

Lanneau, K. Palmer. . . Adams .* 1878 

Lansdale rIoIm.es 1846 

Lawrence, W. L. Lafayette 1878 to 1882 

Lea. 7j^rh9rw "> 'iU*^ 1820 

Leaclimpn, PioTiprt E. . . Lnurlernale. Xewton 1865, 1870, 1871 

Lee, R. C ^ladison ' 1900, 1902 

Lee, Stephen D Lowndes 1878 

Leflore, Greenwood Carroll, Tallahatchie .1840 to 1844 

Leftwich, G. J r^Ionne, Lee. Itav.omba 1908, 1910 

Lewenthall, A ' '^^hin':':nn, Sunflower 1896, 1898 

Liddell. James M ■ .irrol!, Montsomeiy, Leflore. . . .1882 to 1886 

Lipscomb, Dabney Lowndes 1846 to 1852 

Little, F. K ..^'hickar^aw, :^^on^Ge 1870 to 1876 

Logan, J. S Ciaihorrie. Je^'erson IfK'g, 1910 

Longino, A. H Lawrence, Pike, Lincoln 1880, 1882 



200 STATE GOVERNMENT OF Z^-IISSISSIPPI, 1817-191? 

Name. County. Session. 

Looney, J. O Tishomingo, Alcorn, Prentiss 1900, 1902 

Loper, Peter Jasper, Clarke, Wayne 1864 

Lorance, W. L Pontotoc 1878 to 1882 

Love, Franklin Pike, Tuarion 1833, 1838 to 1842, 1856, 185S 

Love, R. T Oktibbeha, Choctaw 1892, 1894 

Love, W. A Lowndes 1912, 1914 

Love, William F Amite, Wilkinson 1896, 1898 

Love, William F Wilkinson ^1886 to 1890 

Lowry, Robert Rankin, Smith 1865, 1866 

Luckett, O. A Madison, Scott 1861, 1862, 1864 

Luse, William H Yazoo 1882 to 1890 

Lyie, Matthew Madison, Scott 1865, 1866, 1867 

Lyles, W. D Noxubee, Winston 1865, 1866, 1867 

Lyles, W. L Pontotoc, Lafayette 1871 to 1874 

Lynch, Charles Covington, Simpson:, Lawrence, 

1827, 1828, 1833 

Magee, Eugene Washington, Warren ,1835, 1836 

Magee, G. Wood Lincoln, Lawrence 1904, 1906 

Magee, Thomas A Jefferson, Franklin 1880, 1882 

MagrucTer, R. W Claiborne, Jefferson 1898 

Magruder, W. W Oktibbeha, Choctaw 1904, 1906 

Mahon, Hugh K. Marshall 1908 to 1910 

Marshall, C. A DeSoto 1888 

Marshall, James A Kemper, Lauderdale. . .1837, 1838, 1840 to 1844 

Marshall, Martin Warren. 1884 

Martin, J. McC Copiah 1S82, 1884 

Martin, T. N Chickasaw 1865, 1866, 1867 

Martin, W. B Washington, Sunflower 1900, 1902 

Martin, Will T Adams 1888 to 1894 

Mason, W. T... Marshall 1858 to 1861 

Matlock, James M ""clivar, Coahoma, DeSoto, Tunica, ^ 

Washington... 1841 

Matthews, Jo?pph W. . . ^lar^hall 1844 to 1848 

Matthevrs, Samuel Tippah, Tishomingo 1837 to 1842 

Maury, James H Claiborne 1837 to 1840 

Mayes, R. B Copiah 1892 

Mayson, Hamilton '''arlcn, iTovington, Jones...- 1864 

ffcfi^?^, J^s-^ph 'n-rtcn. ^'reene, Jones, Wayne. 1848 to 1854 

H'^^'^, Morgan 'o!r:GS, Sunflower 1852 

/IcCfth'-, H. C .^^-tt, Jasrer, Newton 1877 

f^djr^o ^V. H /A :-^o, Tunica 1865, 1866. 1867 

/icCaskill. J. L iJivA^. Rankin 1876 to 1880 

McCaughan, T. J luncock, Harrison, Jackson, Perry, 

' . 1856 to 1859 



:iTj'.:r^'. 



002, 



o..( 



<i.iM 



. . U ..H ,-;>.t,.c 



STATE GOVERX.MEXT OF MlSSISSim 1817-1017 X«l 

Name Coiuitij. Session. 

McClure, H. B -^rnnMln, Jefferson 1872 to 1877 

McCord, C. W Tishomingo 1S58 to 1861 

McDonald, W. A Benton, Tippah. Union 1888, 1890 

McDonald, W. T Union, Tippah, Marshall, Benton, Tate, 

1896, 1898, 1908, 1910 

McDougald, James Clarke, Jasper 1848, 1850 

McDowell, J. R Hinds.... 1908 to 1910 

McGehee, J. H Pike, Franklin = ....1892. 1894, 1900, 1902 

McGehee, M. C Pike, Franklin 1908, 1910 

Mcllhenny, George A. ..Scott. Newton 1896, 1898 

Mcllhenny, Oliver, Jr.. .Scott, Xewton 1906 

Mcintosh, D. A Simpson, Covington. Marion, Pearl River.. 1898 

McKay, Laughlin Greene. Hancock, Jackson. Perry.. 1823 to 1826 

McKinney, M. F Marshall 1890 

McKinney, M. J Union. Tippah, Benton, Tate, Marshall 1896 

McLain, Robert Clarke, Wayne, Jasper 1859 to 1865 

McLean, G. A Carroll. Montgomery 1904, 1906 

McLaurin, H. J Sharkey, Issaquena 1896, 1898, 1904, 1906 

McLaurin, W. K Hinds, Warren 

1904, 1906. 1908 to 1910, 1914 to 1916 

McLeod, John Perry, Jones, Wayne, Jackson, Hancock 

Greene 1826 to 1831, 1833 

McLeod, J. N Quitman. Grenada, Tallahatchie. .1888 to 1892 

McMartin, J. McC Claiborne 1882, 1884 

McMillan, Lee Corrall, Montgomery 1908, 1910 

McNabb, James Y Pike, Marion 1836 to 1837 

McNiel, J. A Pontotoc. Lafayette 1874 to 1878 

McNeil, M. S Copiah 1904, ,1906 

McNutt, A. G Warren 1835, 1837 

McRae, J. B Harrison. Hancock, Jackson 1859 to 1865 

McWillie, William Scott, Madison 1854 

Mead, Cowles Jefferson, Franklin 1821 

Meek. S. M Lowndes '. 1900 

Mendenhall, T. L Covington. Jones, Simpson, Smith, Wayne, 

Metcalf, James 1874 to 1878 

.-.^ Adams 1842 to 1846 

Metts, M. A Choctaw, Winston, Webster 1875 to 1878 

Miles, Orange S Jefferson, Franklin 1870, 1871 

Miles, William R Madison, Yazoo 1846 to 1848 

Miller, Charles F Lowndes, Oktibbeha 1865. 1866, 1867 

Miller, C. G Newton, Lauderdale 1856 to 1859 

Miller. John H Itawamba. Pontotoc 1842, 1844 

Miller, Irvin Leake. Neshoba 1896, 1S98 

Miller, Upton Hinds 1840 to 1844 



:'>u 



OvI^!-? 






I ]■ 



202 STATE GOVERX7MEXT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Isfame. County. Session. 

Millsaps, Green Copiah. Claiborne 1870 to 1874 

Mims, Livingston Hindis 1859 to 1SG3 

Mitchell, Charles B ■^'cutctoc, Lafayette 1882 to 1886 

Mitchell, C. B Chickasavr, Calhoun, Pontotoc 1896, 1898 

Mixon, William B Pike. Franklin 1896, 1898 

Monroe, James J Lauderdale. Newton 1854 

Montgomery, A. A Clay, Chocta-A-, Oktibbeha. Webster. .1888, 1890 

Montgomery, Hugh Fr-nklin, Jefferson 1837, 1838, 1839 

Montgomery, P. R "'?.iborne. Jefferson, Franklin. .1865, 1866, 1867 

Montgomery, Robert. . .^ladison, Yazoo 1842 to 1846 

Montgomery, W. A Hinds. Rankin 1878 to 1880 

Moore, Alfred T. V'ilkinson 1837 

Moore, E. H Bolivar 1894 to 1908 

Moore, G. D Xoxubee, Win.ston 1861, 1862. 1864 

Moore, H. D I'ernper, Winston 1896, 1898 

Moore, James "^^lobiisha. Grenada 1904, 1906 

Morgan, A. T Tazoo 1870. 1874 

Morgan, Jacob B Hinds 1833 

Morgan, J. B T?eSoto. Tate, Tunica 1876 to ISSO 

Morgan, N. L '"hoctaw 1857 

Morris, J. L Crrpene, Jones. Wayne, Perry. . . .' . .1886 to 1890 

Moseley, H Coahoma. Panola, Tallahatchie. 1S65, 1866, 1867 

Mounger, Henry Simpson, Covington, Marion, Pearl River 

1904, 1906 

Mounger, M. U Simpson. Covington, ^Tarion. Pearl 

River, Lamar. 1912, 1914 

Mygatt, A Warren. Is? aquena 1870 to 1874 

Myers, Albert DeSoto 1912, 1914 

Napier, P. H Clarke, Jasper, Wayne 1865, 1866, 1867 

Neely, 0. Y Ilemrer. Neshoba 1S61, 18G2 

Neilson, James C Lovrndes 1888, 1890 

Nelson, J. M Pike 1852 to 1856 

Nesbit, William T D-Soto 1896, 1898 

Nicholson, George Fik.- 13 IG 

Nicholson, Isaac R Il-ietfiie, Jackson,. I-IuLicock, P^riry, 

1820, 1821, 1822 

Niel. G. F Carroll 1858 to 1865 

Noel, E. F .Holmes 1896, 1898. 1900, 1902 

Noland, Thomas V vmkinson 1882 to 1886 

Nolen, J. R Clay, Websrer, Oktibbeha 1890, 1892 

Norton, Charles M \dams 1822 

Norwood, Jos. E Pike. Franklin 1912, 1914 

Oldham, S. T \ttala, L^ake 1876 to 1880 

Oliver, Simeon. DeSoto, Tunica 1854 to 1865 



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STATE GOVERX^lEXT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 203 

Name rnuntn. Session. 

Owen, R. W Tate, Tiuiica 1S84, 1886 

Owen, S. J ■Jiiion. Tippah. Benton. 3»Iarshall, Tate, 

1908, 19ir 

Packer, Albert G Holmes 1870 to 1876 

Packwood, Samuel E. ..Pi^e. Lincoln, Clarion 1SS4, 1SS6 

Paine, Henry M M- r.^hall 1872 to 1874 

Parker, Vv^. H Carroll, Leflore 1874, 1875 

Parks, J. T 'Va^'ne. Jones, Perry, Greene 1904 

Patton, W. S La'.id.erdr.le. Newton 1864 

Peery, W. D 'rarroll. Leflore. Montgomery 1878 to 1882 

Pegram. William Q Tippah • 1861 to 1862 

Pegiies. A. H L^ifayett.- 1842 to 1850, 1836 to 1S3S 

Perkins, James B D-:-Sot,o. Tate. Tunica 1880 

Pettus, John J Kc-iper. Neshoba 1848 to 1858 

Phelan. James :''onroe 1861, 1862 

Phillips, Henry rrarlison 1840, 1841 

Pierce, James H Ppnola, Tallahatchie 1870 to 1874 

Poindexter, W. Q Holmes. Sunflower 1S61, 1862, 1864 

Pollard, R. V Leflore, Tallahatchie 190S, 1910 

Pope, Frederick ':iark, Covin-.ton. Jonc.-. Wayne. . 1S38, 18S9 

Pope, George Attala, Leake *. 1832 to 1836 

Postelthwaite. Samuel,. Adams 1819 

Potter, Clayton D Kinds '. 1908 to 1916 

Powell, Samuel D-3oto 1884 to 1888 

Pratt, r. B jladison 1876, 1880 

Price, Alexander Rankin, Smith 1896, 1898 

Price, N. S Tin^ah 1846 to 1850 

Price, Walter N->:.:iibee ' . .1SS6, 1S9S, l&OS, 1910, 1912, 1914 

Price, William Grenada 1872 to 1876 

Price, William S-.it: flower, Tallahatchie 1872 to 1876 

Prince, J. R »^,^^o\ubee 1894 

Prosser, Thomas H Wilkinson 18:?3 

Purvis, James Rr. rP.::n, Smith '. 1892, 1894 

Quinn, James B Pike 184.3 to l.S4o 

Quinn, J. M P?-kin, Smith 1839 to 1865 

Quinn, P. C T ;i wrence. Pike .' . 1864 

Quitman, John A \darr s 18B5, 1836 

Ragsdale, Sam.uel .rvTonroe 1838 to 1842 

Rainwater, L. F Panola 1896, 1898 

Ramsey, A. W I-iancock. Greene, Harri'son, Jackson, 

Perry 1<?42 to 1848 

Rankin, W. J Oreene. Jon^-^, Covin sr* on, Perry, iMarion, 

1839 to 1863 
Ratcliff/Clem V Pike, Franklin 1904, 1906 









^ v/ 



204 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Ratliff, William Hinds. Rankin 1880 to 1884 

Rayburn, John Panola. Lafayette 1837 to 1840 

Reed, R. F Adams 1912 to 1914 

Regan, Ralph Y/arron, Claiborne 1822 

Revels, H. R Vdanis 1870 

Reynolds, A. E Tisbomlngo 1850 to 1858 

Reynolds, B. F Rankin. Smith 1856 to 1859 

Reynolds, R. ^.lonroe, Chickasaw 1876 to 1884 

Reynolds, R. Lee, Itawamba, Monroe 1884 to 1888 

Rice, J. W Chick-saw. Oktibbeha 1856 

Roane, A. T .* Yalobusha, Grenada 1892, 1896 

Roane, S. M Choctaw. Y\'ebster, Winston 1882, 1884 

Roane, W. A Calhoim, Yalobnstia 1882 to 1886 

Robinson, H. C Ker.ipen Neshoba 1865, 1866, 1867 

Rogers, W. D Calhoun. Yalobusha 1878 to 1882 

Rogers, W. F Winston, Kemper 1890 to 1894 

Ross, S. M Yalobusha, Calhoun .1886 to 1890 

Rovran, E. A Copiah 

1896, 1898, 1900, 1902, 1908 to 1910, 1912 

to 1914 
Runnels, Hardin D.... Hinds. Yazoo, Warren. Jefferson, Copiah, 

1825 to 1828 

Runnels, Harmon. . .'. . .Lawrence, Clarion. 1837, 1838 

Runnels, Howell W Lawrence, Covington, Wayne.. 1819, 1820, 1821 

Rush, W. T Leflore. Tallahatchie 1892, 1896 

Rushing. W. R Attala. Xfshoba. Leake 1870, 1871 

Russell. L. M Lafay-ne. . : 1912, 1914 

Sample, S. N Holmes 1898, 1912 

Sanders, H. W Lefiore, Tcllahatchie 1912, 1914 

Sanders. Wiley .Attala 1900 to 1916 

Scott, Abram M Wilkinson : . . . 1822, 1826, 1827 

Scott, George Y Bolivar 1892 

Scott. W. R Clav. Webster 1904, 1906 

Scudder, E. N Sharkev. Issaquena 1892 

Seal, Jacob J Hancock, Harrison, Jackson, Marion, 

Greene. Perry 1870 to 1874 

Seal, Roderick Hancock, Harrison, Jackson, 

1865 to 1867, 1886 to 1890 

Seawright, J. L Okr-p-.hPha, Choctaw 1900, 1902, 1908, 1910 

Sessions, Joseph Adams 1821, 1822 

Sessions, J. F .Pi'.:^. Lav.Tence 1874, 1875 

Sharbroueh, B. W. . :^a^:^ er. Clarke 1900, 1902 

Sharkey, J. E Warren 1850 to 1852 

Sharpe, D. C Holmes, Sunflower.. 1848 



Ta 









!vv 



STATE GO^'ERNMEXT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1S17-1917 205 

Name. County. Session, 

Shelton, T. M Claiborne, Jefferson 1902 

Sheppard, F. M 'Vayne, Jones, Perry, Greene 1900, 1902 

Sherrard, John H Coahoma, Tunica, Quiuiiau 1S92, 1894 

Shirley, Nathan I lonroe, Chickasaw 1S74 to 1878 

Shoup, J. C Pontotoc, Lafayette 1870 

Sikes, H. H Oktibbeha, Choctaw 1912 to 1914 

Simmons, W. T Rankin, Smith 1908, 1910 

Simonton, J. M Itawamba 1S59 to 1861, 1S64 to 1868 

Simonton, J. M Lee, Itawamba, Monroe 

1884 to 1888, 1892 to 1894 

Simpson, B. D Union, Tippah, Benton, Marshall, Tate, 

1904, 1906, 1908 to 1910 

Sims, W. H Clay, Oktibbeha, Lowndes 1S76 to 1878 

Singleton, 0. R Madison, Scott 1848 to 1854 

Singleton, T. S Madison 1880, 1882 

Skinner, Josiah Wayne, Greene, Jackson 1817, 1819 

Slocumb, Charles C Franklin 1826 

Smith, Archibald Amite. Franklin. 1833 

Smith, Arthur Lawrence, Marion 1842, 1843 

Smith, C. P Wilkinson 1830, 1831 

Smith, Ephraim Lauderdale, Kemper 1839 

Smith, George Kemper, Neshoba 1872, 1873 

Smith, George C Bolivar, Coahoma 1874, 1875 

Smith, George S Xoxubee .1870 to 1874 

Smith, John F Clarke, Jasper ...1884, 1886 

Smith, John F Covington, Gre&ne, Jones, Mar.on, Perry, 

1865, 186G, 1867 

Smith,. J. J Copiah, Claiborne 1S74 tc 1873 

Smith, Murray F "-Varren 1896, 1S9S, 19^4, 190S 

Smith, R. C Madison 1882, 18Si 

Smythe, James S Attala, Leake 1872 to 1873 

Smythe, S. W Choctaw 1874 

Somerville, Thomas H.. "r.rro!!. : lontgcrn <:":-' . 1S93, 1S9* 

Southworth, L. M Carroll, Montgcnior:', Lcf.orG 1200 to 1801 

Spears, W. R Warren 1882 

Spencer, J. W Clay. Webster 1912, 1914 

Speight, Jesse Lowndes ; . . . . 1842 to 1843 

Spencer, William Marion, Pike 1822, 1823 

Starke, Peter B Yazoo, Washington, Bolivar, Issa.iuena, 

1S56 to 18(^2 

Steele, R. G Oktibbeha, Chickasaw. 1S52 to 185o 

Steele, S, A. D Clarke, Lauderdale 1S72 to 1873 

Stephens, M. D. L; Calhoun, Yalobusha 1865, 1S6G, 1867 

Stephens, J. S Monroe, Lee, Itawamba 1912, 1914 



;rm 






206 STATE GO^•EK^;-^IEXT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. County Session. 

Stephens, Z. M L'liion, Tippah, Bento^i, Marshall, Tate, 

1892, 1894 

Stephenson, J. M Scott. Newton 1904 

Sterling, Thomas S. ... Wayne. Perry, .Jones, Covington, Greene, 

Hancock, Jackson 1830 to l^Z'6 

Stewart, Dallas Scott, Newton 1912, 1914 

Stevv-art, Duncan VViikinson - 1817 

Stewart, E. C Marion 1S54 

Stewart, Isham Noxubee, Neshoba, Kemper 1874 to 1S7S 

Stewart, James D fiinds, Rankin 1880 to 7.884 

Stewart, T. J Adams, Franklin, Y/iikinson 1848, 1850 

Stone, H. D Choctavv 1865, 1866, 1367 

Stone, John M Alcorn, Itawamba, Prentiss, Tishomingo, 

1870 to 1876 
C.one, vniliam A. ..-,.. --iaricii, Lawrence. .. .1S4S to 1854, 1S5C to 1858 

Stone, W. W \r'asliington, Sunflower 1904, 1906 

Stovall, Charles Lavvrtace, Marion, Hancock 1817 

Stricklin, W. T Lee, Tippah 1870 to 1872 

Stringer, T. W Tv'arren 1870, 1871 

Stuarc, E. C Lawience 1854 

Sullivan, Charles A Lovs-ndes, Oktibbeha 1870 to 1875 

Sullivan, T. M Corrail, Montgomery 1912, 1914 

Sullivan, N. W Washington, Sunflower 1912 to 1914 

Swann, George T Rankin, Simpson 1842 to 1848 

Swett, Charles .Warren 1865 to 1867 

Sykes, E. T Lowndes 1884 to 18SS 

Tait, James M Tunica 1850, 1852 

Talliaferro, J. E Panoia, Tallahatchie, Coahoma, Lafayette, 

1859 to 1865 

Talliaferro, J. E Lafayette 1850 to 1854 

Taylor, C. A Tishomingo 1^61, 1862 

T3.}\0T, James M ', Jlaiborne, Jefferson 1896 

Taylor, J. H. R Marshall 1865, 1866, lS67 

Taylor, J. P Corrail, Montgomery, 1912 to 1914 

Taylor, L. T Tvlonroe, Lee, Itawamba " 1900, 1902 

Taylor, N. A Tate, Tunica 1888, 1890 ■ 

Taylor, R. H. : .Panola 1874 to 1878 

Terry, Charles C Benton, Tippah, Union 1876 to 1880 

Terry, John Kemper, Neshoba 1882 to 1886 

Terry, L. S Attala, Leake 1864 

Teunisson, G. A Linco.'n, Lawrence 1892, 1894 

Thames, William :;o r^.-a, LasMerdale lSo9 to 18C5 

Thomas, John C Jasper, Smith, Newton, Scott 1840 to 1844 

Thompson, J. M Chickasaw. , .1859, 1860, 1861 



} -i i .■.;,(,-„ 



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STATE GOYEKXMEXT OF MISSTSSTPPI. 1S17-1917 207 

Name, Count ti. Session. 

Thompson, J. Y Monroe 1842 to 1846, 1850. 1852 

Thompson, R. H Lincoln, Pike, Lawrence 1S76 to 1880 

Thompson, T. L Leake, Attala 1858 

Thornton, P. R Yalobusha, Calhoun 1874 to 1878 

Thrasher, Stephen Claiborne 1887 

Thrasher, Stephen Ciaiourne, Jefferson.. . .' 1900 

Torrence, Thomas Amite 1S20 

Torrey, W. D Claiborne, Jefferson .' 1904, 1906 

Torrey, George J lifferson, Claiborne 1850, 1852 

Totten, J. C Union, Tippah, Benton, Marshall, Tate, 

1892, 1894 

Tracy, Solomon Jefferson, Copiah 1835 

Trawick, Cornelius Pike 1838, 1839 

Trigg, W. R ■. Washington, Sunflower 1896 

Trotter, James F Lowndes, Rankin, Monroe 1S29 to 1831 

Tucker, B. A union, Tippah, Benton, Marshall, Tate, 

1912, 1914 

Tucker, Tilghman M. . .Lovrndes 1838 to 1842 

Tucker, ^Y. F Amite, 'Wilkinson 1908, 1910 

Turnage, J. L lee, Monroe, Itawamba 1888, 1890 

Turner, Edward Jefferson 1844, 1846 

Turpin, White Adams. .? 1820 

Tuttle, M. H Carroll, Montgomery, Leflore 1875 to 1878 

Vance, C. B Panola 1S78 to 1882. 1908. 1910 

Ventress, James A Wilkinson / .1842 to 1846 

Ventress, W. P. S Amiie, Wilkinson 1900 

Vertner, J. D Claiborne 1886 

Vick, Henry W Hinds, Madison, Rankin, Washington, War- 
ren, Yazoo 1S28 to 1831 

Waddell, V. B DeSoto, Tunica, Tate 1882 

Walker, Felix DeSoto, Tunica, Coahoma, Bolivar 1839 

Walker, J. C '. . ..Eolivar 1912, 1914 

Walker, Joel P i^auuerua.e 1SS4 to 1S30 

Walker, W. B Monroe, Lee, itawamoa 1904 

Wall, Jehu xVmite 1837 to 1846 

Wall, John Amite 1846 

Walton, James Choctaw, Oktibbeha, Chickasaw. .1837 to 1843 

Warner, Alex Madison 1870 . to 1876 

Watkins, D. M Simp.son, Covingron, Marion, Pearl River.. 1892 

Watts, John Nv'ayne, Jones, Covington. Clarke.. 1840 to 1842 

Watts, John Jasper, Scott. Newton. 1872, 1873 

Watts, Samupl E L:i.iwiprda!- 1S92, 1S94 

Weathersby, A. E Lincoln, Lawrence 1896 

Weaver, J. M :Monroe, Lee, Itawamba 1904, 1906 



■\l. r 



208 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session, 

Webb, B. R Pontotoc 1854 to 1858 

Wells, Ben H Hinds 1896, 1898 

West, A. M Holmes, Sunflower 1854 to 1861 

West, A. M Marshall 1878 to 1882 

West, W. W Vv'ayne, Jones, Perry, Greene 1908, 1910 

Wharton, Ramsey Hinds, Warren 1900, 1902 

Wharton, Richard Chickasaw, Calhoun, Pontotoc 1892, 1894 

Wharton, R Pontotoc, Chickasaw 1890 to — ^ 

White, George W Wilkinson .1874 to 1878 

White, J. J. B Issaquena, Yazoo, Washington, Bolivar, 

1848 to 1852 

Whitfield, James Lowndes 1852 

Whitman, Sam Jasper, Clarke 1908 to 1910 

Whitney, J. J Jefferson, Franklin 1884 to 1888 

Wilbourn, William B. . .Yalobusha ' 1846 to 1850 

Wilcox, C. A Xeshoba, Kemper 1880 

Williams, John H Chickasaw, Oktibbeha 1844, 1846 

Williams, J. M. P Adams 1871 to 1875 

Williamson, C. M Hinds 1888 to 1896 

Willing, R. P., Jr Copiah 1894 

Willis, William Warren, Claiborne 1821 

Wilson, G. E Leake, Neshoba 1900, 1902 

Wilson, Jefferson Pontotoc 1858 to 1868 

Wilson, Samuel L Monroe, Chickasaw 1882, 1884 

Wilson, George A Holmes 1888 to 1892 

Winchester, George Adams 1837 

Winston, Fountain Adams 1826, 1827, 1828, 1829, 1830, 1833 

Winter, J. W Chickasaw, Calhoun, Pontotoc 1892, 1894 

Wisdom, D. M Tishomingo ..1866, 1867 

Withers, A. W Coahoma, Quitman, Tunica 1912, 1914 

Withers, W. F Tishomingo 1842 to 1846 

Witherspoon, J. M Lowndes 1857 

Wolf, F. A Tippah .1865, 1866, 1867 

Wood, T. A Clarke, Jasper 1888, 1890, 1896 

Yarbrough, A. S Panola 1900 to 1908 

Yerger, William Hinds 1863, 1864 

Yerger, W. S Washington, Yazoo, Bolivar, Issaquena, 

1865, 1866, 1867 

Yerger, W. G Washington 1886 to 1890 

Young, S. R Jefferson, Claiborne 1912, 1914 

Young, T. W Chickasaw, Calhoun, Pontotoc 1902 



■VH-^IVOO :3TATK 









l;.:.::,ni; V/ 












STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 209 

MEMBERS OF MISSISSIPPI LEGISLATURE. 
1817-1917. 



REPRESENTATIVES. 

Name. County. Session. 

Abbay, R. P Tunica 1S88, 1890, 1896, 1S97. 1898 

Abbott, B Lowndes 1848 

Abbott, Eli Chickasaw 1854 

Abbott, John .Monroe 1844 

Abbott, John A Monroe 1856, 1857 

Abernathy, J. W Quitman 1892 

Acker, J. M Monroe 1840, 1841, 1842, 1844, 1865, 1866 

Acker, J. M., Jr Monroe 1886 

Ackers, Jackson Tishomingo 1859, 1860, 1861, 1874, 1875 

Adair, C. P Sunflower 1908, 1910 

Adams, H. C Holmes 1852 

Adams, M. D Tishomingo 1908 to 1910 

Adams, N. Q Oktibbeha 1908, 1910 

Adams, R. L Yazoo 1837, 1846 

Adams, Stephen Monroe 1850 

Adams, Wirt T;3saquena 1859, 1860, 1861 

Ainsworth, J. G Copiah 1896, 1897, 1898 

Atkinson, W. H Coahoma 1861, 1862 

Alcorn, James L Coahoma 1846, 1856, 1865 

Alcorn, W. A Coahoma 1900 to 1912 

Aldrich, E Marshall 1876, 1877, 1878 

Aldridge, F. M Yalobusha , 1850, 1854 

Aldridge, Lewis Yalobusha 3.852 

Alexander, Elias ....... DeSoto 1884 

Alexander, E Prentiss 1888, 1890 

Alexander, E. M Tippah 1871 

Alexander, R. S Tunica 1912 to 1914 

Alford, G. H Copiah .1832, 1835 

Allen, Barnabas Pike .1908, 1910 

Allen, C. W Xoxubee 1843 

Allen, E. H Copiah 1861, 1862 

Allen, H. O :vfarshall 1841, 1842 

Allen, H. W Claiborne 1846 

Allen, John Clarke 1842 

Allen, J. F Attala 1896 to 1908 

Allen, J. J Hinds 1840, 1841 

14 — m 



■J:/ ViKr/OO 3Tr-Ta 



■'■•u:A 



210 STATE GOVERXMEXT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1S17-1917 

Name, Coiuitu. Session 

Allen, J. P Attala 1S90 

Allen, M. H Cllocta^v, ^Montgomery 1878; Grenada, 

Montgomery 1908, IDIO 

Allen, William Attala ' 1872, 1S73 

Allen, Vv'iiliam Coahoma 1884, 1SS6 

Allen, W. L Tisliomingo 1344 

Allgood, DeForest Noxubee 1896, 1897» ISOS 

Alsbury, Hanson Copiah. 1S30 

Alsworih, TV. B Jehcrson 1900, 1002 

Alverson, D. H /arren 1SS6 

Amacer, J. C Varshall 1876, 1S77 

Anderson, A. C Tippah. .1900-02 — Tippah and Benton. .1908-10 

Anderson, B. D Pontotoc 1838, 1839 

Anderson, C. L Attala ISSO 

Anderson, E. A Forrest 1912-14 

Anderson, Fulton Hinds 1863, 1S64 

Anderson, George Warren 1S96, iS97, 1898, 1000 

Anderson, J. C. Marshall ..,..1848 

Anderson, J. P DeSoto 1S30. 

Anderson, R. B Claiborne 1908-10 

Anderson, S. I Chickasaw .1892, 1894 

Anderson, Thomas Lawrence 1821 

Anderson, W. D Lee, Itawamba 1898 

Anderson, W. P.. Hinds 1854, 1857, 1S58 

Andrews, Garnett Yazoo 18S0 

Andrev.s, James JeiTerson 1S44 

Applewhite, R. R Jefferson 1884, 1S90 

Applewhite, R. R Lincoln MS72 to 1ST6, 1S7S, ISSO, 1SS4, ISOO 

Arbo, George Lancocli 1S98, 1S07, ISOS 

Arbo, George Hancock 18S3 

Archer, B. F Lafayette. ; ; 1873 to 1876 

Archer, George H Choctaw 1846, 1863, 1S64 

Ard, Ahri.him .L.rLii 1Z2Z 

Armat, T \Ci,.v..s 1333, 1S39 

Armistead, C, G x'alobusha 1856, 1857, 1858, 1860, 1861 

Armistead, W. H Carroll 1872, 1873 

Armistead, W. H Choctaw 1852 

Armstrong, J. W Choctaw, Montgomery 1882 

Armstrong, T. T Monroe 1850 

Aniett, C. C Leake 1835 

Arnold, D. B Panola 1892, 1894, 1900 to 1908 

Arnold, J. M Lownues loe4, 1865, 1866, 1SG7 

Arnold, J. F Tishomingo 1848 

ArringtoD, A Jones 1890 



STATE GOlERXilENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 211 

Name. Countij. Session. 

Arrington, J. H Lawrence 1892, 1894 

Arthur, R. K Warren 1850 

Ashe, J. B Yalobusha 1850 

Aske\7, J. H Oktibbeha "....1886, 1888 

Askew, J. Panola 18S2, 1884 

Atkins, T. C Choctaw 1874, 1875 

Atkinson, Thomas Hinds 1S82 

Atterbury, J. T Washington 1886 

Atwood, L. K Hinds 1880. 1884 

Augustus, G. B Noxubee . . : 1836 

Augustus, Vv . B ^. . . Noxubee 1859, ISGO, 1861, 1878 

Austell, L. B Neshoba ■ V 1854 

Austin, W. J Hinds ...1827 

Autry, J. L Marshall. ... '. 1854 to 1859 

Avery, W. B Tallahatchie 1872 to 1876 

Ayres, J. B Tippah 1840, 1841 

Ayres, S. T Carroll 1842, 1843 

Ayres, ■\Villiam Benton ' 18S2 

Babb, L. H Rankin 1888 

Eacot, Le\T Pike 1856, 1857 

Bailey, D. C Attala 1908-10, 1912-14 

Bailey, John Tallahatchie 1888 

Bailey, J. S Tallahatchie 1844, 1846, 1876 to 1882 

Baine, A. C Yalobusha. 1842, 1843 

Baird, R. A Marshall ,1884, 1886, 1896, 1897, 1898 

Baird, T. R Sunflower 1890 

Baker, A. J :Jontgomery 1876, 1877 

Baker, A. J Lafayette 1884 

Eaker, G Hinds 1848 

Baker, T. Otis Adams 1878 

Baker, W. H Pontotoc 1850 

Baker, W. Y Prentiss, Alcorn ; 1890 

uaKer, '^,i . \ TioLOixiL^fcO 1G72, 1S7C 

Balch, P JeiT-iaou 1S70, 1871 

Balbridge, Itawamba 1872, 1873 

Baldwin, John ..Yalobusha 1841 

Baldwyn, W. A Chickasaw 1856 

Balfour, John Yalobusha .^ 1844 

Ballard, D. M Kinds 1878 

Ballinger, J. I Calhoun 1886, 1892 to 1898 

Banks, M. A Sinipson 1886 

Earbee. J. W., Jr DeSoto 1912-14 

Barber, E. M Claiborne 1890 

Barber, E. M Harrison 1904, 1906 






: \^'.i.,'.x 



212 STATE GOVERXMEXT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Barber, L. K Vrilkinson 1856, 1857 

Barden, J Itawamba 1859, 1860. 1S61, 1862 

Barden, J Pontotoc 1848, 1850, 1852, 1854 

Barefield, John Perry ^..1830 

Barker, J. D Tippah 1852 

Barksdale, Harrison. . . Yazoo 1854, 1859, 1860, 1861 

Barksdale, J. A Yazoo ^.1884 

Barksdale, W. R Grenada 1876, 1877 

Barnard, W. T Zssaquena .1852, 1854 

Barnes, B. B :,Iarion 1838 

Barnes, Harris ..I.Iarion 1861, 1862 

Barnes, John A Claiborne 1833, 1835 

Barnes, Thomas Claiborne 1817, 1818 

Barnes, William Copiah 1841 

Barnett, J. W Yazoo 1863, 1864 

Barringer, P. W Lafayette 1841 

Barrow, P. P Warren 1870, 1871 

Barry, A. P Copiah , 1865, 1866 

Barry, W. S Oktibbeha 1850 to 1S54 

Barry, W. S., Jr Leflore 1888 

Barry, W. S Lowndes 1856, 1857 

Barton, J. D Itawamba 1863, 1864 

Barton, J. P Itawamba 1861, 1862 

Barton, Roger luarshall 1839, 1850 

Basham, J. J Ivlonroe 1892, 1894 

Bass, C. R Washington 1854 

Bassett, W. L .Neshoba 1876 to ISSO, 1884 

Bates, J. L ..Calhoun 1904, 1906 

Bates, J. M .Pike, Amite 1886 

Batte, W. H Rankin. 1861, 1862 

Bayley, A. S Oktibbeha 1837 

Bayliss, William Jones 1886 

Beacham, W. C... = Coniah ,..1012-14 

Beadles, T. L Calhoun 1906 

Beaman, G. G Winston. 1859,. 1860, 1861 

Bean, W. S Claiborne 1876, 1877, 1878 

Beasley, H. Noxubee 1854 

Beasley, I. P Clay .^ 1886 

Beasley, John '"oahoma .1832 

Beatie, A. E Madison 1833 

Beaty, A. E Yazoo 1825 

Beaty, David ..Holmes 1846 

Beauchamp, J. J Xoxubee 18C5, 18G6, 1S67 

Beeks, D. A Monroe 1906, 1908, 1910 



A^^Zl .■ >i..' UiTJ:-^^ 






^"^v 



w5l 



STATE GOA'ERXMEXT OF :\IISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 213 

Name. County. Session. 

Beeman, J. H Scott 1884 to 1890 

Beene, William Itawamba 1846, 1850 

Bell, C. W Tishomingo 1850, 1858, 1861 

Bell, Jolm :^onrGe ....1830, 1833 

Bell, J. E Lauderdale 1884 

Bell, J. H 3Ionroe 1837 

Bell, Josepti Winston .1839, 1840, 1841 

Bell, Monroe Hinds 1872, 1873 

Bell, Percy Washington 1904 

Bell, R. S Union 1896, 1898, 1904, 1906 

Bell, Thomas P -^'Giiiper ..1876, 1877 

Bell, W\ H Timica 1837 to 1840 

Bellamy, W. N Prentiss 1892, 1894 

Benefield, C. C Pontotoc 1912-14 

Bennett, C. S Adams 1900, 1902 

Bennett, H. C Simpson 1844. 

Bennett, O. A "Vinston 1908-10 

Bennett, R. E Franklin, Lincoln 1908-10 

Bennett, W. T Jcorn 1908-10 

Benson, Sam.iiel Lawrence 1831 

Benson, W. A Yalobusha 1872, 1873 

Benton, Samuel , . . .Marshall 1852 

Berress, J. W Tishomingo 1865, 1866, 1867 

Berry, John Simpson 1840, 1844, 1846, 1857, 1858 

Berry, J. H Tippah 1846 

Berry, N. M Pontotoc. Union 1882 

Besancon. L. A Tunica 1840, 1843 

Bestor, D. P Clarke. . . : : 1863, 1864 

Bibb, Thomas Jackson 1821 to 1826, 1829 

Billingslea, W. R Warren ^^ 1880 

Billups, J. P Lowndes '. . . . .1861, 1862 

Billups, T. B Lowndes 1840, 1841 

Billups, T. C Lowndes ' 1856, 1857, 1858 

Binford. John A Carroll 1840, 1841, 1846 

Binford, J. R -. .Grenada, Montgomery 1892, 1894 

Bingaman, Adam L Vdams 1831, 1833, 1835, 1836, 1837 

Birch^tt, T. G Warren 1890 

Bird, E. L. H Lavrrence 1904, 1906, 1908, 1910 

Birmingham, R. L Lee IMO, 1902 

Bishop, W. H Clarion ..1S59, 1860, 1861 

Eizzell, W. H Tate '..1878, 1886, 1890 

Black, A. P :,r^r!on 1839 

Black, William Yalobusha 1858 

Blackstone, J. L Neshoba 1858, 1859, 1860 



.jcroo !■;:*./. 



., .-J 



214 STATE GOA^ERX^IEXT OF :snSSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. Count v. Session. 

Blackwell, J. B Benton 1S96, 1897, 1S98 

Blackwell, J. B Eenton. Tippah 1904, 1906 

Blackwell, S. B Tssaquena 1SS2, 1SS6, 1SS8 

Blair, John A Lee 1882 

Blanchard, J. H Adams 1865. 1866, 1S6T 

Blanchard, J. T Prentiss 1S96, 1897. 1S98 

Blanchard, N. W Bolivar ; 1894 

Blanchard, Whit Bolivar 1896, 1897, 1898 

Blankership, Joseph Jasper 1882 

Blanton. William . . Jefferson 1821 

Blocker, J. H Leake, Winston 1896, 1897, 1S9S 

Bioonifield. Horace. . .■ ..I-Iarrison, Jackson .1908-10 

Blount, I. T Yalobusha 1890 

Blount, I. T vralhoun 1876, 1877, 1890 

Blythe. A. K Lov.ndes ISoO 

Boatv/right, J. W fJarshall 1896, 1897, ISOS 

Boddie, George W Hinds 1865, 1866, 1S67 

Boddie, V. B Washington 1902, 1906, 19riS, 1?1<:> 

Bosrgan. T. A. Lee 1890, 1892, 1S94 

Bole, J. C Holmes : 1S35 

Bolton, I. L. Xewton 1SS4 

Bolton, J. L Newton 1870, 1871 

Bond, B Harrison 1844, 1848 

Bond, John Hancock 1838, 1839 

Bonds. W. W Tishom:n?o ' 1861. 1862 

Bonner, Hiram Lawrence .1854, 1858, 1866, 1867 

Boon, W. A DeSoto 1863, 1S64 

Boone, B. B Tishomingo. 1858, 1865, 1866, 1S67 

Boone, F. M Tishomingo 1859, 1860, 1S61 

Boone. R. H .Tishomingo 1840, 1841, 1S44 

Boren, J. F Tunica 1854 

Boswell, A. J. Noxubee 1884 

Boswell, R. J Winston 1912-14 

Bott, F. L li-juroe 1896, 1S97, lhJ6 

Betters, rlolmes lSo4 

Boulden, J. F Lowndes. 1870, 1871 

Bouldin, N. L Jefferson 1829, 1830 

Bourne, J. W Warren *..1882 

Boushe, . Edwin C-renada. Montgomer>' 1912-14 

Bowden, J. M Neshoba 1865, 1866, 1867 

Bowen. Charles Tallahatchie 1835 

Bowers, E. J Hancock ,. . 1900, 1902 

Bowles. C. M Bolivar 1870, 1871 

Bowles, G. F Adams 1888. 1890 



' O^) l^-'t/Sih 



STATE GOVERX:,lEXT OF ilTSSISSlPPI, 1S17-1917 215 

Xame. Count ij. Session. 

Bowls, C. F • Pontotoc 1S61, 1862 

Bowman. C Ya::oo 1852 

Bowman. H. F Tjto 1880 

Box, James Tisliomingo 1852, 1854 

Boyd, A Oi-ti'^bena 1874, 1875 

Boyd, G. F ^^r\]Virison 1833, 1835 

Boyd, G. M ^^'arren 1874, 1875 

Boyd, James M. . . : Attala 1874; 1875 

Boyd, Jolm D L^ake, Attala 1842, 1843 

Boyd. R _.;ttala 1870, 1871 

Boyd. S. L ; Choctaw, Montgomery 1876, 1877 

Boyd, Walter Yiizoo 1874, 1S75 

Boyd. W. A ■ -Tippah " 1861. 1862, 1872, 1873 

Bpyer. Jesse S^mfiower 1882 

Brabston, J. H Y'arren 1888, 1890 

Brn.cey, :^Terry r.Iarion 1825, 1826 

Bradford, A. B Marshall. ,.' 1842, 1852 

Bradford. A. B Jpfiarscn 1831 

Bradford. A. B Lolivar , 1863, 1864 

Bradford. B. M : ^onroe 1859, 1860, 1861 

Bradford, J. A Pike 1840 to 1844 

Bradford, N. W Chickasaw 1904, 1906 

Bradford, T. B Lcvrndes ■ 1890 

Bradley, John Marshall .' 1862, 1863 

Bradshaw, H. W P.znkin 1900, 1902 

Brahan, R. W Panola 1844 

Bramlett, D. C •,ViIxin£on 1912, 1914 

Brame, T. TV Xoxubee 1912, .1914 

Brandon, G. C ""'ilkinson 1821, 1823 

Erandcn, Y:. Ij T.'i-kinson 1826 

Breland, E. W Greene 1908, 1910 

Breland, R. L ::cshoba 190.4, 1906 

Ereeland, H. J C-r'^^ne : 1854 

Prcnuon, D L.vv,i.uti 187^, 1S7.:> 

Brewer. B. B "laKock .1833, 1835 

Bndgers, H. H Tallahatchie 1884 

Bridgers. T. J. N Tallahatchie 1865, 1866, 1867 

Bridges, J. C Clay 1908, 1910 

Bridges, James E Choctaw ^ 1876, 1877 

Bridges, J. E V^bst^r 1886 

Bridges, V.k C Cboctaw 1865. 1866, 1867 

Brien. A. W V.'-i.rren '. . . 1884 

Criscor-, Parmenas ri'iibornr> 1828. 1829, 1842, 1843 

Briscoe, William Claiborne , 1826 



!0^:^iTi:r 






.,)• 



■•:l i": 'J 



216 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Britt, J. J Attala 1908, 1910 

Brittain, L. L Copiah . . . ' 1900, 1902 

Broadiis, J. A Jackson 1900, 1902 

Bramlett. D. C ^Wilkinson 1884 

Brooke, Walker. Holmes 1848 

Brooks, Arthur ^lonroe 1872, 1873 

Brooks, F. P. P Sharkey 1866, 1888 

Brooks, G. W Rankin " 1865,' 1866 

Brooks, H. H.. Jr Xoxiibee 1900 to 1908 

Brooks, J. D Noxubee 1846, 1861, 1862 

Brooks, M. W Xcxubee 1850 

Brown, Albert Kemper 1865, 1866, 1867 

Brown, Alfred Wayne 1835 

Brown, A. F Marshall 1882 

Brown, A. G Copiah 1836, 1837, 1838, 1839 

BroT^Ti, E. A .♦ Union 1912, 1914 

Brown, Epps R Lauderdale 1838, 1839 

Brown, E. E Adams 1900 to 1908 

Brown, E. R Copiah 1852, 1854, 1856 

Brown, G. P. A Tunica 1876, 1877 

Brown, James Lafayette 1848, 1850 -- 

Brown, J. P Bolivar 1842, 1843, 1844- 

Brown, J. T Marshall 1890, 1896, 1897, 1898 

Brown, L. B Clarke 1878 

Brown, Marshall Sunflower 1888 

' Brown, R. D Winston 1863, 1864 

Brown, R. M Yalobusha 1865, 1866, 1867 

Brown, R. P Marshall 1865, 1866, 1867 

Brown, Silas Hinds 1828 

Brown, W. D Issaquena 1861, 1862, 1865 to 1868 

Brown, W. H Itawamba 1900, 1902 

Brown, Coahoma 1844 - 

Brown, Simpson '. 183.>~ 

Broyles, H. F Monroe 1908, 1910 

Brumfield, Jesse Pike - 1848 

Brunt, Orange Panola 1874, 1875 

Bryant, J. L Lamar 1908, 1910 

BTryant, W. A .'jones 1896, 1897, 1898 

Buchanan, A. S DeSoto 1886 

Buchanan, E Marshall 1870, 1871 

Buchanan, George C... Jones, Covington 1872, 1873 

Buchanan, J. W Chickasaw 1880, 1882 

Buchanan, William Rankin 1882 

Buck, C. L Warred 1854, 1856, 1857 



■r^^iiT'r-i^iJ :jr 



'.a 



'. 1 1 'i 
70-- >': 






■^.?r 



STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 217 

Name. Comity. Session. 

Buckley, B. C Lawrence 1844 

Buckley, F. H Tallahatchie 1854 

Buckley, J. L Clarke 1896. 1897, 1898 

Buckner, E. R Scott 1857 

Buckner, J. H Winston 1837 

Bufkin, D Copiah 1873, 1874, 1875 

Bufkin, J. W \ .Copiah 1880 

Buford, J. H Bolivar 1880, 1882 

Buford, R. H Lafayette 1844, 1846, 1850 

Buford, W. L Lafayette .- 1880 

Bugg, Benj Chickasaw 1837 

Bugg, T. E Chickasaw 1859, 1860, 1861 

Bull, J. H Lawrence 1823, 1825 

Bullard, W. D Jackson 1904, 1906 

Bullen, Benjamin M. . .Jefferson 1817, 1818 

Bunch, D Yazoo 1878 

Buntin, Johnson Yalobusha 1861 to 1865 

Buntin. R. R Tallahatchie 1892, 1894 

Burdine, J. C Monroe 1880, 1882, 1886 

Burge, L. M Prentiss 1900 to 1908 

Burke, M. U Lowndes 1888 

Burkitt, Frank Chickasaw 1883, 1888, 1892, 1894, 1908, 1910 

Burnet, Daniel Claiborne . . ., 1823 

Burnett, J. F Hinds 1880 

Burney, J. G Calhoun 1856, 1857 

Burns, J. R Yazoo 1839, 1840, 1841, 1854 

Burrow, J. F .Jefferson, Davis 1912, 1914 

Burrus, C. J Yazoo 1900, 1902, 1908, 1910 

Burrus, J. C Bolivar 1904, 1906 

Burt, E. R Oktibbeha 1854 

Burton, Elbert Pike 1817, 1818 

Burton, John Amite , 1819, 1821 

Burton. J. M Pontotoc 1865, 1866, 1867 

Bush, C. W Warren 1872, 1873 

Bush, J. H Jones 1912 to 1914 

Bush, J. N Hinds 1886 

Butler, Anthony Lawrence 1827 

Butler, C. G Lafayette 1854 

Butler, D. P Franklin 1904, 1906 

Butler, G. W Sharkey 1884, 1890, 1892, 1894 

Butler, R. S Franklin 1896, 1897, 1898 

Butler, Samuel Lowndes 1838 

Bynum, Drury Jones 1012, 1914 

Bynum, George W Alcorn 1892, 1904, 1906 



[ij^d-roi^ HTATa 



^:i^-nv>i. 



.Una 



. ^ ■•[Hi 









■1 O ■■.:\-V 
"1 •f?)!-'! 



218 STATE GOVERNME.XT OF ^IISSISSIPPI, 1S17-1917 

Navie. Count}/. Session. 

Bynum, Turner Prentiss 1S80 

Byrd, A. M Xesiioba 1S&6 

Byrd, C Amite 1SS2 

Byrd, Corne^'ns :'r:inlvliii 1S71, 1ST5, 1876, 1S77 

Byrd. H. j ^a wrenc3 1S76 to ISSO 

Byrd, Jesse Greene ISSu 

Byrd, J. E L'ovingtcn ' 1900, 1902 

Byrd, J. R Xewton .- 1904, '1906 

Byrd, Redding Hancock 1873, 1S74 

Byrne,- R. H Tunica 1S4S, ISoU, 1859, 1860, 1861 

Cabell, Vv'. S Hinds 1870, 1871 

Cage, Harry , ,'iikinson 1823 

Caldv\-ell, J. H intake, \Mnston , 1S94 

Caldwell, T. R Honroe 1S92, 1894, 1908, 1910 

Caldwell, \V. W Panola 1884 

Caiiioon, H Scotc 1892 

Caliioon, John ....Marshall 1S72, 1873 

Calhoun, John, Jr iMarsiitui ..1908, 191-. 

Calhoun, J. lu Tcillnh^ic^ie -. . 1850 

Calhoun, B. A H^in.per 1858 

Calvit, James ^kei Mon 1819 

Cameron, D. A vrarren 1865, 1866, 1867 

Cameron, D. H Jefferson 1880 

Cameron, H. D Lauderdale 1882, 1884 

pameron, John Franklin 1819, 1830 

Cameron, John R r.Iadison 1878 

■ Campbell, C. C Hrankiin 1848 

Campbell, C. H Attala 1874, 1875 

Campbell, J. A. P Attain 1852, 1859, 1860, 1861 

Campbell, J. A. P., Jr. ..iiiiids 1890, 1892, 1894, 1900, 19 j2 

Campbell, J. W DeSoto , 1846, 1843 

Campbell, L. A Yazoo 1876, 1877 

Campbell, M ■:^t:t>Gi;o 1870, 1^71 

Campbell. R. B ;a3hin2:Ton 1888 

Campbell, R. C Yalobusha .' 1837 

Cannon, W. R Oktibbeha 1840 

Capertcn, W Winston '. 1865, 1866, 1867 

Caradine, J. w; Clay 1874, 1875 

Caradine, J. E Clay 1904, 1906 

Carothers, P. E Lee ...1912 to 1914 

Carr, A ...Scott 1594 

Carr, Frederick -I;:)p?on 1831 

Carr, J. D Newton 19'.'8. 191 o 

Carrington, G. P DeSoto 1870, 1871 



> .ic- ■".>•> :l7'./vTii 



::,i&J 



;<;■■) 



STATE G0VERN":MEXT of MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 219 

Carrington, L. F Lowndes 1857 

Carroll, Benjamin . . Lauderdale 1848 

Carroll, J. G Oktibbeha '.ISSO, ISSS, 1896, 1S97. 1898 

Carroll, J. G Oktibbeha 1863, 1864 

Carroll, T. B Oktibbeha 1886 

Carroway, J. P Preutiss 1SS6 

Carson, J. H Bolivar 1846 

Carson, Stephen D Claiborne 1S19, 1820 

Carter, Abner Perry 1829, 1833, 1835 

Carter, A ^.lonroe ^ 1880 

Carter, A. B. Perry 1856 

Carter, E. B Araite 1912, 1914 

Carter, Hardy Pike 1837 

Carter, H. C Warren 1872, 1873, 1876, 1877 

Carter, H. R Chickasaw 1838, 1839 

Carter, I. E Perry 1S65, 1866, 1867, ISSS 

Carter. J. P Perry 1829, 1S33, 1835 

Carter, S. S Holmes 1876, 1877, 1S7S 

Carter, T. A Itawamba 1856, 1857 

Cartwright, J. H Sharkey 1882 

Caruthers, C. K Panola 1888 

Caruthers, F Yazoo 1892 to 1900, 1904, 1906 

Caruthers, P. E Lee 1904, 1906 

Carver, Hancock 1831 

Casey, John T Washington 1888, 1890 

Cassedy, Hiram Franklin 1844, 1850, 1852, 1854 

Castleman, S Washington 1902 

Catchings, John N Copiah 1854 

Catchings, Joseph H. . .Copiah 1878 

Catchings, T. C Hinds 1848, 1852 

Catchings, T. J Rankin 1871 

Catchings, W. S Copiah 1892, 1894 

Caughn, J. L Smith 1840 

Causey, J. :i Pi":? 1876 to 1S80 

Cansc-y, T. F Pike , 1886 

Causey, W. I Amite 1900, 1902 

Cavett, E. D Noxubee 1904,1906,1908, 1910,1912,1914 

Cessar, James D Jefferson 1872 to 1878 

Chamberlain, A. M Hemper 1874 to 1875 

Chamberlain, J. W Adams ,. 1S78, 1880 

Chambers, H. C Coahoma 1859, 1860, 1861 

Chambers, Jacob Wilkinson 1829 

Chambers, J. R Lawr^^nce ., 1846 

Chambliss, B. R Tate 18S0 

Champion, S. S Hinds 1894, 1896 



D .1 'i 



''.:.,'' 






220 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. County, Session. 

Champlin, W. A Harrison 1874, 1S75 

Chandler, G. C Clarke 1861, 1S62, 1870, 1871 

Chandler, G. C Lauderdale 1854 

Chandler, J. W Xoxubee 1872 to 1876 

Chaney, B. E ' Franklin 1821, 1826 

Chapman, D. T Newton 1882, 1888 

Chapman, P. C Simiiower 1895, 1897, 1S98 

Charles, George Lawrence 1870, 1871 

Chatham, W. C Carroll 1892, 1S94 

Chavis, G. W Vv arren 1874, 1875 

Chenning, J. J Sunflower 1846 

Cherry, W. W Pontotoc 1837 

Child, Joshua Wilkinson 1819 

Childers, D. K Tippah .1861, 1862 

Childers, L. E Tippah 1912, 1914 

Childress, J. R :,iadison 1888, 1890 

Childress, R. M Panola 1840 

Chiles, Benjamin Oktibbeha 1874 to 1878 

Chilton, J. M Warren 1838, 1842, 1843 

Chisholm, Alexander. . .Rankin 1829 

Chisholm, J. W Tislioniingo 1850 

Chrisman, J. B Lawrence 1852 

Christmas, Henry Holmes 1880, 1884 

Christmas, R Copiah 1874, 1875 

Claiborne, J. F. H Adams 1830, 1831 

Claiborne, W. H Hancock 1859, 1860, 1861 

Clapp, J. W Marshall 1856, 1857 

Clark, C. W Washington 1870 

Clark, J. B Harrison 1?08, 1910 

Clark, J. W Claiborne 1904, 1906 

Clark, Leigh Sharkey 1880 

Clark, Charles Bolivar 1856, 1859, 1860, 1861 

Clark, Charles Jefferson 1838, 1839, 1842, 1S43 

Clarke, Silas H Attala 1861, 1862 

Clay, Green Bolivar 1876, 1877, 1878 

Clayton, James S Itawamba 1856, 1857 

Clayton, 0. G Lauderdale 1848 

Clayton, S. T Tate 1900. 1904 

Clemens, C. P Clarke 1874, 1875 

Clemens, J. L Xoxubee 1884 to 1890 

Clement, J. M Kolrnes 1850 

Cleveland, B. T Yalobusha 1848 

Cleveland, David Pike 1819, 1820, 1823 to 1830 

Clifton, Oliver Hinds 1876, 1877 



tii'i.Tfe 



STATE OOVERXMEXT OF IMTSSISSTPPT. 1817-1917 221 

Name. Count if. Session. 

Coalter, John "Wmston 1843, 1858 

Coates, M Warren 1882. 1884 

Cobb, J. B Noxubee 1842 

Cochran, A. J Union 1875, 1877 

Cock, C. Pc Yalobusha 1902 

Cocke. William Monroe 1822 

Coffee, G Choctaw 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861 

Coffee. T. J... Rankin \ 1831 to 1836 

Co2^2:shall, J. S. B . .Tallahatchie 1870, 1871 

Colbert, John Covington 1828, 1829 

Cole, Peter H Kemper ". 1852 

Cole, W. L Kemper 1840, 1841 

Cole, TV. T DeSoto 1865, 1866, 1867 

Coleman, A. J Carroll 1904, 1906 

Coleman, H. H DeSoto 1843, 1844 

Coleman, J. R Yalobusha. .• 1908 to 1916 

Coleman, M. A Winston 1880 

Coleman, Richard Tallahatchie 1837, 1838 

Coleman, S. R Leflore 1896 to 1908 

Collier, J. W Warren 1896, 1897, 1898 

Collier, S. N Warren 1904 

Collier, M. T Winston 1848 

Collins, Benjamin Tippah 1850 

Collins, I. R Tippah 1858 

Collins, J. L Calhoun, Yalobusha 1882 

Collins, 0. B Clarke 1886 

Collins, R Lawrence .1912, 1914 

Collins, T. W Jones 1888 

Collins, V, A Jones 1870, 1871 

Compton, W. M ^Jarshall 1861, 1862 

Conant, Jeremiah Hinds 1831 

Conger, E. L Carroll 1890 

Conn. J. P Ln-^r^nce 1912 to 1914 

Connell, J. T Lo^,^.des ... 1842 to 1850 

Connell, T. D Winston 1842 

Connely, D. W Washington 1844 

Connor, T. P Choctaw 1870, 1871 

Coody, W. W Yazoo 1896 to 1908 

Cook, Frank Tishom.ingo 1878 

Cook, H. A Benton 1874, 1875 

Cook, H. A Tippah 1852 

Cook, S. C. Pamla 1886 

Cook, S. C Coahoma 1890,1892 

Cook, W. H I^wndes 1884 



■yrron ?rT!p>Ti^: 



N ••■"'" 



Mo 



■ I . 



222 STATE govern:m:ext of Mississippi, i817-i917 

'Name. Count n. Session. 

Cooke, John Pnnola 1872, 1873 

Cooke, Moses Hancock 1840 to 1844 

Cooner, D. C Callioiiii 1900, 1902 

Cooper, A. J ICshoba .1880, ISSG 

Cooper, A. N Scott 1904, 1906 

Cooper, Carroll D^ Soto 1896 

Cooper, H. D -Vilkmson 1842, 1843, 1844 

Cooper, J. A [ Quitman 1890 

Cooper, J. J Madison 1856, 1837 

Cooper, Joseph Lawrence ....1820, 1822, 1823, 1825, 1826, 1S27 

Cooper, Thomas L Leake 1S78 

Coopwood, Thomas T^Ionroe 1852 

Corcoran, John Coahoma 1872, 1873 

Corley, Seth Copiah 1857 

Cory, T. L Adams 1884 

Cotten, R. B Alcorn 1912, 1914 

Cotton, J. L ...Holmes iS?0, 1892, 1894 

CfJtton, Joseph R Franklin 1836, 1837, 1838 

Cotton, Samuel Adams 1844 

Cotton, T. A Xoxubee 1874, 1875 

Cotton, Thomas Franklin 1821, 1S22, 1826, 1827 

Covington, A. B Y'inston 1854 

Covington, W. T Quitman 1912, 1914 

Cowan. D. D Harrison 1884 

Cowan, J. H Marshall 1846 

Cowan, R. C HairiFon. Jackson 1904, 1906 

Coward, Hardy Anute , 1817, 1818 

Cowart. Eli Lincoln 1896, 1897, 1898 

Cowart, E. O .L^.^^rpnoe 1874, 1873 

Cowart, J. O Jef!erson, Davis 1908, 1910 

Cowley, E. E ^.lonroe 1904, 1906 

Cox, J. M Panola 1902, 1908, 1910 

Tot, R C sAn^.^ l*?^*? 

Co:^, Alfred. '^r^shin-^ton 1836 to 184''^ 

Cox, VT. M Prentiss 1896 to 1904 

Craig, James Lafayette 1840 

Craig, Samuel. Tippah '. .1848 

Grain. Marston Leake -. 1846 

Crane, R. E Sunflower 1858 

Cranford, W. L Covington. ...1908, 1910 

Crawford, J. H Pike 1888 

Crawford. Dr. J. W Ta-^.e 1912. 1914 

Crawford, N. B ChickasaAV 1882, 1S84 

Crawford, T. J Pontotoc 1886 



'i*(*-V»Vi».%.-4A 



.^ir'yiBa-fQO :rr7T'-: 



, ;.■■;',;■■ 



■; .YfO 



STATIC GOVEHN^rEXT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1017 



223 



Name. Coimfn. Session. 

Crawford, TV. H Chic^gsaw 1842, 1843 

Crawford. TT^>rl,s 1842 

Craytin. H Ynzoo , 1880 

Creath; A. G AVRrren \ . . 1830 

Creceliiis. J. G ^c^tt 1874, 1875 

Crenshaw, Dr. H. W. . .Prn-Ia 1912 to 1914 

Crews. J. D T.^rderdale 1850 

Critz. F. A.. Clav 1895. 1897, 1898 

Cromwell, B. L ovf;hheha 18^5, 18fi6, 1867 

Crossland. J. A '^^iFhomingo ..1876. 1877 

Cnim. C. L rnicn 1900, 1902 

Criim, William A Benton 1876, 1877 

Crump, E. H "^rarshall •• 1872. 1873 

Crump. S. A Clay 1884 

Crump. TV "'.Tnrs'hall 1841 

Crumpton, J. W 0^:ti'^beha ; 1896 to 1908 

Crusoe, C. R T.o-o-ndes 1850. 1852 

Culberson, J. C "noSofo 1859, 1860 

Culpepper, J. H I a^idprdale 1886 

Cunnins-ham, A ^ik^ .' 1830 

Cunningham, A. P Pike 1836, 1837 

Cunnineham, Jam.es ^We \ 1840 

Cunningham, J. A T^rp^tiss 1904, 1906 

Cunningham, J. M Xo^nhpe 1863 to 1864 

Cunningham, R ^^-prshall 1878 

Cunn!n2-ham, TV. B "^-di^on 1870, 1871 

Cunningham., Wright. ..^^onroe 1878 

Curd. C. H Tvl^rshall " 19'^8. 1910 

Curlee. C. B * '-oni. Prentiss 1872. 1873 

Currie, Edward Sr-ith .1886 to 1874, 1884 

Currie, J. H iv'e^per 1880 

Currie. R. M '^^^ifh : 1890 

C-^^-^-n. J. r - ^.v:t^^ 1S42 to 1350 

Cutrer, .Tchn W r, ■.^■,0:1:1 18::;4 to 1885 

Cypert, W. C. Ttawpmba 1846. 1848 

Dabney, M Hinds 1876, 1877. 1878 

Dabney, Moncure Tx'nrrpn 1912. 1914 

Dahlgren, A. M Ff^rri?on ; 1892 

I^^-!e. C. P Lawrence 18S4 to 1S88 

Dalp, Sammel Laud?rdale .......1835, 1836. 1837 

DnTe. . .^ Tnnfr^a 1861. 1862 

"n.-^Ito-. T .7 \]fonn 1004. 1P06 

Dameron. George B Gropne 1817, 1818, 1820 

Dampier, J. M Simpson 1848, 1850. 1852 



■■:':rr 



-n 



:;D 






224 STATE GOVERX:\IEXT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 



^ 



'Name. County. Session. 

Daniel, J. R Marshall 1861. 1862, 1865 to 1868 

Daniel, S. H... Oktibbeha 1858 

Dansby, Elisha Jasper 1870, 1871 

Dantzler. A. F Jasper 1859, 1860, 1861 

Dantzler, J. S Jasper 1861, 1862 

Darden, Put Jefferson 1866, 1867 

Darden, T. L Jefferson 1890 

Darden, TV. M Jefferson 1912, 1914 

Daugherty, George Adams 1823. 1825 

Daugherty, G. W Yazoo 1852 

Davenport, T. T Monroe 1912. 1914 

Davidson, R Pike 1823. 1829 

Davidson, T. W Clay 1878, 1888, 1890 

Davis, A. K Noxubee 1870, 1871 

Davis, A. R Noxubee 1872, 1873 

Davis, David Amite 1817, 1818, 1820 

Davis, G. L. C Adams ' 1856, 1857 

Davis, G. W ..Jackson 1892, 1894 

Davis, H. L ..Wilkinson 1882 

Davis, J. G Lafayette 1872 

Davis, John Jackson 1848 

Davis, J. O Lafayette 1888 

Davis, Joseph E .Jefferson 1820 

Davis, Reuben Monroe 1856 

Davis, Thomas H Monroe 1857 

Davis, T. N Sumner 1880 

Davis, William Marshall 1838 

Davis, Willis Adams 1874, 1875 

Davis, W , Itawamba 1859 

Davis, W. E Panola 1908, 1910 

Davis, Issaquena 1858 

Day, L. M Adams 1850 

Day, Rob^^rt Ynzoo 1878 

Day. S. B Noxubee 1880 

Dean, R. A Lafayette 1878 

Dean, Russell Marshall 1854, 1859, 1860, 1861 

Dear, H. C Lauderdale 1876, 1877 

Dearing, A. B Lowndes 1836 

Deason, Amos Jones 1861 to 1868 

Deason, J. B Lincoln 1888 

Deason, W. M Copiah 1863, 1864 

Deavours, C Itawamba 1852 

Dees, M. A Harrison, Jackson ..1896, 1897, 1898, 1908, 1910 

Degraffenreid, M. F Wilkinson 1827, 1829, 1830, 1831 



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STATE GOVERXMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 225 

Name, County. Session, 

Defrance, Abram Adams 1822 

Demoss, W. C Hinds 1833, 1835 

Dendy, J. B.... Madison 1912, 1914 

Denham, J. W Perry 1878 to 1884 

Denman, Thomas Pike 1838, 1839 

Denman, A. E Perry 1836,1837 

Denny, Walter Jackson 1859, 1860, 1861, 1862- 

Denson, J. J Lawrence 1900, 1902 

Denson, J. N Leake 1874 to 1878 

Denson, L. L Bolivar 1912, 1914 

Denson, R. B Clarke, Jasper 1912, 1914 

Denton, H. E Leake, Winston 1912, 1914 

Denton, M. C. Quitman 1898 to 1904 

Denton, M. C* Lafayette 1904,1906 

Denton, W. R Lauderdale 1890 to 1908, to 1910 

Depew, Jesse .Hancock 1823 

Dicken, J. A Holmes 1908, 1910 

Dickens. W. B Panola 1859 to 1865 

Dickinson,, J. L Union 1884 

Dickson, David .Claiborne 1826 

Dickson, D. H Hinds 1841 

Dickson, J. M Yazoo 1872, 1873 

Dickson, S. W Wayne 1822, 1823 

Dickson, W. A Wilkinson 1888, 1890 

Dickson, William Pike 1820 

Dilworth, A. B Tishomingo 1842, 1843, 1846, 1848 

DUworth, J. T Monroe 1886, 1888, 1890 

Dilworth, R Monroe 1846 

Dinsmore, J. R Noxubee.. 1892, 1894, 1896, 1897, 1898 

Dlson, J. F Itawamba 1908, 1910 

Dixon, Philip Jefferson 1827, 1829, 1833 

Dobyns, Thomas Jefferson .-... 1840, 1841 

Dockery, T ^. DcSoto 1878, 1890 

Dodd, A. I»r. Franklin, Lincoln 1900, 1902 

Dodd, William Attala 1836, 1837 

Dodds, George H Copiah 1882 

Doherty, C. W Tunica 1904, 1906, 1908, 1910 

Doolittle, T. I Newton 1912 to 1914 

Dorroh, I. L Norube^i 1908 to 1910 

Doss, J. D Winston 1892 to 1904 

Dotson, J. M Hinds 1865, 1866, 1867 

Doty, W. S. P. Grenada, Montgomery 

1896, 1897, 1898, 1904, 1906 

Downer, J. F Holmes .... 1882 

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^26 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Downing, D. D Claiborne 1825 

Downs, A. C Warren 1841 

Downs, J. W Madison 1880 

Downs, J. W Itawamba 1854, 1856 

Downs, William Itawamba 1857, 1863, 1864 

Dozier, A. M Jasper 1878 

Dozier, W. B Newton 1842, 1S43 

Drake, E. S Claiborne 1876, 1877 

Drake, Joseph Carroll 1838, 1839 

Drane, James Montgomery 1880 

Drane, James Choctaw 1840, 1841 

Draughan, A. D Perry 1886, 1890 

Draughan, W. J Perry _. . .1840, 1841 

Dubisson, C. L Adams 1852, 1854 

Duckworth, B. C Jones 1854 

Duckworth, J. D. W. . . .Rankin 1882 

Dudley, G. W Webster 1890 

Dudley, T. B Tallahatchie 1900, 1902 

Duggan, Edward Jefferson 1817, 1818 

Duke, Henry Pontotoc 1848 

Dulaney, L. C Issaquena 1892, 1894 

Dulaney, T. W Holmes 1836 

Dunbar, A Adams 1826 

Dunbar, John Hancock 1833, 1835 

Dunbar, Joseph Jefferson 1820, 1830, 1833, 183o 

Dunbar, R Adams 1830 

Dunbar, R Jefferson 1823 

Duncan, I. A Calhoun 1858„ 1859, 1860 

Duncan, James Tippah 1904, 1906 

Duncan, Jefferson 1858 

Dunlap, H. W Hinds 1836, 1837 

'Dunlap, J. L Marshall 1856, 1857 

Dunlap, T. L Marshall 1859, 1S60, 1861 

Dunlap, William Choctaw 1830 

Dunn, John Scott 1837 

Dunn, S. R Washington 1840, 1841 

Dunnaway, A. P Yalobusha 1861 to 1865 

Durham, Shelman Attala 1840, 1841, 1850 

Durham, W. H Clay 1912 to 1914 

Durham, W. H. M Tippah 1892 to 1894 

Durr. E. A Smith 1835 to 1838 

Durrett, J. D Monroe 1892 to 1894 

Duval, P Yazoo 1836 

Dyer, James M Holmes , 1861, 1862 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 227 

Name. County, Session. 

Dyer, J. H Holmes ^ 1876, 1877 

Dyer, William Choctaw 1838 

Dyer, W. L Holmes, Yazoo 1884 

Eagan, Daniel B. . . . . . .Copiah 1831 

Eakin, William Attala 1838. 1839 

Eason, J. T Tate 1888 

Eason, W. P Tate 1884 

East W. J Tate 1896, 1898, 1904, 1906 

Easterling, W. K Rankin 1864, 1865, 1866 

Eaton, J. S Smith 1878, 1880, 1896, 1897, 1898 

Echols, J. W Tippah 1848, 1850 

Echols, S. W Tippah 1861, 1862 

Eckford, J. M .Leake 1874, 1875 

Eckles, J. B Panola 1892, 1894 

Eddins, J. M Marshall 1900 to 1908 

Edens, B. N Monroe 1912, 1914 

Edmondson, C. M Covington 1890 

Edrington, R Monroe 1827, 1828, 1829 

Edrington, Robert Yalobusha 1835 

Edwards, George Madison 1878 

Edwards, John A Wayne 1831, 1833 

Edwards, J. H Choctaw 1861, 1862 

Edwards, M Kemper 1861, 1862 

Edwards, W. W Warren 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, 1882 

Ehrman, Charles Warren 1896, 1897, 1898 

Eiland, O. C Neshoba 1856, 1857 

Ellett, Richard Oktibbeha 1840 

Ellis, A. I Panola 1859 to 1868 

Ellis, George Copiah 1844 

Ellis, G. W Copiah 1859, 1860, 1861 

Ellis, John. Newton , 1838 to 1842 

Ellis, John Neshoba 1835 to 1838 

Ellis, J. J Copiah 1900, 1902 

Ellis,L. B Jasper 1840, 1841, 1848, 1850 

Ellis, L. W Copiah 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843 

Ellis, Samuel Jefferson ' 1829 to 1841 

Ellis, Thomas G Wilkinson 1828 

Ellis, W. A Leake 1904, 1906 

Ellzy, R. A Pike 1854 

Elmer. F. W Harrison 1882, 1886, 1900, 1902 

Emanuel, M Warren 1846 

Enloe, Isaac Neshoba 1852 

Enochs, E. R Calhoun 1888 

Enochs, F. G Calhoun , 1861, 18«2 



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228 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Name. County Session. 

Enochs, John R Copiah 1842, 1843 

Enochs, J. R Rankin 1884, 1892, 1894 

Epperson, W. S Yazoo 1886 

Errington, J. B Copiah 1904, 1906 

Ervin, A. J Lowndes 1878 to 1884 

Ervin, A. J.. Jr Lowndes 1904, 1906 

Ervin, D. L Lowndes 1912, 1914 

Erwin, E. A Lowndes 1876, 1877 

Eskridge, J. C Lafayette 1912, 1914 

Eskridge, W. S Tallahatchie 1861, 1862, 1864, 1886 

Estelle, W. M Panola 1850 

Estes, W. M... Clarke 1904, 1906 

Ethridge.G. H......... Kemper 1904, 1906 

Evans, George Clarke 1856, 1857 

Evans, Henry Jackson 1863, 1864 

Evans, J. B Clarke, Jasper 1900, 1902 

Evans, J. L Chickasaw 1872, 1873 

Evans, P Itawamba 1858 

Evans, R Lowndes 1840, 1841 

Evans, W. G., Jr Harrison 1890 

Evans, W. L Lauderdale, Kemper 1884, 1886 

Evans, W. L Clarke 1884, 1886 

Evans, W. L Leake, Winston 1904, 1906 Leake 1912, 1914 

Everett, J. E Yazoo 1872, 1873 

Everett, N. M Newton 1912, 1914 

Ewing, P. D Madison 1846 

Fairley, Archie Lawrence 1890 

Fairley, John T Jones, Covington 1876, 1877, 1878 

Falconer, Howard Marshall 1863, 1865 

Falkner. W. T Lafayette 1892, 1894 

Fall, G. R Washington .1861, 1862 

Fall, G. R Hinds 1844 

Farish, E. F Yv'ilkinson 1S20 

Farish, H. P Issaquena 1906 

Farmer, A, C Scott 1878 

Farr, B. R Holmes 1892, 1894 

Farrar, P. W Wilkinson 1836, 1837 

Farrar, P. W Adams 1850 

Farrar, S. C Rankin 1846 

Fatheree, John Copiah 1858, 1861, 1862 

Fartherree, J. D Clarke and Jasper 1908, 1910 

Favre, T. M Hancock 1882, 1884 

Featherston, W. S Marshall 1876, 1877, 1880 

Feemster, R. M. D Lowndes 1872, 1876 









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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 229 

Name. Qounty. Session. 

Felder, L. W Pike 1908, 1910 

Felder. M. G Pike 1912, 1914 

Fenn, C. L Amite 1908, 1910 

Ferguson, J. T Rankin 1892 

Ferguson, P. L Wilkinson 1882 

Ferguson, T. C Tunica 1882 to 1888 

Ferguson, V. P Hinds 1912, 1914 

Ferguson, W. S Newton 1900, 1902 

Field, J. M Winston 1835 

Fields, A Panola 1880 

Fields, C. H Bolivar 1840, 1841 

Fields, J. H Lowndes 1878 to 1884 

Files, R. C Jackson 1858 

Finley, J. J Marshall 1841 

Finley, W. W. Pontotoc : 1882 

Fisher, H. T Hinds 1872, 1873 

Fitler, George A Lauderdale 1837, 1838, 1839 

Fitzgerald, J. F Hinds 1890 

Fitzhugh, S. W Wilkinson 1874, 1875 

Fletcher, T. M .Tunica 1843, 1844 

Flournoy, H. W Kemper 1842, 1843 

Flower, John Panola 1886, 1877 

Flowers, J. E Montgomery 1884, 1886 

Floyd, D. F Panola 1886, 1888 

Foley, H. N Wilkinson 1870, 1374 

Fontaine, C. D ....Pontotoc 1844, 1846 

Fontaine, J. B. .• Pontotoc 1904, 1906 

Foote, George H Noxubee 1848, 1850 

Foote, Henry S Hinds 1839 

Foote, H. W Noxubee 1856, 1857 

Foote, W. H Tippah 1848 

Foote, W. H Yazoo 1870, 1871 

Force, J. P Tallahatchie 1848 

Ford, David Marion 1828. 1829 

Ford, H. L Clay 1900, 1902 

Ford, Samuel Madison 1848, 1850 

Ford, Thomas B Marion 1878 to 1880 

Ford, Thomas S Marion, Perry 1872, 1873 

Ford, W. C Lauderdale 1874, 1875 

Fore, Daniel Rankin 1840, 1841 

Forman, E. J Amite 1904, 1906 

Fort, James Marshall 1863, 1864 

Fortson, J. T Monroe 1848 

Forteon, S. T Warren 1880 



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230 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. County. 8e88ion, 

Fortune, A. L Lafayette 1876, 1877 

Foster, A. B Panola 1841, 1846 

Foster, C. A Warren 1870, 1871 

Foster, Edgar Claiborne 1900, 1902 

Foster, James Adams 1821 

Foster, R. E Issaquena 1912 to 1914 

Foster, T. R Warren 1902 to 1908, 1908, 1910 

Foster, W. C Lauderdale 1846 

Fountain, J. Q Hancock 1904, 1906 

Fowler, D. W Pontotoc 1892, 1894 

Fowler, T. N Washington 1863, 1864 

Fowles, C. D Adams 1882, 1884, 1886 

Fowles, H Adams 1861. 1862 

Fowles, W. B Adams 1846 

Fox, Arthur Lawrence 

1821, 1828, 1830, 1837, 1838, 1840, 1841 

Fox, C. H Lawrence 1856, 1857 

Fox, H. H Webster 1896, 1897, 1898 

Fox, Thomas Choctaw 1861, 1862 

Fox, T J Calhoun 1892, 1894 

Foxworth, J. M. Marion 1890 

Foxworth, J. T Marion 1865, 1866, 1867 

Foxworth, J. W Marion, Perry 1874, 1875 

Foy, M. P Newton 1908, 1910 

Franklin, Ed Sunflower 1912, 1914 

Franklin, F. E Yazoo 1870, 1871 

Franlin, M Marshall 1900, 1902 

Franklin, M. A Lowndes 1896 to 1904 

Frasier, Robert Union 1890 

Frazer, R. M Union 1900, 1902 

Frazier, R. M Benton ..1908, 1910 

Frederick, C. J Tippah 1882 

Freeland, Thomas Claiborne 1821 

French, O. C Adams 1870 to 187G 

Friar, Robert C .Coahoma 1838 

Frierson, J. F Claiborne and Jefferson 1908, 1910 

Frith, C. E Amite 1859, 1860, 1861 

Frith, C. H Amite 1896, 1897, 1898 

Frost, John Wayne 1838 to 1840 

Frost, John Harrison 1844 

Fulton, D. M Madison 1835, 1836, 1837 

Ferguson, T. C Quitman, Tunica 1882 

Gaddis, John Scott 1872, 1873 

^age, J. J Yalobusha I860, 1861 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 231 

Name. County. Session. 

Gaines, George D Perry 1831 

Gaines, S. G Greene 1872,1873 

Gaines, S. W. . /. Wayne 1872, 1873 

Gale, Thomas Claiborne 1829 

Gallagher, C. W Lauderdale 1878 

Gallent, James M Amite 1852, 1856, 1857 

Galloway, A. T Lee, Itawamba 1900, 1902 

Gambrell, Robert Lee 1900, 1902 

Gandy, J. V Wayne 1912-14 

Gardner, J. H Prentiss. 1892, 1894, 1908, 1910 

Gardner. William Amite 1819. 1820 

Garland, Robert Warren 1839 

Garner. S. R Yalobusha 1854, 1856, 1857 

Garner, Vincent Pike 1819, 1820 

Garret, L. J Kemper 1848, 1854 

Garrett. T. B Tate 1874 to 1878 

Garrison, R. W Washington ..1904, 1906 

Garraway, S. T Perry 1896 to 1904, 1912-14 

Gartman, John Covington 1842 

Gary, M. E Smith ..1858 

Gasque, Love Smith 1859, 1860 

Gatlin, J. H Tippah 1848, 1850 

Gaudelock, L. A Union 1892, 1894 

Gayles, G. W Bolivar 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875, 1892 to 1894 

Gegan, H. B Lowndes 1870, 1871 

Genin, R. L Hancock 1912-14 

George, J. W Hinds, Yazoo 1900, 1902 

George, J, W Yazoo 1904, 1906 

George, W. W Holmes 1835 

Gerald, Eugene Amite 1908-10 

Gewen, J. T Kemper .1890, 1892, 1894 

Gex, E. J Hancock 1908-10 

Gholson, S. J Monroe 1835, 1836, 1839, 1865, 1866, 1878 

Gibbs, Q. D Yazoo 1861, 1862 

Gibbs, S. O Tishomingo 1846 

Gibbs, W. D Yazoo, Holmes 1886 

Gibson, Claudius Jefferson . ., 1828 

Gibson, Claudius Warren , 1831 

Gibson. David Franklin 1856-57 

Gibson, D. D Franklin 1828-29 

Gibson, Gideon Warren .^71831 

Gibson, Henry Oktibbeha 1835 

Gibson, James Warren 1820, 1827 

Gibson, Jap[ies .Warren 1880, 1882 



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232 STATE GOVERISTMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Gibson, W. J Alcorn 1876, 1877, 1878 

Gibson, W. G Benton '. 1900, 1902 

Gibson, W. I Prentiss 1876. 187? 

Gibson, W. S Adams 1856. 1857 

Gilbert. P. A Warren 1829, 1830 

Gilchrist. Malcolm Jefferson 1825, 1826, 1835 

Gildart. Thomas M. . . .Wilkinson 1817. 1818, 1819 

Gilfoy, J. R Chickasaw 1900- to 1908 

Gill, N. G Marshall. 1874, 1875 

Gilleland, S Attala 1854, 1856 

Gilleland, S. N Attala 1846 

Gilleland, S. N Copiah 1827, 1828 

Gillespie, H. B Hinds 1912-14 

Gillespie, J. L I^e 1890 

Gillespie, Sunflower 1852 

Gillis, John Covington 1870, 1871 

Gillis, John Perry, Marion 1876, 1877 

Gilmer, C. L Madison 1878, 1880 

Gilmer, John Lowndes 1838, 1839 

Gilmer, R. H Perry 1821 

Gilstrap, J. C Itawamba 1858 to 1867 

Gladney, J. B Chickasaw ' 1861, 1862 

Glass, F. M Attala 1878, 1880 

Glass, Dr. S. W Coahoma 1912-14 

Glenn, J. H Lowndes 1874, 1875 

Glover, J. A Coahoma 1892, 1894, 1896, 1897, 1898 

Goar. T. M Lee 1872, 1873 

Gobbins, J. C Marshall 1852 

Godbald, W. L Franklin 1886, 1888 

Godfrey, S. W Winston 1848 

Goff, J. M Bolivar 1900, 1902 

Going, J. B Calhoun 1908-16 

Golloday, Willis Yalobusha 1886 

Goode, S. M Kernper 1839 

Goodman, B Sharkey 1908-14 

Goodnin, J. W Warren 1878 

Goodwin, J. S Clay 1896, 1897, 1898 

Gordan, Adam Claiborne 1830 

Gordan, A. . D Clarke 1894 

Gordan, George H Wilkinson 1831, 1836, 1854, 1858 

Gordan, James Union 1886 

Gordan, James Pontotoc 1878, 1886 

Gordan, John Tippah k..l843 

Gordon, Abram Claiborne ..,.,. ..1823 



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STATE GOVERNilENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 233 

Name, County. * Session. 

Gore, J. E Webster .' 1884, 1892, 1894 

Govan, George M Pike 1884 

Govan, George M Amite 1884 

Gowan, T. R Simpson 1864, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1870 

Gowan, J. H Holmes 1876,1877 

Grace, W. G Lauderdale 1865, 1S66, 1867 

Grafton, Thomas Adams. 1852, 1854 

Graham, D. C Franklin 1859, 1860, 1861, 1862 

Graham, J. E Newton 1892, 1894 

Graham, S. M Kemper 1908, 1910 

Graham, T. B Scott 1865, 1866, 1867 

Graham, . Winston 1874, 1875 

Granberry, George Lawrence 1831 

Granberry, G. C Hinds 1882 

Granberry, J. M DeSoto 1882, 1888, 1900, 1902 

Granberry, Seth Copiah 1828, 1830, 1831, 1835 

Grant, Green L Choctaw 1839 

Grant, John Jackson 1842, 1843, 1844 

Grant, P. M Coahoma 1858 

Grantham, A. E . Kemper 1904 

Graves, Francis Amite 1823, 1825, 1826, 1829, 1830 

Graves, John Hancock 1856 

Graves, J. J Amite 1838, 1839, 1840 

Graves, R. S Choctaw 1840, 1841 

Graves, T. J ..Alcorn 1890 

Graves, William Copiah 1840 

Gray, Edward Wayne 1825 

Gray, Henry Wayne 1863, 1864 

Grayson, B. R Adams 1820, 1821 

Greaves, C. B Madison .1904, 1906 

Greaves, H. B Madison 1894 

Greaves, J. B Hinds 1882, 1888 

Greaves, John M Madison 1912 to 1914 

Greaves, S. A. D. Sr. . .Hinds 1846 

Greaves, S. A. D., Jr. . .Hinds 1908, 1910 

Green, A. R Hinds 1846 

Green, C. A Tippah 1846 

Green, Chas. B Adams , 1819, 1826 to 1830 

Green, C. B Madison 1831 

Geren, David S Grenada 1872 to 1876 

Green, E. H....„ Hinds 1896, 1897, 1898 

Green, T. J Warren . . . .- 1836, 183? 

Greene, F. A Lee 1908 to 1910 

Green, William Jefferson 1828 



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234 S1?ATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-191? 

Name County. ' Session. 

Greer, D. S Marshall 1840 

Greer, H. C Neshoba .- 1870, 1871, 1874, 1875 

Greer, John H Noxubee 1840, 1841 

Greer, J. M DeSoto 1856,1857 

Greer, John R Monroe 1840, 1842 

Greer, R. S Marshall 1888 

Greer, R. T Marshall 1842, 1844 

Grey* L. R Marshall 1840 

Griffin, B. E Warren 1912 to 1914 

Griffin, D... Tippah 1844, 1846 

Griffin, E. F Jackson, Harrison 1877 

Griffin, Joseph Calhoun 1890 

Griffin, T. M Madison 1865, 1866, 1867 

Griffin, Thomas N Hinds 1888, 1890 

Griffin, T. J Chickasaw 1850 

Griffin, William Perry 1842, 1843 

Griffiin, W. H Amite 1892, 1894, 1912, 1914 

Griggs, J. L Noxubee 1882 

Griggs, R Issaquena 1872, 1873 

Grinstead, T. Y Lawrence 1840, 1841 

Groves, Presley Leake 1886, 1900, 1902 

Guice, Jesse Franklin ^ 1823 

Guion, John I Warren 1840 

GuUedge, R. W Holmes 1912 to 1914 

Gully, H. J Winston 1882 

Gully, P. H Kemper 1861, 1862 

Gunn, I. F Kemper 1896, 1897, 1898 

Gunn, R. M Chickasaw 1861, 1862 

Gunn, W. B Clay 1880, 1888, 1890 

Guthrie, R. J '. .Lafayette .1876, 1877 

Guy, C. H Yalobusha 1846, 1850, 1852, 1858 

Guynes, A. B Copiah .1882, 1884, 1892, 1894 

Guyton, D. T Attala 1876,1877 

Guyton, Percy Attala 1900 1 

Gwin, C. V Holmes 1878 j 

Gwin, John Pike 1831 j 

Gwinn, J. E Holmes 1886 j 

Gwinn, J Warren 1838 | 

Gyden, F. T Rankin 1876 to 1877 ] 

Haden, R. D vionroe 1826 ] 

Haden, W. A Vttala 1886 

Hadley. T. B. J ilkinson 1828 

Haile, William Wilkinson 1825, 1826 

Halle, William Hancock 1830 i 



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STATE GOVERNMirN'T? OF MlSSiSStPPI, 1817-1917 23§ 

l^ame. County, Session. 

Hailes. Henry Clarke 1843, 1844 

Halbert, J. E Bolivar 1888 

Haley, L. P Chickasaw 1900, 1902 

Haiford, R. E Leake 1852 

Hall, H DeSoto 1872, 1873 

Hall, J. C Sharkey 1878 

Hall, J. G., Jr Panola 1876, 1877 

Hall, L. C Yazoo 1826 

Hall, R. J Leake 1858 to 1861 

Hall, R. W Simpson 1884 

Hall, W. C Leake 1856 

Hall, W. M Leake 1848 

Hall, W. W Lauderdale 1858, 1859, 1860. 1861 

Ham, J. S Coahoma 1900, 1902 

Hamblen, H. C Washington 1912, 1914 

Hamer, G. W Tippah 1857 

Hamer, J. G Tippah 1848, 1854, 1856 

Hamilton, Joel G Holmes : 1865, 1866, 1867 

Hamilton, J. M Carroll 1860, 1861 

Hampton, Wade, Ji Washington 1878 

Hancock, R. C DeSoto 1838, 1839, 1848 

Hancock, W. M Lauderdale 1842, 1843, 1844 

Handy, Alfred Madison 1872 to 1876 

Handy, Emmanuel Copiah 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873 

Handy, William Madison 1882 

Hanna, Henry Amite 1819 

Hannah, C. B Oktibbeha 1892, 1894, 1912, 1914 

Hannah, T. L Choctaw 1886 

Hanson, J. A Leake 1864, 1865, 1866, 1867 

Hardin, J. M Leake 1880, 1884 

Hardy, Abraham Carroll 1844 

Hargrove, S. M Tippah 1838 to 1843 

Harkreader, A. G Lee 1880 

Harley, B. C Marshall 1838, 1839 

Harley, W. R DeSoto 1856 

Harlow, A. M Yazoo 1882 

Harman, N. L Tippah 1886 

Harper, George W Hinds 1852, 1854, 1876, 1877 

Harper, Henry Leake 1835 

Harper, H. H Scott 1900, 1902, 1912, 1914 

Harper, Jesse Pike 1833, 1835, 1840 

Harper, J, H Clarke 1892, 1894 

Harper, W. C Rankin .1861, 1862 

Harper, W. L Jefferson 1882, 1884 



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236 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session, 

Harper, W. L Jefferson 1854 

Harrall, Job DeSoto 1882 

Harrington. J. B Lowndes 1896, 1897, 1898 

Harrington, S. A Oktibbeha 1848 

Harrington, S. Oktibbeha 1841 

Harris, B Copiah 1836 

Harris, Gowen Covington 1821, 1822 

Harris, G. W Panola 1888 

Harris, James C Benton 1888 

Harris, J. C Tippah 1888 

Harris, J. F Washington 1890 

Harris, J. L Yalobusha 1908, 1910 

Harris, J. M ..Warren 1892, 1894 

Harris, N. D DeSoto 1852 

Harris, R. A Leake 1851, 1862 

Harris, R. E Copiah 1844, 1846 

Harris, Wiley P Pike 1822 

Harris, W. A Lowndes ; 1880 

Harris, W. H Washington 1874, 1875, 1888 

Harrison, Henry Chickasaw 1874, 1875 

Harrison, Hugh Neshoba 1840, 1841 

Harrison, K. M Alcorn 1880 

Harrison, James T Lowndes 1884, 1888 

Harrison, M. P Tishomingo 1888 

Harrison, R. F Hancock 1871 

Hart, John L Hancock 1857, 1858 

Hart, J. A. J Lincoln 1890, 1892 

Hart, W. N Choctaw '. . . .1870," 1871 

Hartfield. G. H .Perry 1870, 1871 

Hartsfield, W. A Itawamba 1890 

Harvey, Brownlee Clarke 1912, 1914 

Harwell, J. M Lauderdale 1912, 1914 

Hatch, E. P Marshall 1870, 1871 

Hatch, N. W Monroe 1878 

Hathorn, Hiram Perry : 1863, 1864 

Hathorn, N. C Covington 1888 

Hathorn, N. C Marion 1896 to 1904 

Hathorn, S. B Covington 1852 

Hathorn, S. J Marion 1904. 1906 

Hatten, A. L C^vingtoi. IS'J? 

Havls, Thomas ..Franklin 1837, 1838, 1839 

Hawkins, Geo. R Warren 1908, 1910 

Hawkins, John Choctaw 1884 

Hawkins. J. M Hinds 1858 



'..•■T.;«^' ;:/ 



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_■ •; ^;hxftH 















l.^rU 



STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 237 

Name. " County. Session. 

Hawkins, S Carroll 1856, 1857, 1858 

Hawley, J. C Franklin 1826 

Head, C. P Warren 1870, 1871 

Head, T. S Franklin 1846 

Heahman, J. W Sunflower 1878 

Heard, S Union 1882 

Heath, J. S Issaquena 1900, 1902 

Heath, J. W Issaquena 1896, 1897, 1898 

Hebron, J. L Warren .1876, 1877 

Heidelberg, W. W Jasper 1888 

Heidelberg, W. W Jasper, Clarke 1904, 1906 

Helm, W. B Carroll 1854 

Hemingway, C. F Carroll 1840, 1850 

Hemingway, W. L Carroll 1870, 1871 

Hemphill, J. B Attala 1852, 1858 

Hemphill, L. S Carroll 1897 to 1904, 1912,1914 

Hemphill, P. W Choctaw 1852 

Hence, W. W Adams 1880 

Henderson, A Chickasaw 1870, 1871 

Henderson, Ellis Kemper 1854 to 1858 

Henderson, John Claiborne 1827, 1828 

Henderson, John M Bolivar 1837 

Hendon, John R Scott 1863, 1864 

Henley, John L Harrison .1854, 1865, 1866, 1867 

Henry, J. F Madison 1884 

Henry, J. P Leflore 1886 

Henry, M. L Union, Pontotoc 1888 

Henry, Patrick Rankin 1878, 1890 

Henry, Patrick Madison 1848, 1850 

Henry, W. A Hinds, Yazoo 1892, 1894 

Herres, George P Harrison, Jackson 1900, 1902 

Herring, J. B Pontotoc 1856, 1857 

Herring, W. A Yalobusha 1896, 1S97, 1898 

Herring, W. G ...Carroll 1842, 1843 

Heslep, W. D Rankin 1908, 1912 

Hickman, Samuel Lawrence 1882 

Hicks, A. M Yazoo 1876, 1882 

Hisck, E. H Jefferson 1859 to 1866 

Hicks, J. S Bolivar .'. 1896, 1897, 1898 

Hicks, J. S Jefferson 1888, 1892. 1904, 1906 

Hicks, Weldon Hinds 1878 

Hicks. Wilson Rankin 1874, 1875 

HIggason, George Monroe 1827, 1828, 1830 

Hlfflns. P ,,,., Oktibbeha ....,...,, ,... 1870, 1871 



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238 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Hight. C. C. Carroll 1854 

Hight, W. C Winston 1904, 1906 

Hightower, G. R Lafayette 1900, 1902 

Hilbun, Henry Jones 1904, 1906 

Hill, A. P Madison 1900, 1902 

Hill, B Marshall 1838, 1839 

Hill, Geo. H Lee 1908. 1910 

Hill, Isaac T Issaquena 1856; 1857 

Hill, J. C .Clay 1886 

Hill, J. K Copiah 1848 

Hill, J. L. S Chickasaw 1858, 1861, 1878, 1880 

Hill, J. W Marshall 1842 

Hill, T. B ....Panola 1838, 1839 

Hill, W. S Montgomery 1888 

Hillyer, Giles M Adams 1865, 1866, 1867 

Hindman, D. W Tishomingo 1838, 1839, 1846 

Hindman, T. C Tippah 1854 

Hinds, B. M Bolivar^ 1838, 1839 

Hinds, Howell Jefferson 1852 

Hinds, J. C Itawamba : 1846, 1848, 1850 

Hinds, Thomas Jefferson 1823 

Hinton, Samuel Marshall 1892, 1894 

Hodges, Charles Itawamba 1852, 1854 

Hodges, William Monroe 1870, 1871 

Hogan, J. P Warren 1876, 1877 

Hogg, Thomas Choctaw 1838, 1839 

Hogue, S. S Tishomingo 1848 

Holcomb, G Marion 1842, 1844 

Holcombe, J. R Lamar 1906 

Holcombe, W. H .Tippah 1865, 1866, 1867 

Holden, John Copiah 1840 

Holland, Charles I Jackson 1840, 1841 

Holland, George H Oktibbeha 1870 to 1874 

Holland, K. S Marshall 1838, 1839 

Holleman. G. H Perry 1844, 1846, 1861, 1862 

Hollingsworth, J. B Hinds 1880 

Hollingsworth, L. D. . . Monroe 1884, 1904 

Holloman, T. R Yazoo 1888 

Holloway, G, W Copiah 1904, 1906 

Holloway, R. F Montgomery 1872, 1873 

Holloway, R. T Choctaw 1872, 1873 

Holmes, B. R Yazoo 1856 to 1857 

Holmes, Herbert Tate 1908, 1910 

Holmes, Thomas Hancock 1826 



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STATE g6v£R5?MSKT of MISSISSIPPI, 1817-19 17 239^ 

Name. Count p. Session: 

Holmes, William Monroe ,.,,,.. .1872, 187Ji 

Holmes. W. T Pontotoc I860' 

H6lme§, Wi Tw Pontotoc 1896, IS^^T, 189^ 

Holt, John S < Adams ISSS- 

Hood, C. E .Copiah ..,.-.,, 1908, 191tf 

Hooker, C. E., Jr Hinds ......... .-, 1888 

Hooker, C. E Hinds ..-....•..-, 1859, 1860, 1861, 1862 

Hooker, H Lawrence ..•.-.•.• 1860, 1861, 18^2 

Hooker, H. S Holmes . . .• 1904, 1906 

Hooker, J. J Holmes , , 1861, 1862 

Hooker, W. P., Jr Pontotoc 1S92 

Hooper, Ha vis H Claiborne 1836, 1837, IgSS, 183& 

Hopson, D. H Coahoma ISSS 

Horn, John H Wayne 1826, 1829, 1830, 1836, 1837, 1838^ 

ttondfi, Oilben. ...... .W^ashington 1884 

Horton, G. G ...Poiltotoe 1876, 1877 

Horton, H. C Calhoilti 1872 to 1876 

Hosey, G. E .Warren ................. 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875 

Hoskins, J. S Holmes 1888 

HGughton, S. R . . . .Choctaw 1884 

H6use, ¥. e. ... i .... . .Tate 1S96, 1898, 1904, 1906 

House, W. J. ....... . . .Laudefdale . . 1856, 1857 

Houston, L. E.. ..... . .Monroe ....,,,.... 1848 

Houston, R. E Monroe ....... . .1884, 1890, 1896, 1897, 1898 

Houston, W. E Benton 1912 to 1914 

Houston, W. K Chickasaw 1850 

Howard, G. v^ Calhoun 1884 

Howard, M Jefferson 1870, 1871 

Howard, N. G Rankin 1833, 1835 

Howard, Perry Holmes 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875 

Howard, V. E Scott 1836 

Howe, A. R Panola , 1871 to 1874 

Howell, Stephen Simpson 1825 

Howerton J. S Lee 1912. 1914 

Howry, C. B Lafayette 1880. 1882 

Hoyle, James M Lee 1878, 1884, 1886, 1904, 1906 

Hubbard, W. J .Noxubee 1900, 1902 

Howerton, J. S ! . DeSoto 1880 

Huddleston, G. B Scott 1876, 1877 

Hudnall, James H Kemper 1870, 1874 

Hudnall, J. L Kemper 1884 

Hudson, Isaac Bolivar 1857, 1858 

Hudson, J. L Marshall 1859, 1860. 1861 

JIudson, L Hinds -...,,,,........., 1865, 1866, 1867 



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240 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Name. Counttj. Session, 

Hudson. T. J Marshall 1856. 1857, 1858 

Hudson, R. S Yazoo 1876 to 1877 

Hudson, S. S Yazoo 1890 

Hudson, Will H Yazoo 1908, 1910 

Huey, R. W : Smith 1856, 1857 

Huff, D. M Wilkinson 1904, 1906 

Huff, N. L Amite 1856, 1857 

Huff. Thomas J Jones ' 1884 

Huffman, J. W Pike 1865, 1866, 1867 

Huggins, A. P Monroe 1872, 1873 

Hughes, J. J Issaquena 1850 

Hughes, T. J Winston 1844, 1846 

Huie, George Choctaw 1846, 1848, 1850 

Hull, B. G Lowndes 1908, 1910 

Humphreys, B. G Claiborne 1838, 1839 

Humphreys, G. W Claiborne « 1861, 1862 

Hunt, E. N Tippah 1870, 1871 

Hunter, A Copiah 1865, 1866 

Hunter, H. H Noxubee 1880 

Huntley, Erastus Winston 1852 

Huntley, G. W Bolivar 1888 

Hurst, D. W Amite 1848 

Hurst, Richard Amite 1821, 1823, 1825 

Hurt, A. B .Montgomery 1878 

Hurt, W. A Montgomery 1880, 1882 

Hussey, M. A. C Adams 1876, 1877 

Hussey, S. L Lauderdale 1844 

Hyer. W. F Marshall 1872, 1873 

Hyland, Jacob Warren 1817, 1818, 1819 

Inge, John C Adams 1840 

Inge, W. M Alcorn 1882, 1884 

Irby, E. L Tunica 1900, 1902 

Irby, F. B Panola 1861, 1868 

Irwin, John L Jefferson 1826, 1831 

Irwin, John L Carroll 1836, 1837 

Tsom, N. A Lafayette 1863, 1864 

Ivy, S. G Clay 1892, 1894 

Ivy, S. G Noxubee ; 1882 

Jack, W. P Lowndes 1852 

Jackson, D. P Adams 1842, 1843 

Jackson, H. L Rankin 1888 

Jackson. J. C Tippah 1861, 1S62 

Jackson, Moses Amite 1861, 1862 

Jackson, W .Amite . . ............................ 182J 



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STATE GOVERT>rMEXT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 241- 

Name. County. ' Bession. 

Jacobs, H. P Adams 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1876, 1877 

Jacoway, B. J Neshoba 1838, 1839 

Jagers, James E Amite, Lincoln 1876, 1877 

James, John Sunflower 1886 

Jaraagin, H. L Noxubee 1842 to 1846. 1852, 1876, 1877 

Jayne, B. H Lawrence 1822 

Jayne, B. H Simpson 1838, 1839 

Jayne, J. M Rankin 1854, 1858 

Jayne, J. M., Jr Rankin 1876, 1877 

Jayne, Samuel Lawrence 1887, 1888 

Jenkins, Edward Tallahatchie 1840 

Jenkins, John Hinds 1840, 1841 

Jenkins, M. A Yazoo 1838 to 1839 

Jenkins, W Holmes 1850, 1856, 1857 

Jenkins, W. B Holmes 1859, 1860, 1861 

Jenkins, Winchester. . ..Adams 1912, 1914 

Johns, B. F Amite, Lincoln 1876, 1877, 1880 

Johns, R. A Tishomingo 1870, 1871 

Johnson, A Warren 1870, 1871 

Johnson, B Tippah 1863, 1864 

Johnson, David Itawamba 1874, 1880 

Johnson, David Lee, Itawamba 1892 

Johnson, D. M Choctaw 1842, 1843, 1844 

Johnson, P. M Harrison, Jackson 1912, 1914 

Johnson, G. W Simpson 1888 

Johnson, G. W Lawrence 1897, 1898 

Johnson, H. G Yazoo 1900, 1902 

Johnson, James S Carroll 1884 

Johnson, James S Carroll 1852, 1856, 1857 

Johnson, John Madison 1886 

Johnson, Joseph Wilkinson 1863, 1864 

Johnson, Joseph Wilkinson 1823, 1825 

Johnson, Joseph DeSoto 1841, 1842 

Johnson, J. B Clarke 1890 

Johnson, J. H DeSoto 1872, 1873 

Johnson, J. W Hinds 1886 

Johnson, L. C Panola 1908 to 1910 

Johnson, M. C Franklin 1882, 1884 

Johnson, M. D DeSoto 1839. 1860, 1861 

Johnson, M. D Wilkinson 1912, 1914 

Johnson, M. P DeSoto 1857 

Johnson, Peter Yalobusha 1882 

Johnson, S. D DeSoto 1850 

Johnson, T. H , ,Tate 1892, 1894 

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STATE GOVERNMENT 03P MiSSlSSli't't i§i7-i"9i7 



Johiison> W. B 

J^lanson, William. , 
Jdhnson, W. H . . . . 
,Tohnson, William.. 

Johtison, W". T 

Jolitisldti, Amos R. 



County. Session. 

.Winston 1876. 1877 

.Hinds 1872.1873 

.Warren 1861* 1882 

.Wilkinson .....;.-....... 1820 

.Holmes .•..-.•.•....•....... 1896,1897,1898 

Hinds 1836. 1837 



;rohaslon, A ..Clarke 1900, 1902 to 1908 to 1910 

.lolinston. H. G ....... . Claiborne 1817, 1818, 1821, 1822 

Johnston, S. IS. Lowndes 1912, 1914 

Johnston, 0. G Coahoma 1908 to 1916 

johnstoft, W. Li Yazoo 1S58 

crones, A. J Union 1908,1910 

Ooftfes, A. N Lowndes 1836, 1837 

'Jones, C. J Issaquena » . . * » m . * * ^ ^ 1890 

•Jones, D. R Scott 1852> 185^, I860, ISiSl 

Jcnes, E. H Leake 1872, 1873 

Jones, E. P Sunflower 1859, 1863 

Jones, G. L Union 1896, 1897, 1898, 1908, I9l0 

Jones, Isaac Winston 1836 

Jones, James Amite 1^22, 1823 

Jones, James M Franklin .i840> 1841 

Jones, J. C Pontotoc ..-......;; 1852 

Jones, J. H. Wilkinson .1^8^, 1888 

Jones, J. H Panola v 1890 

Jones, L. B Lafayette 1882 

Jones, L. J Jasper 1844, 1852, 1865 to 1868 

Jones, M. H Franklin 1908 to 1914 

Jones, M. R Claiborne ". 1884 

Jones, M. R Hinds 1876, 1877 

Jones, M. R Claiborne 1896, 1897, 1898 

Jones, P. Z Lawrence 1896 

Jones, R. C Winston 1884 

Jones, R. W Yalobusha 1870 to 1871 

Jones, S. R Wilkinson 1908 to 1910 

Jones, S. W Tate , 1900, 1902 

Jones, W. H , . Issaquena , . . , , 1874, 1875, 1876 

Jones, W. H Smith , 1882 

Jones, W. L Marshall 1870, 1871 

Joor, John Wilkinson .,.,, 1817, 1818 

Josselyn, Robert Lafayette ,.....,,,,,, 1838, 1839 

Josselyn, Robert Marshall r . • • • 1844 

Jourdan. Noel Hancock 1819, 1820, 1821, 1822 

Jowers, G Monroe , , , 1838, 1839 

Kearney, W. Q .Madison ,.»,,,..,..,,,,.,,.,,, .1§§8, 1860 



■^■? ;>^C'v:.>.^-ta,--n''^ %ry ^y^^^: 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 243 

Name. County. Session. 

Keegan, A. M Lawrence 1829, 1833, 1835 

Keely, J. M Neshoba 1872, 1873 

Keenan, Francis Neshoba 1844 

Keeton, J. P Lauderdale 1888 

Keirn. W. L Holmes 1892, 1894, 1896, 1897, 1898 

Keith, M. M Newton 1856 to 1861 

Keith, Thomas Newton 1894 to 1900, 1906 

Keith, W. S Panola 1852 

Kelley. R. G Tunica 1858 

Kelly, Duncan Lauderdale 1872, 1873 

Kelly, I. N Yazoo 1890 

Kelsey. G. E Marshall 1892, 1894 

Kelsey, Willis Winston 1850 

Kendall, W. G Jackson 1865, 1866, 1867 

Kendall, W. G Yalobusha 1840 

Kendrick, C Tishomingo 1884, 1886 

Kendrick, Reuben Amite 1872 to 1876 

Kendrick, S. F Monroe 1858 

Kennedy, Benjamin Carroll 1838, 1839, 1846 

Kennedy, Benjamin Copiah 1829 

Kennedy, J. B Perry 1852 

Kennedy, J. H Tippah 1865, 1866, 1867 

Kennedy, 0. L Lee 1888, 1896, 1897, 1898 

Key. J Adams 1878 

Key, J. R Kemper 1892 

Kllgore, Benjamin Carroll 1840, 1841 

Kllingsworth, W. A. . . . Adams 1896, 1897, 1898, 1908-10 

Kimball, Leonard Hancock 1850 

Kimbrough, B. T Benton 1872, 1873 

Klmbrough, D. M Lafayette 1904, 1906 

KIncannon, A. A Lowndes 1844 

King, Bee Rankin ..1900, 1902 

King, E. C Attala , 1912-14 

King, John G Franklin 1880 

King, W. H Marshall 1908-10 

King. John W Coahoma 1852 

King, J. W. Rankin 1836, 1840 

King, T. J Carroll , 1892, 1894 

King, T. P Winston 1888 

Kirk, S. C Winston 1863, 1864 

Kirk, William Winston 1861, 1862 

Klrkland, R. B Neshoba 1850, 1856, 1857 

KItrill, J Greene 1884 

Knox, J. L Panola 1896, 1897, 1898 



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244 STATE GOVKRNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Knox, N. C Panola 1882, 1904, 1906 

Knox, William Tippah 1859, 1860, 1861 

Kyle. A. S Panola 1900 to 1908 

. Labauve, Felix DeSoto 1844, 1865. 1866, 1867 

Lackland, W. D DeSoto 1852 

Lake. W. A Warren 1859, 1860, 1861 

Lamar, J. W Calhoun, Yalobusha ." 1888 

Lamb, J. E Jefferson 1908, 1910 

Lamb, R. A Jasper 1896, 1897, 1898 

Lamb, S. R Panola 1892, 1894, 1896, 1897, 1898 

Lamb. T. L Winston 1900, 1902 

Lamb, W. J Alcorn 1896, 1897, 1898 

Lamkin. J. C Pike. 1880, 1884 

Lancaster, C. D Harrison, Jackson 1892, 1894 

Land, S. W Attala 1872, 1873 

Land, Thomas T Hinds 1840 to 1844 

Land, Thomas Yazoo 1830 

Landers, William Jefferson 1872 to 1876 

Landrum, L. D Lowndes 1890 

Lane, Alfred G Itawamba 1838, 1839, 1844 

Langdon, C. S Warren 1870, 1871 

Langford, G Rankin 1870, 1871 

Langford, R. C Yazoo 1912-14 

Langston, A. H Leake 1896, 1897, 1898 

Langston, D. C Pontotoc 1900, 1902 

Langston, T. R Webster 1908-10 

Lantrlp, P. M Pontotoc 1904 

Larkin, F. E Washington 1900, 1902 

Lanb, Beekman Adams 1912-14 

Lawson, Charles M Hinds 1825 

Lawson, H. A. H Madison .1844 

Lea, Luke Hinds 1884 

Lea, Zachariah Amite 1820 

Leach, X A Newton 1896, 1897, 1898 

Leake, J. S Lowndes 1841 

Learned, C. D Marion 1833, 1835 

Leavell, R. M Lee 1872, 1873 

Lee, R. C .Madison 1886 

Leflore, Greenwood Carroll 1835 

Leggett, B. W Pike 1841, 1846 

Leggett, J. B Pike 1890 

Leggett, S Simpson 1874, 18'^5 

Leigh, J. E Lowndes 1876, 1877 

Leigh, R. H , .Yalobusha , ..,..,., , . . » 484^ 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MESSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 245 

Name. County. Session, 

Leighton, George Jefferson 1835, 1837 

Lemley, T. L Smitli 1841. 1844, 1846 

Lenoir, Francis Marion 1820, 1821 

Leonard, . . .^ . . .Hancock 1872 

Leslie. Silas J Hancock 1880 

Lesser, Julius Bolivar 1904, 1906 

Lester, G. H Yalobusha '. 1876 

Levy, M Madison 18J2 

Lewers, C. A Calhoun 1865, 1866, 1867 

Lewis, Andrew J Claiborne 1865, 1866, 1880 

Lewis, A. E Jackson 1850, 1852 

Lewis, Berry Yazoo 1842, 1843, 1844 

Lewis, Clarke Noxubee 1878 

Lewis, H. W Lowndes 1870, 1871 

Lewis, Iddo Rankin 1896, 1897, 1898 

Lewis, J. A Chickasaw 1908 to 1916 

Lewis, John Perry 1880 

Lewis, M. A Jasper 1908-1910 

Lewis, M. A Jasper 1908, 1910 

Lewis, M. G Tishomingo 1854 

Lewis, Samuel K Clarke 1835, 1836 

Lewis, S. W Madison 1884 

Lewis, W. T .Winston 1861, 1862 

Libby, F. M Bolivar 1878 

Liddell, James Carroll 1848 

Liddell, J. M Carroll 1865. 1866, 1867, 1877 

Liddell, J. M., Jr Carroll 1878 

Liddell, Moses Wilkinson 1820, 1822, 1823 

Liddell, P. F Choctaw 1854, 1856. 1857 

Liddell, W. W Carroll ..1863, 1864 

Likens, T. J Washington 1852 

Lilly, Joel Copiah 1896, 1897, 1898 

Lindsay, C. A Choctaw '. . .1908 to 1916 

Lindsay, J Itawamba *. .1844 

Lindsay, J. J Tishomingo 1857 

Lindsay, Thomas Choctaw 1836 

Lipscomb, J. N Madison 1896, 1897, 1898 

Locke, Leopold Pearl River 1912-14 

Lockwood, W. B Copiah 1904, 1906 

Loflin, W. A Rankin 1890 

Lofton, W. M Simpson 1908-10 

Long, B. R Marshall 1859, 1860, 1861 

Long, J. C Neshoba 1900, 1902 

Longest, J. I Pontotoc 1900, 1902, 1908, 1910 



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^46 STATE (Government of Mississippi, i8i7-i9i7 

Name. County. Session. 

Longstreet, J. C Grenada 1886, 1888 

Loomis, C. W Hinds 1870, 1871 

Loper, Floyd Newton 1900, 1902, 1904 

Loper, J. M Newton 1844, 1846 

Loper, J. M Jasper 1872, 1873 

Loper, Peter Jasper 1838, 1839,1842, 1843 

Lott, William Marion 1830 

Lott, W. B Madison 1863, 1864 

Lott, W. J , . . . .Covington 1854, 1856 

Love, Franklin Pike 1831, 1835, 1836 

Love, S. O Tippah 1888, 1908, 1910 

Love, W. A Lowndes 1892, 1894 

Love, W. A Kemper 1860, 1861 

Love, W. F Amite 1878, 1880, 1884 

Lowe, Aaron Covington 1840, 1841 

Lowe, W. L ...Bolivar 1886 

Lowry, John Amite 1822 

Lowry, Robert Tishomingo 1863, 1864 

Lowry, Robert Rankin 1890 

Lucas, John C... Attala 1871 

Luck, T. B Marshall 1888 

Luckett, O. A Madison 1854 

Lusk, C. A Hinds 1878 

Luster, T. A. Claiborne 1912-14 

Lyle, Matthew Scott 1861, 1862, 1880, 1882 

Lyles, A. M Marshall 1865, 1866, 186? 

Lyles, J. R ..Monroe 1859, 1860, 1861 

Lynch, F. J Rankin 1848, 1850 

Lynch, G. C Winston 1858 

Lynch, John R Adams ...1870, 1871, 1872, 1873 

Lynch, W. H Adams 1874, 1875, 1882, 1886 

Mabry, Alex Attala 1865, 1866 

Mabry, J. R Yalobusha 1841 

Mackey, L. W DeSoto 1874, 1875 

Mackey, Sam Warren 1912-14 

Madison, J. E Noxubee 1880 

Madison, J. S Noxubee .1886, 1888, 1890, 1892 

Maer, P. W Lowndes 1904, 1906 

Magee, Fleet Marion 1836 

Magee, James S Franklin 1878 

Magee, J. O Pike 1861. 1862 

Magee, Lewis Franklin 1829 

Magee, L. L Franklin, Lincoln 1912-14 

Magee, R. J Covington 1886 



hjl.. 









g'l'ATfi GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 24T 

Name. County. Session. 

Magee, T. A. Franklin 1890 

Magee, T. D Simpson 1854 

Magee, T. K Franklin 1900. 1902 

Magee, Willis Covington 1850, 1857 

Magehee, M. H Bolivar ...1861 to 1862 

Magruder, L. W Warren 1886, 1888, 1890 

Magruder, R. W Claiborne, Jefferson. .* 1900, 1902 

Magruder, T. B Claiborne 1840, 1841 

Magruder, T. B Claiborne 1882 

Magruder, W. T Claiborne 1884, 1888 

Mahon, Hugh K Marshall 1900 to 1908 

Mallett, W. E Yazoo, Hinds 1912-14 

Mallory, W. H Leflore 1876, 1877 

Mallory, W. H Warren 1872, 1873 

Mallory, W. H Sunflower 1876, 1877 

Malone, F. J Marshall 1861, 1862 

.Malone, J. T Marshall 1846, 1850 

Manning, T. P DeSoto 1865, 1866, 1867 

Manship, Luther Hinds 1896, 1897, 1898 

Manuel, L. G Jackson 1896, 1897, 1898 

Marable, C. C. M Chickasaw ,. 1865, 1866, 1867 

Marble, E. G Warren ' 1850, 1852 

Marett, E. J Marshall 1880 

Marion, T. P Lauderdale 1857 

Marks, L Quitman 1884, 1886 

Marsh, J. R Madison :.. 1829, 1830 

Marsh, Peter Lauderdale 1840, 1841 

Marsh, S. B Amite 1828, 1829 

Marshall, B. T Carroll 1878 

Marshall, B. G Madison 1838, 1839 

Marshall, C. A DeSoto 1882 

Marshall, George M Adams 1888, 1890 

Marshall, J. G Holmes 1878 

Marshall, Martin Warren 1878 

Marshall, T. A Warren 1852 

Marshall, T. D ..Warren 1892, 1894 

Martin, H. K ~ Itawamba 1865, 1866, 1867 

Martin, Jackson Montgomery 1874, 1875 

Martin, 1. R Copiah 1912-14 

Martin, J Lauderdale 1846 

Martin, J Choctaw 1859, 1860, 1861, 1862 

Martin, J. B Madison ..1896, 1897, 1898, 1908, 1910 

Martin, J. Q Yalobusha 1856, 1857 

Martin, W. F Copiah 185C 



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S4^ STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Martin, W. G Pike. 1833, 1835 

Martin, W. W Copiah ! 1852 

Martiniere, E. F Clarke 1872, 1873 

Mason, E Warren 1848 

Massingale, George M . Covington 1876, 1877 

Matlieson, Neil Covington 1880, 1882 

Mathews, Beverly Lowndes 1858 to 1862 

Matthews, J. W .Marshall 1840 

Matthews, D. T. J Panola 1874, 1875 

Matthews, James Tishomingo 1840, 1842 

Matthews, James E. . . .DeSoto J.856, 1857 

Matthews, S. A «.Pike 1850 

Mauferay, J. H ..Hancock 1892, 1894 

Maury, James H Claiborne 1831 

Maury, John M Carroll 1841 

Mauss, Charles Lowndes 1872, 1873 

Maxey, J. M Noxubee 1846 

Maxey, Robert Pcankin 1844 

Maxey, T. S ..Rankin 1870 

Maxwell, H. P Benton .1888 

Maxwell, John Adams 1844 

Maxwell, W. G Panola 1863, 1864 

May, Jos. A Tallahatchie 1912-14 

May, S Tunica 1846 

Maybin, W. H ...Harrison 1894 

Mayfield, Thomas Smith 1888, 1904, 1906 

Mays, L. M Grenada 1898 

Mayes, John B Copiah 1912-14 

Mayson, C. R Bolivar 1880, 1882, 1884 

Mayson, H Hinds. 1870. 1871 

McAfee, Jesse Covington 1838. 1839 

McAfee, Joseph Covington 1843, 1844, 1846 

McAfee, Joseph Copiah 1S25, 1S26 

McAfee, J Tallahatchie 1882 

McAfee, J. T Attala 1850 

McAfee, Morgan. . . . . ..Covington ..1831 

McAfee, Morgan Tallahatchie 1836, 1842, 1843 

McAfee, R. W Grenada 1900, 1902 

McAllister, R Tippah 1859, 1860, 1861 

McAlister, W. M Wayne 1904, 1906 

McAllister, W. S Madison 1892, 1900, 1902 

McAllum, D. P Kemper 1842, 1843 

McArthur, J. A Chickasaw 1886 

McArthur, J. A Chickasaw ..1896, 1897, 1898 


















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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 249 

Name. County. Session. 

McBeath, J. C Neshoba 1882 

McCabe, H. C Warren 1886 

McCafferty, J. T Choctaw 1900, 1902 

McCain, Thomas DeSoto 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875 

McCall, R. J Marshall 1882 

McCallum, H. M Perry 1882 

McCargo. W. W DeSoto 1876, 1877 

McCarthy. CO Panola 1900 

McCaskill, Alex Simpson 1836, 1837 

McCaskill, Alex Greene 1838, 1839 

McCaskill, Allen Greene 1835 

McCaskill, ■ — Simpson 1912-14 

McCaughan, J. J Harrison 1846 

McCawley, D Lowndes. 1872, 1873 

McClurg, Monroe Carroll 1896 

McCool, J. F Attala 1882, 1884, 1896 

McCormick, J. F Greene 1876, 1877 

McCormick, J. F "Wayne 1875, 1877 

McCrory, James Chickasaw 1852 

McCrory, Calhoun 1854 

McCuiston, W. T Grenada, Montgomery 1900, 1902, 2904 

McCullough, Lincoln 1908, 1910 

McCullum, Duncan. . . .Simpson 1878 

McCullum, Simpson 1841, 1842 

McDaniel, D. S Amite 1900, 1902 

McDaniel, Wm Winston 1838 

McDonald, D. K Perry 1908-10 

McDonald, Fred J Chickasaw 1912-14 

McDonald, Hugh Greene 1820, 1821 

McDonald, Hugh Neshoba 1861, 1862 

McDonald, Hugh Perry 1821, 1828 

McDonald, John Jackson 1826, 1830, 1836 

McDonald, John Jasper 1846 

McDonald. J. L Tippah 1859, 1860, 1861 

McDonald. W. A Benton 1884, 1886 

McDonald. W. T Benton, Tippah '..1886 

McElroy, J. C Newton 1861 to 1868 

McFarland, Ben Monroe 1904, 1906 

McFarland. J. W Rankin 1874, 1875 

McFarland, T. J Yalobusha 1900, 1902 

McFarland, W. J Jasper 1904, 1906 

McGee, A. F Kemper 1888 

McGee, A. F Clarke 1388 

McGee, A. F ....Lauderdale ............................ ..1388 



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250 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

McGee, F. C Clarke 1880 

McGee, Nehemiah Rankin 1830 

McGee, W. J Hinds, Yazoo 1904, 1906 

McGehee, Edward Wilkinson 1825 

McGehee, G. T Wilkinson 1878, 1880 

McGehee, J. G. R Pike 1863, 1864 

McGehee, J. L Panola 1886 

McGowan, Marion ...1840, 1841 

McGowan, Hugh Hinds 1838, 1839 

McGowan, J. G Yalobusha 1904, 1906 

McGuire, J. G Yazoo. 1892, 1894 

McGuire, M. L Holmes ..1852 

Mcllhenny, Oliver Scott 1908-10 

Mclnnis, D. W Simpson JL880 

Mclnnis, Hillard Greene 1886 

Mclnnis, John Greene. . .1846, 1848, 1850, 1852, 1865, 1866, 1867 

Mclnnis, John M Jackson, Harrison 1876 

Mclnnis, K Greene ....1882 

Mcintosh, D. A Leake, Winston 1892 

Mcintosh, J. R Chickasaw 1872, 1873 

Mclntyre, T. G Claiborne 1844 

McKay, S. V Greene. 1863, 1864 

McKay, W. A Neshoba 1863, 1864 

McKenzie, C. S Sunflower 1884 

McKenzie, D DeSoto 1878 

McKenzie, J. C Montgomery, Carroll 1870 to 1874 

McKIe, G. W Marshall 1882, 1886, 1892, 1894 

McKie, J. H Lafayette 1872, 1873 

McKinney, David Panola 1837 

McKinney, James Monroe 1836, 1837 

McKinney, W. J Marshall 1886, 1888 

McKnight, Theodore. . .Amite, Pike 1890 

McLain, F. A Amite ; 1882 

McLaurin, A. J Rankin 1880 

McLaurin, D Covington 1848 

McLaurin, D. D Jasper 1858, 1876, 1877 

McLaurin, John R Lauderdale * 1852, 1854 

McLaurin, J. R. Lauderdale 1880 

McLaurin, John R Lauderdale 1863, 1864 

McLaurin, L Smith. 1842, 1843, 1861. 1866, 1876, 1877 

McLean, G. A Leflore 1878 

McLemore, J. D Carroll 1863, 1864 

McLendon, Allen Claiborne 1838, 1S39 

McLeod, C. . W. .. f Tishomingo 1856,. 1857 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 251 

Name. County. Session. 

McLeod, Daniel Greene 1904, 1906 

McLeod, D. W Greene 1888, 1890 

McLeod, John Greene 1822, 1823 

McLeod, J. K Greene 1870, 1871 

McLeod, M. M. Hinds 1884 

McLeod, W. D Jackson 1912-14 

McMahan, W. W Lafayette 1896, 1897, 1898 

McManis, Jackson 1820 

McManus, Archibald. . .Greene 1825 to 1830 

McManus, Hugh Jones 1900, 1902 

McMartin, John Claiborne 1878, 1880 

McMichael, E. C Copiah 1904, 1906 

McMillan, G. S Smith 1852 

McMurran, J. T Adams 1836 

McNabb, Ezekiel Simpson 1850 

McNabb, J. Y Rankin 1846 

McNair, A. C Lincoln 1876, 1877 

McNeely, J. H Hinds 1884 

McNeese, M Noxubee 1870 to 1877 

McNiel, John Pontotoc 1863, 1864 

McNiel, J. Y .Simpson 1865. 1866, 1867 

McNiel, T. W Copiah 1880 

McQueen, Hugh Winston 1884 

McRae, C. J Jackson 1838, 1839 

McRae, David Greene ..1831, 1833 

McRae, Duncan Rankin 1859, 1860, 1861 

McRae, James B Jackson 1882, 1888 

McRae, John Kemper 1865, 1866, 1867 

McRae, John J Clarke 1848, 1850 

McRaney, John Covington 1861, 1862, 1865, 1866, 1867 

McSwlne, William Grenada 1878, 1890, 1892, 1894, 1896 

MeWhorter, B. F Pontotoc 

1859. 1860, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1876, 1877 

MeWhorter, B. F .Union 1876, 1877, 1878, 18S0 

McWilllams, A. J Itawamba 1848 

McWillie, T. A Hinds 1880 

Mead, Cowles Jefferson 1822, 1825 

Mead, J. L Simpson 1876, 1877 

Means, H. H Marshall 1841 

Meares, J. L Washington 1865, 1866, 1867 

Medearis, H Lawrence 1865 

Medford, H. C Lee 1894, 1896, 1897, 1898 

Meece, J. W Yalobusha 1912, 1914 

Meharg, A. S , . , , DeSoto ,...,..... , , 18^6, 1904. 1906 



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252 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. | 

Mellen, T. L Adams 1880, 1882 ] 

Mellen, William P Adams 1838, 1839 

Melton, William Pontotoc 1848 

Mendenhall, J. B Simpson 1838, 1839 ■ 

Merrill, J. W. S Carroll 1865, 1866, 1867 

Merrimar, W. H Oktibbeha 1859, 1860 

Merriwether, B. H. . . . . DeSoto 1858 

Metcalf, A. H Scott 1846 to 1852 > 

Metcalf, Bela Adams 1822 

Metts, M. A Winston 1856, 1857, 1872, 1873, 1878 

Middleton, Parks Choctaw 1837 

Milam, J. R DeSoto 1854 

Miles, W. R Yazoo 1844 ^ 

Milan, W. I ...Kemper 1912, 1914 

Miller, A Sharkey 1896 to 1908 

Miller, C. F ..Oktibbeha 1860, 1861 

Miller, George W Copiah 1876, 1877 ^ 

Miller, H. R Pontotoc 1842, 1843 ) 

Miller, R. N .Copiah 1878 

Miller, S. W Copiah 1892, 1894 

Miller, T. M Warren 1884 

Miller, T. P Winston 1859, 1860, 1861 J 

Miller, W. B Copiah , 1908, 1910 1 

Miller, W. D Panola 1878 :i 

Miller, W. N Copiah 1829 i 

Miller, W. W Washington 1892, 1894 j 

Millsaps, E Pike 1844, 1846 

Millsaps, J. G Clay 1900 to 1908 

Millsaps, T. J Copiah 1886, 1890 

Millsaps, W. G Jefferson 1876, 1877 

Milton, J. L Yalobusha 1865, 1866, 1867 j 

Minor, H. A., Jr Noxubee 1912, 1914 J 

Minter, James Yalobusha : 1838, 1839 i 

Mister, M. K Yalobusha 1870, 1871 . 

Misterfeldt, Edgar Rankin 1912, 1914 ] 

Mitchell, A. S Madison , 1852 | 

Mitchell. C Holmes 1870, 1871 j 

Mitchell, C. B Pontotoc 1870, 1871, 1888, 1894 j 

Mitchell, David Holmes 1858 | 

Mitchell, D. T Leflore 1884 I 

Mitchell, George H Coahoma 1854 j 

Mitchell, G. W Lee, Itawamba 1904, 1906 J 

Mitchell, J. B Holmes 1900, 1902, 1908, 1910 

Mitchell, J. C Hinds 1842 i 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 253 

Name, County. Session. 

Mitchell, Peter Washington 1880, 1882, 1886 

Mixon, W. B Pike 1904, 1906 

Moffatt, M. W Hinds 1856, 1857, 1858 

Monday, S. S Carroll 1908, 1910. 

Monet, Julius C Hancock 1836, 1837 

Monet, Julius Hancock 1854 

Monroe, James E Coahoma 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877 

Montgomery, Alex Yazoo 1866, 1867 

Montgomery, D Oktibbeha 1842, 1844 

Montgomery, D. P Leflore 1912, 1914 

Montgomery, F. A Bolivar 1880, 1882, 1884 

Montgomery, F. A Coahoma 1896 

Montgomery, J. M Washington 1892, 1894 

Montgomery, J. S. . . . ..Oktibbeha 1878, 1882, 1884 

Montgomery, J. S Quitman 1894 

Montgomery, L. F Madison 1882 

Montgomery, P. K Jefferson 1836, 1837 

Montgomery, R. A Holmes 1912, 1914 

Montgomery, Samuel. . .Adams 1820, 1821 

Montgomery, S. R. Claiborne 1830 

Montgomery, S. S Franklin 1863, 1864 

Montgomery, T. H Franklin, Lincoln 1904, 1906 

Montgomery, W. A Hinds 1898 

Montgomery, W. R. . . .Marshall .'. : 1878 

Moody, H. A Panola 1878 

Moody, Isham Greene 1840, 1841 

Moody, Isham Clarke 1846 

M6ody, M. W Tippah 1852 

Moody, W. R Lowndes 1908, 1910 

Moore, A. G Hinds 1837 

Moore, A. M Kemper 1882 

Moore, B. B Chickasaw 1863, 1864 

Moore, Clarence Marshall 1912, 1914 

Moore, C. H Monroe 1884 

Moore, James Noxubee 1838 

Moore, James Yalobusha 1896 to 1904 

Moore, John M Holmes 1840 

Moore, John M Yalobusha 1878 

Moore, J. A Lauderdale 1870, 1871 

Moore, J. C Monroe 1846 

Moore, J. T Claiborne 1844 

Moore, Joseph Claiborne 1827 

Moore, Lem Issaquena 1880, 1884 

Moore, L. B Monroe 1861, 1862 

Moore, L. C Bolivar 1890 



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254 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Moore, S Noxubee 1848 

Moore, W Greene 1842, 1843, 1844 

Moore, W. V Yalobusha 1884, 1890 

Morehead, S. J Copiah 1863, 1864 

Morgan, J. H Washington 1870 to 1876 

Morphis, J. L Pontotoc 1865, 1866, 1867 

Morris, D. A Jasper 1880 

Morris, F. M Perry 1892, 1894 

Morris, J. J. H Perry 1822, 1825, 1826, 1827 

Morrison, Alex Hinds 1833 

Morrison, Alex Greene 1830 

Morrison, S. A Grenada 1904, 1906, 1908, 1914 

Mosely. G. G Hinds 1874, 1875 

Mosely, G. H Marshall 1861, 1862 

Moses, I. N Adams 1908, 1910 

Moss, H. T Tishomingo 1882 

Moss. L. A Hinds 1900, 1902 

Mott, C. H Marshall 1850 

Mott, N. A Yazoo 1912, 1914 

Mounger, E. H Marion 1912, 1914 

Mount, C. E Yazoo 1841, 1842, 1843 

Muldrow, H. L Oktibbeha 1876, 1877 

Muldrow, Robert Oktibbeha 1856, 1857 

Muldrow, S. Oktibbeha 1890 

Mull, Thomas Marshall 1840, 1854 

Mulligan, E. F Warren 1906 

Mullins, S. W Marshall , 1880, 1884 

Munson, L. A Lowndes ^ 1870, 1871 

Murchison, S Adams 1838, 1843 

Murdock, A Lowndes , , 1865, 1866, 1867 

Murfe, J. R Monroe 1888 

Murphree, Dennis Calhoun 1912, 1914 

Murphree, T. M Calhoun 1900, 1902, 1904 

Murphy, A. G Tallahatchie 1859, 1860, 1861 

Murphy, C. T Winston 1844 

Murphy, C. T Holmes 1880 

Murphy, V. M Noxubee 1839 

Murray, Joshua Greene 1836, 1837 

Murry, Benjamin Chickasaw 1865, 1866, 1867 

Murry, John Y Tippah, Benton 1884 

Murry, John Y Benton, Tippah 1892, 1894 

Myers, A DeSoto 1880 

Myers, A. L Lowndes 1882, 1884 

Myers, Geo. D Marshall 1912, 1914 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 255 

Name. County. Session. 

Myers, P. J Perry 1848, 1850 

Nabers. B. D Tippah 1850 

Nabers, James F Lee 1870, 1871 

Nabers, Lewis Monroe 1854, 1858 

Nabers, W. D Itawamba 1880 to 1886 

Nabors, S. M Alcorn 1908 to 1916 

Nailor, D. B Warren 1848 

Nailor, J Warren 1844 

Nash, L N Neshoba 1846 

Nash, Thomas N Coahoma 1848, 1850 

Nash, Wiley N Oktibbeha 1884 

Neely, O. Y Kemper , 1848 

Neal, L. R Tishomingo 1912, 1914 

Neil, G. F Carroll 1848, 1850 

Neil, Samuel Hinds 1838, 1839 

Neill, S. D Sunflower 1900, 1902 

Neilson, J. C Lowndes 1896, 1897, 1898 

Nelms, C. G DeSoto 1858 

Nelms, J. H .Washington .1908, 1910 

Nelson, B. F Copiah 1850 

Nelson, Horatio Lafayette 1837 

Nelson, J. G Itawamba 1861, 1862 

Nelson, W. J *. . . .Quitman, Tunica 1880 

Nelson, W. J Tunica 1892, 1894 

Nettles, R Oktibbeha 1870, 1871 

Nevitt, John- B Adams 1819 

New, W. W Lawrence .^ 1829, 1830 

Newman, A. M Franklin, Lincoln 1892, 1894 

Newman, J. C .Warren 1856, 1857 

Newman, S. B Warren 1854 

Newsom, M. T Claiborne 1870, 1871 

Newton, Isaac Lawrence 1859 

Nichols, Eli Madison 1842, 1843 

Nichols, J. D DeSoto 1876, 1877 

Nicholson, I. N Kemper .' 1836, 1837 

Nicholson, Isaac R. . . .Greene 1819 

Nicholson, Isaac R Copiah 1825, 1826, 1827 

Nicholson, I. R Hinds 1836 

Nicholsan, John H Hancock 1870, 1871 

Nicholson, J. A Noxubee 1886 

Nicholson, J. W Kemper 1856, 1857 

Nicholson, L. M Washington 1912, 1914 

Nielsen, J. C Lowndes 1876, 1877, 1878 

Niles, H. C Attala 1878, 1886 



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256 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Niles, Jason Attala 1870 

Nix, Juan Franklin 1892, 1894 

Nixon, George M Marion 1817, 1818 

Noble, Samuel Smith 1848, 1850 

Noel, E. F Holmes 1882 

Noland, T. V Wilkinson 1880, 1886, 1890, 1892 

Nolen, J. R Winston 1888 

Norfleet, F. M Tate 1884 

Norfleet, J. R Marshall 1858 

Norman, B. D. Copiah 1837 

Norment, J. W Oktibbeha 1900 to 1908 

Norrell, A. G Rankin 1908, 1910 

Norrell. A. G Yazoo 1882, 1884, 1886 

Norrell, T. N Rankin 1880 

Norrell, W. O Rankin 1886 

Norris, C. F Hinds 1870, 1871 

Norris, W. A Wilkinson 1840 to 1844 

North, Ralph Adams 1846 

Northcross, J. M Tippah 1858 

Norton, H. W Oktibbeha '. 1836 

Norton, W. R Lincoln 1900, 1902 

Nowland, G. G Jefferson 1856 to 1857 

Nunn, E. F Noxubee i 1878 

Nye, N. G Yazoo 1865 

O'Byme, M Noxubee 1908, 1910 

Odom, J. W DeSoto 1884, 1892, 1894 

Offutt, H. H Madison 1840, 1841 

Oldham, W. J Coahoma 1839 

O'Leary, C. W Madison 1888 

Oliphant, T. A Monroe 1888, 1890 

Oliver, G. H Coahoma 1890 

O'Neill, J. J Warren 1908, 1910 

O'Neil, T. J Noxubee 1890, 1892, 1894 

Orr, W. G Chickasaw 1884 

Osborne, I. N Jackson 1870, 1871 

Osgood, E. H. Wilkinson 1874 

Overstreet, John Kemper 1888 

Overton, L. W Noxubee 1876, 1877 

Owen, B. F Holmes 1863, 1864 

Owen, D. W Itawamba 1854 

Owen, F. A Tunica 1865, 1866, 1867 

Owen, R. M Benton 1904, 1906 

Owen, S. J Benton, Tippah 1900 to 1902 ; Union 1912 to 1914 

Owen, William Itawamba 1840, 1841 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 257 

Name. County. Session. 

Owen, William Lafayette 1858 to 1865 

Owens, J. G Scott 1870, 1871 

Owings, W. B Winston 1870. 1871 

Pace, J. R Newton, Leake 1888 

Pace, N. M Kemper 1900, 1902 

Packwood, S. E Pike .1874 to 1876, 1892. 1894 

Palmer, Baylor Lauderdale 1874, 1875 

Palmer, H. D. Attala 1856 to 18B0 

Parker, A Amite 1870, 1871 

Parker, J. R Washington 1884 

Parker, S. E Sumner 1876, 1878 

Parks, S Tallahatchie 1856, 1857 

Parks, S Yalobusha 1852 

Parks, W. B Bolivar 1912, 1914 

Pamell, H. H. Panola 1896, 1897, 1898 

Parsons, Fred Adams 1876, 1877 

Patt rson, A. J Holmes 1844 

Patte -son, David S Claiborne 1856, 1857 

Patterson, J. C Union 1904, 1906 

Patterson, J. G Yazoo 1874, 1875 

Patterson, V Calhoun 1908, 1910 

Patton, J. L Smith 1888 

Patton, Willl-T' Wayne 1817, 1818. 1819, 1825 

Patton, W. S Lauderdale 1852 

Patty, E. C Noxubee 1904, 1906 

Paxton, A. H Holmes 1836, 1837 

Payne, A. S Lowndes 1892, 1894 

Payne, B. E. Panola 1888 

Peace, Coahoma 1866, 1867 

Peal, A Marshall 1874, 1875 

Pearce, B. M Itawamba 1912 to 1914 

Pearce, S. B Hancock 1852 

Peatross, A. C Warren 1892, 1894 

Peebles, Seth Lowndes 1839 

Peery, W. D Sunflower 1892, 1894 

Peets, G. H Wilkinson 1884 

Pegram, W. C Wa.ren 1878 

Pelham, J. M Jackson 1888, 1890 

Pemble, David Amite 1830 to 1836 

Pendleton, B Adams \... 1846 

Pendleton, J. W Lawrence 1836 

Pennington, I. L Newton 1876, 1877 

Pennington, William . . . Rankin 1892 

Percy. W. A Washington 1876 to 1880 

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258 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Perkins, Charles Yazoo. Hinds 1908, 1910 

Perkins, C. H Yazoo 1888, 1890 J 

Perkins, J. B Quitman, Tunica 1878 ; 

Perkins, J. D Choctaw 1892, 1894 '\ 

Permenter, W. S Noxubee 1896, 1897, 1898 

Perry, William Choctaw 1835 

Pettus, J. J Kemper 1844,1846 

Peyton, E. A Hinds 1874,^ 1875 4 

Peyton, E. G Copiah 1830 ] 

Peyton, Harry Hinds 1890,1892 

Peyton, J. B Hinds 1829 

Peyton, L Issaquena 1908, 1910 

Peyton, Perry Bolivar 1884 

Phillips, Eli Itawamba 1870, 1871 

Phillips, F. M Holmes 1865, 1866, 18G7 

Phillips, H Madison 1836, 1837 : 

Phillips, James Hinds ^ 1837 

Phillips, R Marshall 1848, 1858 \ 

Phillips, R. W Adams 1858 , 

Phillips, R. W Lafayette 1865,1866,1867 i 

Pickett, T. K Franklin : 1825 j 

Piles, J. H Panola 1870 to 1874 j 

Pilkinton, S. T Lowndes 1912, 1914 1 

Pinson, R. A Pontotoc 1856 to 1860 ! 

Pinson, Samuel Pontotoc 1863, 1864 

Pintard, Claude .Jefferson 1878 ^ 

Pipes. C. A Adams 1859, 1860, 1861 4 

Pipes, James Adams 1896, 1897, 1898 j 

Pitman, H Carroll 1870, 1871 

Pittman, W. C Pontotoc 1912, 1914 ; 

Pitts, J. R. S Wayne 1886, 1888 1 

Pitts, S. H Pontotoc 1890 "^ | 

Plummer, F. E Simpson 1827 to 1831 

Poindexter, George Wilkinson 1822, 1823 4 

Pollard, E. J DeSoto 1908, 1910 ^ 

Pollard, S. T Panola 1880 ^• 

Pollard, William Panola 1842, 1843 '. 

Pool, Joseph Jones 1856, 1857, 1858 j 

Pope, Henry Marion .1882, 1884 | 

Pope, H.' Hinds 1846 J 

Pope, Thomas Covington 1863, 1864 * 

Pope, W. W Pike 1896, 1898, 1904, 1906 ' 

Porter, J. C Franklin 1836 

Porter, Uriah. Chickasaw ..,.,,..,,.,,..,., J854 \ 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPT. 1817-1917 259 

Name. County. Session. 

Portis. D. T Kemper 1838 

Portis, J. P Tippah 1838, 1839 

Posey, A. A Monroe 1900, 1902 

Poston, A. B Panola 1882 

Potter, CO Union, Pontotoc 1872, 1873 

Potter, J. D Union 1890 

Potter, ^Y. H Hinds 1892, 1894 

Potts. E. F Marshall 1846 

Pound, Merriman Lee 1876. 1877, 1884 

Pound, M Itawamba 18G5, 1866, 1867 

Powe, A. T Wayne 1882, 188* 

Powe. S. H Wayne 1854 to 1858 

Powe, W. T Jasper 1863, 1864 

Powell, James Simpson 183vj 

Powell, Robert Madison 1890 

Powell, R. S Madison •. 1904, 1906 

Powell, Samuel DeSoto 1876 

Powers. H. H Tippah 1865, 1866, 1867 

Pray, P. R. R Hancock 1827, 1828. 1829 

Prentiss, S. S Warren 1836, 1837 

Prewett. Lemuel Monroe 1828, 1838 

Prewitt. R. K Choctaw 1896, 1897, 1898 

Price. N. S Tippah 1844 

Prince. W. B Washington 182S 

Provine, R. N Calhoun 1882 

Prude. D Pontotoc 1858 

Pruit, J. M .Tishomingo '. . 1863, 1864 

Puckett, David Rankin 1894 

Puckett, S. M Rankin 1837 to 1842 

Purdom, R. H. Hinds 1859, 1860, 1861 

Puryear, A Hinds 1888 

Puryear, J. R..... Tate ..' 1888, 1890 

Pyle, J. A. E .Tishomingo 1900, 1902 

Quin. H. M Wilkinson.. .1900 to 1902; Hinds... 1908 to 1916 

Quin. P. E Pike 1900, 1902 

Quinn. D. C Pike 1858 

Quinn, D. N Leflore 1872, 1873 

Quinn, D. N Sunflower .1870 to 1874 

Quinn, Peter Pike 1825, 1827 

Quinn, W. S. . ! Clay 1892, 1894 

Quitman, John A Adams 1828 

Ragan, Elam S Covington 1833, 1835, 1836, 1837 

Ragsdale, Samuel Monroe 1829, 1830 

Ralford. W. B Amite 1886 



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260 STATE G0VERX:MEXT of MISSISSIPFI, 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Raines, William DeSoto 1877 

Rainey, W. R Oktibbeha 1878, 1888 

Ramsay, J. L Copiah 1888 

Ramsay, A. J Harrison 1878 

Ramsey, A. W Jackson 1836, 1837 

Ramsey, W. R Union 1880 

Randall, L Jackson 1840 

Randolph, J. W Leflore. Sunflower 1874, 1875 

Rankin, W. J Marion 1854, 1859 

Rankin, W. M Marion 1831 

Ratliff, Paul D Hinds 1904, 1906 

Ratliff, W. O Attala ." 1892, 1894 

Rawls, H. S Leake 1850, 1854 

Ray, H Yalobusha 1848 

Ray, H. H ..Alcorn 1900, 1902 

Ray, H. H Alcorn, Prentiss 1888 

Ray, W. D Attala 1854 

Rayburn. R. S Yalobusha 1840 

Razelle, B. L DeSoto 1850, 1854 

Read, H. P Coahoma 1878 

Reagan, J. H Newton, Leake 1884, 1888, 1890 

Reasons. A. M Calhoun 1859, 1860, 1861 

Red, D. J Holmes 1856, 1857 

Redhead, J. A Wilkinson 1878 

Reed, H. H Choctaw 1872, 1873. 1878 

Reed, H. J Holmes - 1890 

Reed, J. A Quitman 1888 

Reed, William Covington 1823 

Rees, T. D Prentiss 1912, 1914 

Reese, C Hinds 1872, 1873 

Reese, David Perry 1823 

Reese, J. L Prentiss 1874, 1875 

Reese, W. H Prentiss, Alcorn 1880, 1882 

Reeves, A Carroll 1856, 1857 

Reeves, W. P Itawamba 1888, 1892, 1894 

Regan, H. B Yazoo 1850 

Regan, Joseph Claiborne 1850, 1852, 1854, 1863, 1864 

Reid, H. J Holmes 1896, 1897, 1898 

Reid, J. B Copiah 1838, 1839 

Reid, J. S Yazoo 1888 

Reid, J. S Winston 1865, 1866, 1867 

Reid. J. S Madison 1858 to 1863 

Reves, James Calhoun 1896, 1897, 1898 

Rencher, G. J Kemper 1908, 1914 



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STATE GOVERNMEXT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 261 

Name. County. Session. 

Reynolds, Arthur Attala 1900 to 1908 

Reynolds, L. P A.lcorn 1876, 1877 

Rhodes, G. W Smith 1854 

Rhodes, L. D Lee 1886 

Rhodes, R. E Simpson 1882 

Rhodes, Riifus H Jackson 1854 

Rice, A. H Oktibbeho ." 1892, 1894 

Rice, R. M Yazoo 1912, 1914 

Richards, W. C Hinds 1844 

Richards, Yazoo 1875 

Richardson, A. J Tippah r 1896, 1897, 1898 

Richardson, C. B Jefferson 1878 

Richardson, F .Vilkinson . . 1833, 1835 

Richardson, W. A Wilkinson 1821 

Riley, Samuel Wilkinson 1876, 1877 

Ringold, W. E Sunflower 1904, 1906 

Rives, B. C Tishomingo 185 i 

Roane, A. T Calhoun, Yalobusha. 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1878 

Roane, W. H Pike 1870, 1871 

Robards. C. L Washington 1856 

Robbins, Nathaniel Marion 1827 

Robbins, O. S Warren 1900 tc 1908 

Robbins, S. D Rankin ...1872, 187:^ 

Roberts, Calvit Harrison '. 1888 

Roberts, Henry Greene 1878 

Roberts, J. S Rankin 1896, 1898, 1904, 190B 

Roberts, R. W Scott 1838 to 1844 

Roberts, T. J Greene 1856, 1857, 1858 

Roberts, U. L Newton 1886, 1890 

Roberts, U. S. ....... . .Leake 1886, 1890, 1892, 1894 

Robertson, C. S Union, Pontotoc 1880 

Robertson, Drury Lafayette 1865, 1886, 1867 

Robertson, Joseph Franklin 1820, 1823 

Robertson, J. R Marion 1892, 1804 

Robertson, S. V Forrest 1908, 1910 

Robertson, W. W Smith 1908, 1910 

Robinson, E. J DeSoto 1846 

Robinson, H Kemper 1863, 1864 

Robinson, H. C Pike 1821 

Robinson, James Hinds 1840 

Robinson, J. B Rankin 1904, 1906 

Robinson, J. C Choctaw 1888, 1890, 1904, 1006 

Robinson, Lafayette Montgomery 1906, 1908, 1910 



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262 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MTSSISSIPFI, 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Robinson, S. I Rankin 1878 

Robinson, S. W Hinds ISSl 

Robinson, William Copiah 1908, 1910 

Roby, W. W Noxubee 1852 

Rodgers, A. A Marshall 1874, 1875 

Rodgers, J. G George 1912, 1914 

Rodgers, S. L Tishomingo 1890, 1892, 1894 

Rodman, W. D Marshall 1SS2 

Rogers, B. A Pontotoc 1861, 1862 

Rogers, D. F Lafayette 1854 

Rogers, D. W Yalobusha. Calhoun. .1874. 1875, 1876, 1884, 1892 

Rogers, D. W Yalobusha 1894 

Rogers, D. W Lafayette 1856 to 1861 

Rogers, Enos Leflore 1880, 1882 

Rogers, H. M Itawamba 1850 

Rogers, L. S Holmes 1908, 1910 

Rogers, T. M Amite 1846 

Rollins, W. H DeSoto 1897, 1898 

Rose, Terrel Sumner 1882 

Roseborough, J. C Tate 1886 

Ross, D. L Tishomingo 1896. 1898, 1904, 1906 

Ross, J. A Washington 1871 

Ross, J. J Yalobusha, Calhoun 1880 

Ross, Simeon Lawrence 1872, 1873 

Rossman, W Claiborne 1846 

Rouse, H. K Pearl River 1900 to 1908 

Rowan, E. A Copiah 1876, 1877, 1884, 1886 

Rowe, E. D Tallahatchie 1890 

Rucks, J. T Hinds 1863, 1864 

Ruff, Reuben Noxubee 1838 to 1842 

Ruffin, Dr. James Panola 1912, 1914 

RufRn, J. D DeSoto 1859, 1860 

Runnels, Harmon Lav.Tencs 

1817, 1818, 1819, 1820, 1S22. 1823, 1S26, 1828 

Runnels, H. G Hinds 1830, 1841 

Rupert, J. C Jones 1839 

Ruse, J. L Alcorn * 1874, 1875 

Rush, W. T Kemper 1886 

Rushing, E Pike 1846 

Rushing, C. L Harrison 1912-14 

Russell, A. J Lauderdale 1896 to 1902 

Russell, A. J Coahoma 1880 

Russell, D, M Rankin 1884, 1886 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 263 

Name. County. Session 

Russell, John Lafayette. ...'... 1908, 1910 

Russell, L. M Lafayette 1908-10 

Rutherford, S. C Tippah 1858 to 1862 

Ryan, M. A Jasper 1892, 1894 

Sadler, D. W Monroe 1854 

Saffold, R. C Harrison 1856, 1857, 1858 

Sample, S. N Holmes 1904, 1906 

Sanderlin, S. A Washington ; 1876, 1877 

Sanderlin, S. S Issaquena 1876, 1877 

Sanders, E. H Attala 1848 

Sanders, H Hancock 1875, 1876, 1877 

Sanders, J. M Lafayette 1912, 1914 

Sanders, R. B Attala .' 1888 

Sanders, Wiley Attala 1884 

Sanders, W. D Holmes 1859, 1860, 1861 

Sasser, J. G. H Pike 1852 

Saunders, B. W Holmes 1838, 1839 

Saunders, R. C Madison 1856, 1857 

Saunders, T. J Leake 1884 

Sawyer, C. F Alcorn 1872, 1873 

Scales, James P Carroll 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861, 1862 

Scarbrough, E Holmes 1870, 1871 

Schmidt, Theo Yazoo. 1908, 1910 

Schrock, J. K Attala 1876, 1877 

Scott, Abram M Wilkinson 1817, 1818, 1820 

Scott, H. P Issaquena 1878 

Scott, James Hinds 1831 

Scott, S. T Copiah 1836 

Seabrook, J. P Wayne * 1878, 1880 

Seaman, Wm. C Jackson 1827 

Seal, Daniel B Hancock. .1861, 1862, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1878, 1890 

Seal, John Lowndes .1852, 1854 

Seal, Roderick Harrison. 1S59. 1852, 1861, 1862, 1872, 1873, 188^ 

Seal, Roderick Jackson, Harrison '1873 

Selman, B. A. P Prentiss 1882 to 1888 

Selser, Isaac N 1 . ..Jefferson 1821, 1823 

Selser, I. N.... Hinds 1852 

Semmes, F Lauderdale 1861, 1862 

Senter, J. T Lowndes 1900, 1902 

Sessions, A. M Holmes 1863, 1864 

Sessions, E. J Warren 1838, 1839, 1844 

Sessions, Joseph Adams 1817, 1818, 1819 



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264 STATE G0\':ERNMENT of MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Sessions, J. F Franklin . *. 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873 

Settle, J. T Panola 1884 

Seward, E. R Choctaw 1880 

Sexton, J. F Copiah 1896 to 1904 

Sexton, J. F Copiah 1888, 1890 

Shackelford, C. C Madison 1852 

Shadd, I. D Warren 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875 

Shamburger, G. H Lauderdale '. . 1886 

Shands. G. D Tate 1876 to 1880 

Shankle, S. M Washington 1896 

Shannon, James J Jasper 1854 

Shannon, R. L Lee 1888 

Sharkey, H. Clay Hinds, Yazoo . -, 1896, 1897, 1898, 1900, 1902 

Sharkey, J. E Warren 1846 

SharKey, W. L Warren : 1828, 1829 

Sharkey. W. L Hinds 1856, 1857 

Sharbrough, B. W Jasper 1886 

Sharp, John M Yazoo 1840 

Sharp, J. F Leake, Winston 1900, 1902 

Sharp, J. H Lowndes 1886 to 1892, 1900, 1902 

Sharp, T. J Lowndes 1854 

Sharp, W. H Marshall 1912-14 

Sharpe, A. D Neshoba 1908-10 

Sharpe, S Pike 1830 

Shattuck, J. W Wilkinson 1874, 1875, 1876 

Sheffield, J. C Tate ". . ..1912-14 

Sheffield, W. S ;tawambaa and Lee 1908-10 

Sheffield, W. S :tawamba 1896, 1898, 1904, 1906 

Shelby, Aaron Coahoma 1841, 1842, 1843 

Shelby, G. B ^^olivar.' 1900, 1902 

Shelby, G. B., Jr Bolivar 1908-10 

Shelby, G. C Marshall 1880 

Shelby, J. I. J Bolivar 1876, 1877 

Shelby, 0. L 3olivar 1890 

Shelby, R. P Washington 1834, 1835. 1842, 1843 

Shelby, W. B Uawamba 1861, 1862 

Sbeppard, F. M Wayne 1896, 1897, 1898 

Shields, Joseph D Vdams 1860, 1861 

Shields, J. W Washington 1880 

Ship, John .Covington 1820 

Shivers. J. M Pearl River 1896, 1897, 1898, 1908, 1910 

Shoemaker, D Copiah 1840, 1841 

Shorter, J. A., Jr Hinds 1874, 1875, 1882 

Shurtleff, Orin Franklin 1833, 1835 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MCSSISSIPri. 1817-1917 265 

Name. County. Session. 

Siddell, John .Tippah 1854 

Sillers, Walter Bolivar 1886 

Simmons, J. H .Lowndes 1886, 1888 

Simmons, J. T Smith 1892, 1894 

Simmons, P ^^azoo, Holmes 1888 

Simmons, S. M ^ike, Amite 1888 

Simmons, William Pike 1846 

Simmons. W. T Smith 1512-14 

Simons, W. F Pike 1882 

Simpson, Adam "^Tadison 1877 

Simpson, A. W Noxubee 1882 to 1886 

Simpson, B. D "Benton 1892, 1894 

Simpson, B. O "Renton 1890 

Simpson, J. H T>pSoto 1908-14 

Simrall, H. F ^nikinson 1846, 1848, 1865, 1866, 1867 

Singleton, O. R M-^d^'son 1846 

Skinner, A. W ^ttala 1888 

Skinner, John G ^^tibbeha 1838 

Slack, Joseph -^allahatchie 1852 

Slade, T. P Vazoo 1848 

Sleeper, F. H V^^ite 1858 

Slocum, C. C franklin 1825 

Slough, C. E Lafayette 1908, 1910 

Smedes, A. K Washington : 1850 

Smfdes, W. C ^^arren 1858 to 1862 

Smiley, James ^ mite 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1846 

Smiley, J. J "^^inds 1859, 1860, 1861 

Smith, A. F Tasper : 1874, 1875 

Smith, A. F Washington 1846, 1848. 1857, 1858 

Smith, A. J Monroe 1896, 1897. 1898 

Smith, A. H Lauderdale 1872, 1873 

Smith, A. W DeSoto , 1872, 1873 

Smith, Barney Sirnp^on 1890 

Smith, Benjamin F 'Rmds 1822, 1823 

Smith, C. P Wilkinson 1826, 1827 

Smith, C. R Bolivar 1908-10 

Smith, D. F Tones 1892, 1894 

Smith, Edmund .\mite 1826, 1828, 1831, 1838, 1839 

Smith, Edward Franklin, Lincoln 1896 to 1904 

Smith, E. P Pontotoc 1856 

Smith, Gilbert Tunica *. 1872 to 1876 

Smith, Hoskin Claiborne 1874. 1875 

Smith. J. A Greene 1896, 1897, 1898 

Smith, J. A. E. Greene 1900, 1902 



.•■!,/.'/■/■' 






266 STATE (?0\':ERNMENT of MISSISSIPFT, 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Smith, James B Bolivar 1848 

Smith, J. F Lafayette 1852 

Smith, J. F Jones 1859, 1860, 1861 

Smith, J. J .Scott 1844 

Smith, J. L. Clay 1912-14 

Smith, J. L. M Lowndes 1859 to 1862 

Smith, J. W Benton 1878 

Smith, L. P Tippah -..1890 

Smith, M. F Warren 1888 

Smith, M. H Lawrence 1844 

■Smith, Philander Adams 1817. 1818 

Smith, R. B Tishomingo 1861, 1862 

Smith, S. J , Scott 1854, 1856 

Smith, S. M Holmes ..1900 to 1908 

Smith, W. B Tippah 1842 

Smith, W. B Winston 1850 

Smith, W. S Wayne 1892, 1894 

Smith, Sunflower 1854 

, Smothers, Joseph Claiborne 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875 

Smylie, J. C Copiah 1900, 1902 

Smythe, D. L .Attala 1882 

Smythe, S. W Winston 1846, 1852, 1856, 1857 

Snodgrass, John Adams 1822 

Snowden, W. B Lauderdale 1870, 1871 

Somerville, T. H Carroll ; 1880 

Southworth, H. H Sunflower . . ..1856, 1857 

Southworth, H. H Carroll 1852, 1876, 1877 

Southworth, L. M Carroll 1886, 1888 

Spann, Charles S Hinds 1844, 1846 

Sparks, Richard Yazoo 1827. 1828, 1829, 1831 

Spears, W. R .Warren ,.1880 

Speight, Jesse Lowndes 1840 

Spellman, J. J Madison 1870 to 1876 

Spencer, J. G Claiborne 1892, 1894 

Spencer. J. W Webster , 1904, 1906 

Spencer, S. M Washington 1884 

Spight, Thomas Tippah 1874 to 1880 

Spinks, John L. ...:.. . Kemper 1878 

Spraddling, J. M Lee, Itawamba 1912-14 

Springer, B. S Warren 1839 

Stainton, L Jones 1908, 1910 

Stainton, L Neshoba 1888. 1890 

Stamper, M. W Newton 1878, 1880 

Stamps, L J Simpson 1900, 1902 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 267 

'Name. County. Setsion. 

Stanton, Robert Adams • 1848 

Staples, W. C Choctaw 1863, 1864 

Starke, Peter B Bolivar 1850, 1852, 1854 

Starks, William Jackson 1828 

Stebbins, E. A Madison 1876, 1877 

Steele, R. G Chickasaw 1848, 1857 

Steele, S. A. D Clarke 1865, 1866, 1867 

Steele, William M Tallahatchie 1896, 1897, 1898 

Stegall, W. T Pontotoc 1896, 1898, 1906, 1908, 1910 

Steger, J. J Marshall 1K44, 1848 

Stennis, A. T Kemper 1858 

Stennis, J. D Lauderdale 1896 to 1908 to 1910, 1912, 1914 

Stennis, J. R Kemper 1900, 1902 

Stennis, S. D ^ Kemper 1906, 

S^enson, W. H Lauderdale ..1892, 1894 

Stephens, Elisha Rankin • -.1844 

Stephens, J. A. C Tate 1882 

Stephens, M. D. L Yalobusha 1880 

Stephens, T. M Calhoun 1880 

Stephens, Z. M Union 1874, 1875, 1884 

Stephens, Z. M Pontotoc, Union 1848 

Sterling, Thomas S Wayne 1826, 1827, 1828 

Stevens, H. S .Perry 1904, 1906 

Stevens, W. F. Carroll 1896 

Stevenson, T. G Holm-es 1912-14 

Stewart, E. C Marion 1846 to 1854 

Stewart, E. W Wayne 1908-10 

Stewart, F Holmes 1872. 1873 

Stewart, H. G Pearl River 1892, 1894 

Stewart, H. C Hinds , , , 1838, 1839 

Stewart, Isham Neshoba 1870, 1874 

Stewart, James D Wilkinson 1850 

Stewart, R. W Madison , 1908-10 

Stewart,T. J Amite 1841, 1842, 1843 

Stewart, W. P Union , 1888 

Stiles, E. H Claiborne 1870, 1871 

Stiles. E. H Claiborne, Jefferson. 1892 

Stinson, T. A Lincoln. .1892-94; Lowndes 1908-10 

Stites, Doctor Washington 1870, 1871 

Stocker, Thomas R Hancock 1888 

Stocket, W. J. Wilkinson 1908-10 

Stockton, B. F Claiborne 1831, 1833, 1835 

Stockstill, Thomas Pontotoc .1874, 1875 

Stone. H. D .Choctaw. . , 1856, 1857 



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f>6g STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 ' ' 

I 

Name. County. Session. i 

Stone, J. B Quitman 1908-10 \ 

Stone. J. M Madison 1872 to 1876 ] 

Stone, W. A Pike :.1838, 1839 j 

Stone, W. W Washington 1882 I 

Stovail, Charles Marion 1822 ] 

Stovall, C. A Clarke 1888 

Stovail, G. W Itawamba 1858 

Stovall, L Kemper ^844 j 

Stovall, W. G Chickasaw 1896, 1897, 1898 j 

Stovall, W. H Coahoma 1888 

Stovall, TV. T Tate 1882 

Stowers, James C Jefferson. 1894, 1896, 1897, 1898 = 

Stowers, J. R Lafayette 1888, 1890, 1892, 1894 ' 

Stowers, W. J Lafayette ' 1878 1 

Strahan, W. L Covington : 1884 \ 

Strait, J. L. H Winston 1890 j 

Streater, F. R Carroll 1872, 1878 i 

Street, H. M Lauderdale 1890, 1892, 1894, 1908, 1910 

Street, H. M Prentiss 1872 to 1880 J 

Street, H. M Tishomingo 1870, 1871 ] 

Street, T. J Amite 1896, 1897, 1898 - 

Streetman, D. H Monroe ...1912-14 " | 

Stribling, O. L Lee 1892 j 

Strong, W. A Carroll ...1852, 1854 | 

Strong, W. J Carroll 1861, 1862 | 

Stroud, J. M Madison 1870, 1871 | 

Stuart L. R Yalobusha 1838, 1839, 1840 ^ 

Stubblefield, A. B Rankin 1912-14 1 

Stubbs, G. W...: Smith 1874, 1875 ^ 

Stubbs, J. J Smith 1900, 1902 

Sturdivant, J. I Lowndes 1904, 1906 ^ 

Stutts, Z. P Yazoo 1892, 1894. 1896, 1897, 1898 ^ i 

Styles, E. H Claiborne 1882 ] 

Suddoth, John A Coahoma 1904, 19<J6 ^ 

Sullivan, James Monroe 1852 | 

Sullivan, J. W Smith 1886 I 

Sullivan, M. B Bolivar 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875 1 

Sullivan, T. W Carroll 1888. 1890 | 

Sullivant, John N Tallahatchie 1908-10 I 

Sumners, A. L Marion 1886 j 

Sumrall, N. W Washington '. 1908-10 - 4 

Sumrall, T. L. Jackson 1856, 1857 I 

Surratt, M Tishomingo ] 

4 1848, 1850, 1856 to 1861, 1865, 1866, 1867 I 



r>.::v 1:^:1^ 






STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 269 



Name, 
Sutton, B. F 



Countp. Session. 

Rankin 1863. 1864 

Swann, C. S Newton 1872, 1873 

Sweatman, C. C Harrison 1897, 1898 

Swinney, J. W Holmes 1900, 1902 

Sykes, A. J Monroe 1876 to 1877 

Sykes, E. O Monroe 1880, 1882 

Sykes, G. A Tunica 1856, 1857 

Sykes, Thomas Panola 1874, 1875 

Tabb, D. A Webster 1912, 1914 

Tackett, J. P Holmes 1882 

Tackett, W. P Holmes ^ 1888 

Talbert, F. C .' Amite 1836, 1837, 1850 

Talbert, F. C DeSoto 1840 

Talbert, H Carroll 1880 

Talbert, Polk \mite 1888 to 1896, 1904, 1906 

Talbot, J. M Tippah, Benton 1912-14 

Talliferro, J. E Tallahatchie 1858 

Tankersly, George Tishomingo 1852, 1856, 1857 

Tankersly, W. A Tishomingo 1865, 1866, 1867, 1880 

Tarver, E. L Lincoln 1854 

Tarver, E. L Amite, Lincoln 1878 

Tate, J. M Pike 1892, 1900 

Tate, T. S Tate 1874, 1875 

Tate, W. S Pike 1912-14 

Taulme, John B Hancock 1848 

Taylor, C. A Tishomingo 1852, 1854 

Taylor, D. M Wayne .1890 

Taylor, Hamilton Harrison 1870 

Taylor, H. L ..Yazoo 1886 

Taylor, J. P Montgomery 

1892, 1894, 1896, 1897, 1898, 1900, 1902 

Taylor, J. R. H Marshall 1852 

Taylor, R. E Benton 1S80 

Taylor, R. H .Newton 1892 

Taylor, S. M Lee 1880 

Taylor, W. H Hinds 1863, 1864 

Taylor, W. M Yalobusha 1892, 1894 

Taylor, W. S Tippah 1844 

Teague, M. S Attala 1844 

Terrall, J. E Clarke, Jasper ..1892, 1894 

Terral, Samuel H Clarke 1882 

Terrell, Hiram Pike 1841, 1842, 1843 

Terrell, V. L Covington 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861 

Terry, E. D Leake '.,... . 1888, 1890 



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270 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Name. County. . Session. 

Terry, J. J Smith 1908-10 

Terry, L. H Attala 1892 

Terry, L. S Attala 1890 

Teunisson, G. A Lawrence 1880, 1888 

Thames, William Newton 1848 to 1856 

Thigpen, Benjamin Jasper 1856, 1857 

Thigpen, S. F Clarke, Jasper 1896, 1897, 1898 

Tholson, J. L Lauderdale 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861 

Thomas, C. L Marshall 1848, 1850 

Thomas, C. M Noxubee ...1858, 1888, 1890 

Thomas, C. M Noxubee 1894 

Thomas, E. N Washington 1890, 1896 to 1908 

Thomas, Francis Kemper 1835 

Thomas, H. J Yazoo 1848, 1850, 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861 

Thomas, John C Jones 1827, 1828 

Thomas, John C Jasper 1836, 1837 

Thomas, Simon Simpson 1840 

Thompson, E. M Montgomery 1912-14 

Thompson, George Yalobusha 1838, 1839 

Thompson, James M. . .Attala 1865, 1866 

Thompson, J. H Copiah 1846, 1858 

Thompson, J. H DeSoto 1874, 1875 

Thompson, J. M. Chickasaw 1856, 1857 

Thompson, J. P Montgomery 1874, 1875 

Thompson, J. P Oktibbeha 1839 

Thompson, J. S Tallahatchie 1904, 1906 

Thompson, J. W Monroe 1900, 1902 

Thompson, J. W Tippah 1856, 1857 

Thompson, Robert . .Lowndes 1874, 1875 

Thompson, Greene 1874, 1875 

Thompson, Wayne 1874, 1875 

Thornton, John Smith 1838, 1839 

Thrasher, Stephen Claiborne, Jefferson 1S34 

Thurmond, T. P Kemper 1850 

Tillman, S Copiah 1838, 1839 

Tindall, J. L Monroe 1861, 1862 

Tindall, R. M Wayne 1861 to 1866 

Tipton, Julius R DeSoto 1904, 1906 

Tisdale, R Kemper 1859 

Tison, W. H. H Tishomingo 1850, 1856 

Tison, W. H. H Lee 1874 to 1880, 1882 

Tolbert, Allen Benton, Tippah 1890, 1896, 1897, 1898 

Tomkinson, J Lawrence 1825 

Tomlinson, Jacob Marion 1819 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 271 

Name. County. Session. 

Tompkins, P. W Warren 1841, 1842, 1843 

Torrey, T. H Sunflower , 1880 

Torrey, W. H Claiborne, Jefferson 1912-14 

Torry, George Jefferson 1846, 1848 

Torry, W. D Claiborne, Jefferson 1876, 1889, 1898 

Torry, W. D Jefferson 1880 

Totten, J. L Marshall 1844, 1846 

Touchstone, T. N Simpson 1892, 1894, 1896, 1897; 1898 

Trammill, S. C Kemper 1896, 1897, 1898 

Trest, Samuel C Jones 1878 

Trice, J. M Monroe 1876, 1877, 1880 

Trice, J. M Chickasaw 1890 

Trigg, W. M Choctaw ' 1848 

Trigg, W. R. Washington 1886 

Trotter, J. F Monroe 1827 

Trotter, J. P Choctaw 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861 

Troupe, W. W Monroe 1876, 1877 

Tr'ueheart, H. H Holmes 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875 

Truly, Jeff Jefferson 1886 

Trussell, James M Kemper 1838 

Trussell, J. M Lauderdale 1850 

Tubbs, E. T Noxubee 1844 

Tucker, J. H Marshall 1872, 1873 

Tucker, R. L Marshall 1904, 1906 

I'ucker, T. M Lowndes. 1831 to 1836 

Tucker, W. F., Jr .Wilkinson 1900, 1908 

Tucker, W. F Chickasaw 1876, 1877, 1878 

Tullis, William Simpson 1826 

Turley, F. R Warren 1861, 1862 

Turner, Edward Adams .1817, 1818, 1819, 1820 

Turner, G. W Greene ...1892, 1894 

Tqmer, H. C Madison 1892, 1894 

Turner, J. M Lawrence 1842, 1843 

Turner, J. T ...Quitman 1896 

Turner, S. E Carroll 1897 1t> 1908 

Tuttle, H. H Carroll 1874, 1875 

Tyson, J. A. Leflore 1908, 1910 

Underwood, B. G Chickasaw 1870, 1871 

Underwood, T. H Alcorn, Prentiss 1884, 1888. 1892 to 1904 

Upshaw, E. W .Marshall 1863, 1864 

Ussory, Shelby Tishomingo 1837, 1838, 1839, 1843 

Vaiden, C. M Carroll 1850, 1876 

Valentine, J. P Clay 1908-10 

Valentine, Richard Claiborne ■. 184g 



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272 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

Name. County. Session. 

Valentine, Roswell Jefferson 1810 

Valliant, F Washington 1859, 1860, 1861 

Vance, D. W Yazoo 1833, 1835 

Van Eaton, H. S Wilkinson 1859, 1860, 1861 

Vannerson, William Vdams .1833, 1835, 1837 

Vannorman, William. ..Amite 1833, 1835 

Vardaman, J. K Leflore 1890, 1892, 1894 

Vaughan, G Panola. 187-6, 1877 

Vaughan, W. G Lafayette 1870, 1871 

Ventress, J. A Wilkinson 1836 to 1842 

Ventress, W. P. S Wilkinson 1892 to 1900 

Vernon, S. M tawamba 1852 

Vick, H. W Warren 1826 

Vick, William Warren 1833, 1835 

Voller, W. J W^arren 1900, 1902 

Wade, F. W I'azoo 1872, 1873 

Wade, J. J Jnion , 1892, 1894 

Wade, J. W riolmes 1844, 1846 

Wade, W. B. Lowndes 1854 

Waldrup, W\ R Panola 1912-14 

Waldrup, T. B Lafayette 1884, 1886 

Wagster, Clarke 1840, 1841 

Wailes, B. L. C Vdaras 1825, 1826 

Walker, Allen Yalobusha 1836, 1837 

Walker, C. P Lauderdale 1912-14 

Walker, D. S idarns 1829 

Walker, Felix JeSoto 1837 

Walker, German Simpson 1871 to 1874 

Walker, James F Carroll 1844, 1846, 1848 

Walker, J Itawamba 1859. 1860, 1861 

Walker, J. A Pike 1902 

Walker, J. C Monroe. 1874, 1875 

Walker, J. M Mcorn 1874, 1875 

Walker, J. P Lauderdale 1865, 1866, 1867 

W^aiken J. V OeSoto 1870, 1871 

Walker, L. B ..">impson 1859 to 1863 

Walker, R. P Lauderdale 1880 

Walker, W, F Chickasaw 1858 

Walker, W. W 'linds 1826 

Wall. John \mite 1836, 1837, 1850, 1852 

Wall, Mial OeSoto 1896 to 1904 

Wall, T. H. W^ leSoto 1878 

Wall, William Marshall 1865, 1866, 1867 

Waley, W. W Greene 1912-14 



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STATE G0VERNME:;T of MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 273. 

Name. County. Session. 

Walton, P. G Neshoba 1892, 1894 

Walton, W. W 'azoo 1831 

Walworth. Dougless Vdams 1859, 1860, 1861 

Ward, J. C linds 1904, 1906 

Ward, William A. . :iarke 1852, 1854 

Ware, H. R Rankin .1859 to 1862 

Ware, T. P Rankin '..1842, 1843 

Warfield, L Holmes 1-884 

Warren, Charles itawamba 1844 

Warren, E. A Tippah 1846 

Warren, H. W i^eake ; 1870, 1871 

Warren, R. H Tippah 1837 

Warren, W. C larshall 1876, 1877, 1878 

Washington, George. . . arroll 1874, 1875 

Washington, George R. . '.dams 1878 

Washington, R. P Jktibbeha 1890 

Watkins, B. T ..eake ..1840, 1841 

Watkins, D. M larion 1888 

Watkins, Edward ..auderdale 1876, 1877 

Watlington, W. J Jolmes 1890 

Watiington, W. J azoo 1882, 1884, 1890 

Watson, E. S " larshall 1890 

Watson, H. C eSoto , ..1880 

Watson, Isaiah ..Jlaiborne .1840, 1841 

Watson, J. W ovington 1892, 1894, 1912, 1914 

Watson. J. W. C larshall ........1884 

Watson, K. A ■ octaw 1882 

Watson, O. C inston 1886 

Watson, W. S Vashington 1912-14 

Watts, Josiah 7ayne 1820, 1821 

Watts, S. B .aiiderdale 1904, 1906 

Watts, Thomas. Clarke 1837 

Watts, V. B Lincoln .1882 to 1888, 1904. 1906 

Weatherly, T lolmes 1874, 1875, 1880 

Weathersby, H. E :^ike 1859, 1860, 1861 

Weathersby, Solomon. .. ' mite IS^o, 1826, 1827, 1840 

Weathersby. W '.awrence 1826. 1846, 1848, 1849 

Weathersby, W. C ^oahoma 1897, 1898 

Weatherspoon, J. F ^ranklin 1827 

Weaver, J. M .awamba 1886 

Webb, B. R -^ntotoc 1850 

Webb. George F ' ite 1865, 1866, 1867 

Webb, J. B ^ ike 1896, 1897, 1898 

Webb, K. R r franklin 1865, 1866, 1867 

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274 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 - 

Name. County. Session. 

Webber, R. W .Franklin T830, 1831 

Weber, B, T Marshall 1865. 1866, 1867 

Webster, Fielder Lafayette 1896 to 1904 

Webster, J. D Washington 1872, 1873 

Weems, W. L Scott 1890, 1897, 1898 

Wellborn, J. H Oktibbeha 1908-14 

Welbom, J. G Jones 1880, 1882 

Wells, B. H Hinds .1886 

Wells, E. M Attala 1861, 1862 

Wells, H. F Tippah 1870, 1871 

Wells, James Tishomingo 1844 

Wells, N Pike 1825 

Wells, W. C Hinds 1904, 1906 

Welsh, I Noxubee 1858 

Welsh, J. H Lafayette 1886 

Welsh, J. R Kemper 1850 

West, A. M Holmes 1848 

West, A. M Marshall 1890 

West, C. W Carroll 1912-14 

West, Edgar Holmes 1886 

West, John Wayne 1848 to 1854, 1859, 1860, 1861 

West, John, Jr Wayne 1866, 1867 

West, O. F DeSoto 1872, 1873 

Wharton, C. R Pontotoc 1872, 1873 

Wheeler, T. H Copiah 1859, 1860, 1861 

Whetstone, T. M Wilkinson...... 1896, 1897, 1898 

Whidden, F. M Lamar 1912-14 

Whitaker, M. H. . ; Lauderdale 1878 

White, E. A Jasper 1900, 1902 

White, Frank S Clay 1876, 1877, 1882 

White, George Chickasaw 1874, 1875 

White, George W Wilkinson , 1870 to 1874 

White, J. B Scott 1835 

White, J. J Tippah 1884 

White, .J. W Jasper 1912-14 

White, R Hinds 1848, 185& 

White, Samuel Hancock 1825 

White, Thomas W DeSoto 1854 

White, T, S Rankin 1852 

White, W. A Harrison 1896 

White, W. A Prentiss 1908-10 

Whitfield, James Lowndes 1842 to 1850, 1858 

Whitfield, R. H Lauderdale 1888 

Whiting, Amos Claiborne 1836 



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STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 275 

Name. County. - Session. 

Whitman, Samuel Jasper 1884, 1890 

Whitmore, J Carroll 1848 

Whitney, C. W Jefferson 1904, 1906 

Whitney, J. J Lincoln 1888 

Whitney, J. J Jefferson 1882, 1888 

Whitney, S. N. W Lafayette 1870, 1871 

Wier, James Yalobusha 1842, 1843, 1848 

Wiggins, John L Bolivar 1'893 

Wilbourne, E Hinds 1874, 1875 

Wilcox, G. H Jefferson 1840, 1841, 1850 

Wilds, G. B Simpson 1848 

Wilkinson, Angus . .Amite 1817, 1818 

Wilkinson, C. E Yazoo 1836 

Wilkinson, J. A. Chickasaw 1876, 1877 

Wilkinson, J. D. . Simpson 1904, 1906 

Wilkins, J. M Wayne 1900, 1902 

Williams, C. W Tishomingo 1861, 1862 

Williams, C. H Monroe 1823, 1825 

Williams, D. O Hinds 1838 

Williams, H. C Prentiss 1912-14 

Williams, J. C Adams 1892, 1894 

Williams, J. D Itawamba 1865, 1866, 1867 

Williams, J. J DeSoto 1848 

Williams, J. J Grenada 1884 

Williams, M. Ney .Hinds 1908, 1910 

Williams, O. L Neshoba 1897, 1898 

Williams, P. T Yalobusha 1859 

Williams, R Marshall 1874, 1875 

Williams, T. E Quitman 1904. 1906 

Williams, Thomas H . . Wilkinson 1861, 1862 

Williams, Thomas H. . Hinds 1835, 1836 

Williams, W. B Holmes ' 1870, 1871 

Williamson, A. H Yalobusha 1888 

Williamson, C. M Rinds 1886 

Williamson, H, C Carroll 1884, 1886 

Williamson, L. W DeSoto 1888, 1890, 1892, 1894 

Williamson, R. M Madison 1840, 1841 

Willing, W. J., Jr. .....Copiah 1870, 1871, 1872 

Willis, J. W Pontotoc 1861, 1862 

Willis, William. Claiborne 1819, 1820 

Wilson, Alva Holmes 1837, 1838, 1839 

Wilson, A. N Lee, Itawamba 1894, 1896 

Wilson, G. E Neshoba 1912-14 

Wilson, T. F Panola *. ..1848 



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276 STATE GOVERNMENT OF MISSISSTPFI. 1817-1917 

Name, County. Session. 

Wilson, Jeff Pontotoc 1852, 1878, 1880, 1884 

Wilson, Jeff Union 1878 

Wilson, Michiiei Marion 1870, 1871 

Wilson, W. S Claiborne 1858, 1859, 1860, 1861 

Winburn, J Lawrence 1823 

Winburn, M. H G^reene 1859, 1860, 1861 

Winchester, George Adams 1844 

Winn, Joseph Franklin 1817, 1818, 1820 

Winston, C. N Adams 1904, 1906 

Winston, Fountain Idams 1823, 1825 

Winston, Louis \dams 1820, 1821 

Winter, J. W Chickasaw 1888, 1891 

Wise, G. W Coahoma 1882 

Wise, J. P Lincoln, Jefferson 1886 

Withers, A. Q Marshall !.1859, 1861, 1862 

Withers, W. A Marshall 1860, 1861 

Witherspoon, W. D Clarke, Lauderdale, Kemper 1890 

Wofford, J. W Scott 1858 

Wofford, W. M Tippah 1844 

Woldridge, A. B Xeshoba.... 1842, 1843, 1848 

Woldridge, T. D Xoxubee 1835 

Wolff, Francis A Tippah 1880 

Wolff, F. A Tippah 1854 

Womack, Will D Lincoln 1912-14 

Wood, A. S Yazoo 1870, 1871 

Wood, Charles H Jackson 1878, 1880 

Wood, F _\dams 1840, 1841 

Wood, George Greene 1861, 1862 

Wood, Jajnes Jefferson 1838, 1839 

Wood, Spencer Wilkinson 1838, 1839 

Wood, S. H Pontotoc .1870, 1871 

Wood, Thomas Pontotoc 1858 

Wood, Thomas H DeSoto : 1852 

Wood, T. J Oktibbeha 1882 

Wood, Walker Tate 1908-10 

Woodall, W. B Leake, Winston 1908-10 

Woodberry, G. W Yazoo 1846 

Woods, Thomas H. ... ..Lauderdale 1882 

Woodward, A Calhoun 1861, 1862 

Woodward, T. A Hinds 1840 

Woodward, T. B Yazoo 1838 

Worthington, Thomas. . Washington 1892, 1894 

Worthy, A. K Covington 1896, 1897, 1898 

Wren,.E. R Monroe 1900, 1902 



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STATE GO\i:RXiIEXT OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 277 

Xame. County. Session. 

Wright. D. W Monroe 1829 

Wright. M. T Panola l^^O 

Wright, W. G Lovv-ndes 1S36, 1S37. 1S38. 1S39 

Wroten, V. J Pike 1872. 1873 

Wyatt, G. W Marshall 1842 

Wyatt, W. P Tate 1892. 1S94 

Wvnn, B. C Yalobusha 1863, 1S64 

Wvnn, B. L Yalobusha 1874. 1875 

Wvnn, R. E Yalobusha 1854 

Yancy, C. Y Panola 1870 

Yarbrough, A. S Panola 1890 

Yardell, B Yazoo 1S63, 1864 

Yates, A. L Marion 1908-10 

Yellowley. J. B Madison 1876, 1877 

Yeoman, William Wayne 1870, 1871 

Yerby, Wiiliani Wilkinson 1821, 1822 

Yerger, E. M Yazoo 1856, 1857 

Yerger, J. Pt Washington 1896, 1S97, 1898 

Yerger, J. S Warren 1841, 1844 

YeweU, T. Carroll 1908-10 

York, Daniel Yalobusha 1844, 1846, 1838 

Young, George H Lowndes 1850 

Young, J. B Washington 1876, 1877 

Young, J. M Panola 187a 

Young, Samuel Attala 1863, 1864 

Young, W. T ...Calhoun : 1878 

Young, W. T Yalobusha, Calhoun 1886 

Zachry, L. A Leake 1908, 1910 



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GOVEENOES OF MISSISSIPPI. 1 

1817-1917. 1 



Name. County. Bate. I 

David Holmes A.dams Oct. 7, 1817, to Jan. 5, 1820 A, 

George Poindexter Wilkinson Jan. 5, 1820, to Jan. 7, 1822 -^ 

Walter Leake Hinds Jan. 7, 1822. to Nov. 17, 1825 i 

Gerard C. Brandon'^ Wilkinson Nov. 17, 1825, to Jan. 7, 1826 "| 

David Holmes Adams Jan. 7 to July 25, 1826 ' 

Gerard C. Brandon^ Wilkinson July 25, 1826, to Jan. 9, 1832 i 

Abram M. Scott' W^llkinson Jan. 9, 1832, to June 12, 1833 1 

Charles Lynch Lawrence June 12 to Nov. 20, 1833 ,- 

Hiram G. Runnels Lawrence .Nov. 20, 1833, to Nov. 20, 1835 "\ 

John A. Quitman* Adams Dec. 3, 1835, to Jan. 7, 1836 j 

Charles Lynch Lawrence Jan. 7, 1836, to Jan. 8, 1838 I 

Alexander G. McNutt. ..Warren Jan. 8, 1838, to Jan. 10. 1842 | 

Tilghman M. Tucker. ..Lowndes. Jan. 10, 1842, to Jan. 10, 1844 | 

Albert G. Brown Copiah Jan. 10, 1844, to Jan. 10, 1848 9 

Joseph W. Matthews Marshall. Jan. 10, 1848, to Jan. 10, 1850 | 

John A. Quitman A.dams Jan. 10, 1850, to Feb. 3, 1851 ^ 

John I. Guion' Hinds Feb. 3 to Nov. 4, 1851 1 

James Whitfield* Lowndes .Nov. 24, 1851, to Jan. 10, 1852 ] 

Henry S. Foote Hinds Jan. 10, 1852, to Jan. 5, 1854 '] 

John J. Pettus^ Kemper Jan. 5 to Jan. 10, 1854 -,| 

John J. McRae Wayne Jan. 10, 1854, to Nov. 16, 1857 > s| 

William McWillie Madison Nov. 16, 1857. to Nov. 21, 1859 | 

John J. Pettus Kemper Nov. 21, 1S59, to Nov. 16, 1SG3 

Charles Clark Bolivar Nov. 16, 1863, to May 22, 1865 I 

I 

1 Governor Leake died November 17, 1825, and was succeeded by Lieutenant-Governor | 

Brandon. i 

* Governor Holmes resigned in July, 1826, and was succeeded by Lieutenant-Governor :| 
Brandon. I 

* Governor Scott died June 12, 1833, and was succeeded by Charles Lynch, President ' ''; 
of the Senate. .\ 

* Governor Runnels vacated the executive office November 20, ISSo, and was sue- \ 
ceeded by John A. Quitman, President of the S*.'nate. \ 

* Governor Quitman resig-ned February 3, ISoi, and was succeeded by John I. Guion, -i 
President of the Senate. 

^ Governor Guion's Utrm as Senator expired Novembt;r 3. 1S51. The Senate met 
November 25 and electe<i James Wbitrleld President, who served as Governor until Jan- 
uary 10. 1852. I 



' Governor Foote resigned January 5, 1854, and was succeeded by John J. Pettus, 
President of the Senate. 



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GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 279 

Name, County. Date. 

William L. Sharkey*. . ..Hinds June to Oct. 16, 1865 

Benj. G. Humphreys Sunflower Oct. 16, 1S65, to June 15, 1868 

Adelbert Ames^ Maine June 15, 1868, to March 10, 1870 

James L. Alcorn Coahoma March 10, 1870, to Nov. 30, 1871 

Ridgley C. Powers^" Ohio Nov. 30, 1871, to Jan. 4, 1874 

Adelbert Ames Maine Jan. 4, 1874, to March 29, 1876 

John M. Stone" Tishomingo March 29, 1876, to Jan. 9, 1882 

Robert Lowry Rankin Jan. 9, 1882, to Jan. 13, 1890 

John M. Stone Tishomingo Jan. 13, 1890, to Jan. 20, 1896 

Anslem J. McLaurin. . . Rankin Jan. 20, 1896, to Jan. 16, 1900 

Andrew H. Longino. . .Washington Jan. 16, 1900, to Jan. 19, 1904 

James K. Vardaman. . . Leflore Jan. 19, 1904, to Jan. 21, 1908 

Edmond Favor Noel. . .Holmes Jan. 21, 1908, to Jan. 16, 1912 

Earl Le Roy Brewer. . Coahoma Jan. 16, 1912, to Jan. 18, 1916 

Theodore Gilmore Bilbo Pearl River .Jan. 18, 1916, to 



* Grovernor Clark was removed by Federal soldiers May 22, lS6o, and was succeeded 
by Judge William L. Sharkey as provisional Governor by appointment of President 
Johnson. 

9 Governor Humphreys was removed by Federal soldiers Jtme 15, 1868, and was 
succeeded by Adelbert Ames as ililitary Governor. 

1° Governor Alcorn resigned November 30, ISTI, and was succeeded by Lieutenant- 
Governor Powers. 

11 Governor Am^s resigned ilarch 20. 1876. and was succeeded by John M. Stone, 
President of the Senate, the Lieutenant-Governor having been impeached. 



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BIOGEAPHIES OF THE GOVERXORS OF 
THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI. 



1817-1917. 



DAVID HOLMES. 

TERM OCTOBER 7, 1817, TO JANUARY 5, 1820. 
SECOND TERM JAXUARY 7 TO JULY 25, 1826. 



David Holmes, the last Territorial and first S'ate Governor was born 
at Mary Ann Furnace, York County, Pennsylvania. March 10, 1770. He 
was the second son of Col. Joseph Holmes, an Irish gentleman who 
served in the Revolutionary Army as commissary. The mother of 
David Holmes was a daughter of Co'. David Hunter, of Berkley County, 
Va. Joseph Holmes removed form York County, Pa., to Berkley 
County, Va., and about 1771 to Frederick County, Va. The elde?t son 
of the family was Hugh Holmes, an eminent lawyer, who for twenty- 
five years was Judge of the General Court of Virginia and Speaker of 
the House of Delegates. The youngest son was Major Andrew Hunter 
Holmes, who fell at Fort Mackinack in 1813. 

David Holmes received a classical education, after which he studied 
law and was admitted to the har. When twentv-seven years of a?e he 
took his seat as a member of the House of Representatives of the Fifth 
Congress and served continuously in the Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth 
and Tenth Congresses (1797-1809). His district was called the "Tenth 
Legion of Virginia," and was composed of Rockingham and Shenan- 
doah Counties. He was appointed Governor of Mississippi Territory 
by President Jefferson, was commissioned March 7, 1809, by President 
Madison and took the oath of office before Chief Justice Marshall 
March 9th. The new Governor assumed the duties of his office July 1, 
following. The first official record made in his executive journal in 
his message to the General Assembly, dated July 3, 1809. The Assem- 
bly met for the purpose of making nominations to the President for 



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GOV. DAVID HOLMES 
Photographic copy of an oil portrait in the Mississippi Hall of Fame. 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1S17-1917 281 

members of the Council. The legislative branch of the government met 
again in November and passed a large number of acts, Including the 
bill for the establishment of the Bank of INIississippi and one for a 
turnpike across the Homochitto swamp, an improvement that assisted 
greatly in the development of the Territory. The Choctaw purchase 
east of the Peari River was organized as Wayne County. In 1810 Gov- 
ernor Holmes had great dirhcuity in keeping peace between the people 
of Mississippi Territory and the Sp?.niards of Mobile. He directed tne 
affairs of the Territory ably and wisely during the important periods 
of the War of 1812-15 and the agitation for siatehood. When the Con- 
stitutional Convention met at Washington July 7, 1817, Governor 
Holmes was its presiding officer. When the State was admitted into 
the Union he was elected Governor September 1-2, 1817, and was inau- 
gurated October 7, at Washington, the territorial capital. His term of 
service extended from October 7, 1817, to January 5,' 1820. Judge Wal- 
ter Leake, who had been elected one of the first United States Sena- 
tors from Misoissippi, resigned, and Holmes was elected to succeed 
him, faking his seat November 13, 1820. He served in the Senate un- 
til 1825, when he resigned to become a candidate for Governor of Mis- 
sissippi. In August, 1825, he was elected by a large majority and was 
inaugurated January 7, 1826, The foLowing summer his health com- 
pletely failed and he was compelled to resign his office. At tne urns 
of his resignation he had served as Governor of the Territory and State 
eleven years and one month. He returned to Winchester, Va., in 1827, 
and after five years of great suffering died at Jordon's Sulphur 
Springs, August 20, 1832, and is buried at Winchester, Va. He was 
never married. 

Governor Holmes was not only a man of integrity and ability, but 
possessed an even temper and pleasant manner that greatly increased 
his popularity. An excellent oil portrait of him has been placed in the 
Mississippi Hall of Fame. 

Authorities: Claiborne's Mis3issipi>i, Encyclopedia of Mississippi 
History- (1907), Mississippi Archives, :Missis.=iijpi newspapers (1807- 
26), Executive Journuls (July 3, 1809-1820-1826), Letters to Governor 
Holmes (1809-1817-1826), History of Mississippi, Lowry and McCar- 
dle; School History of Mississippi, Riley; Memoirs of Mississippi, 
Goodspeed. 



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282 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 
GEORGE POINDEXTER. 

TERM JANUARY 5, 1820, TO JANUARY 7, 1822. 

George Poindexter was born in Louisa County, Virginia, in 1779. 
His ancestors were French Protestants, w^ho left France for England to 
escape the persecutions of Louis XIV, and immigrated to Virginia soon 
afterwards. His first American ancestor was Thomas Poindexter. 

George Poindexter w^as left an orphan at an early age and, being the 
youngest son of a family that had been impoverished by the War or 
the Revolution, he was thrown on his own resources during his boy- 
hood. He succeeded, however, in obtaining a liberal education, read 
law in Richmond, where he was admitted to the bar and began the 
practice in that city. He removed to Mississippi Territory and opened 
a law office at Natchez about 1802. Poindexter was an ardent Demo- 
crat of the "Virginian School" of 1798-99, and when Claiborne was ap- 
pointed Governor of Mississippi Territory he was made Attorney-Gen- 
eral. In 1805 he was elected to the General Assembly, and in 1807 was 
made a delegate to Congress. He took a prominent part In the arresi 
of Aaron Burr in 1807 as a kind of diplomatic agent of Cowles Mean. 
Poindexter served in three Congresses as delegate from Mississippi 
Territory. During his service he was a staunch partisan of Jefferson 
and Madison. On March 13, 1813, he was appointed one of the Terri- 
torial Judges and remained on the bench until October, 1817. He took 
part in the battle of New Orleans as a volunteer aide-de-camp to Gen- 
eral Carroll of Tennessee. 

George Poindexter was the leader of the Constitutional Convention 
of 1817 and was the most influential member in forming the first Con- 
stitution of the State of Mississippi. He was elected as the first rep- 
resentative of the new State in Congress. Declining re-election in 1819 
he was elected Governor by a large majority over Gen. Thomas Hinds, 
a hero of the battle of New Orleans. During his administration he pre- 
pared the first Code of the State, which is still regarded as a model. 
At th^ expiration of hi?: terra in 1822 he was elected to the Legislature 
in order that he might explain and defend his codification of the laws. 
In 1822 he was a candidate for Congress, but was defeated by Christo- 
pher Rankin. He remained in private life until 1830, when he was 
appointed United States Senator by Governor Brandon, upon the death 
of Robert H. Adams, and soon afterwards he was unanimously electee 
by the Legislature. Early in Poindexter's senatorial career he allied 
himself in the factional fight between Jackson and Calhoun with the 
latter, and at public dinners and receptions he was hailed as "Old Iron- 
sides" by his followers in Mississippi. He announced for re-election 
to the Senate in 1835, and was opposed by Robert J. Walker in the 
campaign for the election of a legislature. After a memorable contest 



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GOV. GEORGE POIXDEXTER 
Photographic copy of an oil portrait in the Mississippi Hall of Fame. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 282 

he was defeated by the friends of President Jackson. In 1838 he re- 
moved to Louisville, Kentucky. He returned to Mississippi in 1841 
and took an active part in the campaign of that year in support of 
the Whig ticket in favor of paying the bonds of the State. In accept- 
ing an oil portrait of Governor Foindexter, which was presented to the 
State, Governor Brown said: "In accepting the portrait you have 
been pleased to offer I should withhold the expression of an honest 
opinion and do justice, I think, to a grateful people, if I did not say 
that the real man will continue to live in the hearts of his countrymen 
long after the canvas representation shall have passed away." The 
same portrait has been placed in the Hall of Fame. 

The last years of Governor Poindexter's life were spent in the prac- 
tice of law in the capital of the State. He died September 5, 1855, and 
is buried in Greenwood Cemetery, Jackson, Miss. He was unquestion- 
ably one of the ablest men who lived in the State at that period, and 
was a strong influence in its early development. 

Authorities: Claiborne's Mississippi (1880), Encyclopedia of Mis- 
sisippi History, Rowland (1907); Biographical Sketch of Honorable 
George Poindexter (1835), Executive Journal (1813-22), Mississippi 
Archives and newspapers (1804-1855), Letters to Governor Poindexter 
(1820-1822), History of Mississippi, Lowry and McCardle; School His- 
tory of Mississippi, Riley. 



WALTER LEAKE. 

TERM. JANUARY 7, 1822, TO NOVEMBER 17, 1825. 

Walter Leake was born in Albemarle County, Virginia, May 20, 1762. 
He was the son of Captain Mask Leake, an officer of the Army of the 
Revolution, and Patience (Morris) Leake, of Hanover County, Vir- 
ginia. He was named for Walter Leake of Goochland, his paternal 
grandfather, who was the son of William Leake and Mary (Bostick) 
Leake, the first of the family in Virginia. Walter Leake was a soldier 
of the Revolution and represented Albemarle County in the Virginia 
Legislature. His wife was Elizabeth Wingfield. He was defeated tor 
Congress by Thomas Mann Randolph, the son-in-law of Thomas Jeffer- 
son, by only two votes, and at once announced his candidacy for the 
same office at the next election, on March 2, 1807. President Jefferson 
shrewdly appointed him Judge for Mississippi Territory, to succeed 
George Matthews. He arrived in Washington, the Territorial capita!, 
in May and immediately assumed the duties of his office. Judge Leake 
made his residence in Claiborne County. He served with ability as a 



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284 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 i 

member of the Territorial Court until October 9, 1817, wlien lie was I 

elected one of the first United States Senators from the new State of ' 

Mississippi. He was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 
1817, and with George Poindexter and Josiah Simpson, his colleagues ^ 

on the bench, gave important service in forming the organic laws of ^ 

the State. His term in the Senate extended from October 9, 1817, lo 

1820, when he resigned to become a candidate for Governor. He was 
elected over Charles B. Green by a vote of 4,730 to 1,269. On June 17, 

1821, before the election, Governor Poindexter appointed Judge LeaKe 
to the Supreme bench to succeed John Taylor, deceased, and he served 

as a member of the court until his inauguration as Governor at Col- | 

umbia, where the Legislature met January 7, 1822. j 

During the administration of Governor Leake the permanent seat of { 

the State government was located at Jackson, and a small, two-story 
State house was built on the northeast corner of what is now Capitol '^ 

and President Streets, in which building the Legislature met Decem- 
ber 23, 1822. In his message the Governor said: "Permit me to con- 
gratulate you on your first meeting at the place determined on as the 
permanent seat of our government, where, for the first time, your de- 
liberations may be conducted in a house that is the property of the 
State and intended exclusively for the purpose of legislation, and where 
so little could have been reasonably expected." In his farewell address f 

Governor Poindexter says of Governor Leake: "If integrity, the most ,■ 

pure and unsullied, combined with sound intelligence and great ex- 
perience in public life, are qualifications for the highest trust in the 
gift of the people, they are identified in the individual selected as your 
Chief Magistrate." He was selected for a second term in 1823 over 
David Dickson and William Lattimore. In 1823 Governor Leake pur- 
chased land in Hinds County — completed his home in 1825 and called 
it Mount Salus. A town grew up about him and took its name from 
his home, but the name was changed in a few years, the place receiv- v 

Ing the name of Clinton. • 

The Executive Journal of Governor Leake is on file in the Depart- 
ment of Archives and History. His last letter is dated "Mount Salus, 
August 10, 1825." One of his last official acts was the appointment of 
Powhatan Ellis to the United States Senate to succeed David Holmes, 
who had resigned to become a candidate for Governor. He died No- 
vember 17, 1825, before the expiration of his second term, and is buried 
at his home near Clinton. "As a patriot and statesman," said David 
Ho'mes, "he was distinguished from early life for the ardor, ability 
and fidelity with which he discharged the various and important trusts 
oommitted to him by his country." 

Authorities: Encyclopedia of Mississippi History, Rowland (1907); _J 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 285 

Claiborne's Mississippi (1880), The Virginia Magazine of History and 
Biography, Vol. XI, No. 4, April, 1904, page 417; Mississippi Archives. 
Letters to Governor Leake (1822-1825), History of :Mississippi, Lowry 
and McCardle; School History of Mississippi, Riley; Memoirs of Mis- 
sissippi, Goodspeed. 



GERARD CHITTOCQUE BRANDON. 

terms: NOVEMBER 17, 1825, TO JANUARY 7, 1826, ad interim; august, 
1826, TO JANUARY, 1828, ad interim.; January, 1828, to January 

9, 1832. 

Gerard Chittocque Brandon, who succeeded as Governor a^ interim 
upon the death of Governor Leake, was born in September, 1788, at 
Selma Plantation, nine miles from Natchez, when Don Carlos de Grand 
Pre was Governor of the Natchez District under Spanish authority. 
He was the son of Gerard Brandon, a native of County Donegal, Ire- 
land, of English-Scotch descent, who espoused the cause of Robert Em- 
met, afterwards made his escape to France and later immigrated to 
America, reaching Charleston, South Carolina, a short time before the 
War of the Revolution. He served with the patriot army under Mar- 
ion and in Washington's cavalry. He removed to the Natchez District 
about 1782 and obtained land grants from the Spanish authorities in 
what is now Adams and Wilkinson Counties. The mother of Gerard 
Chittocque Brandon was Dorothy Nugent. He was prepared for college 
by Rev. Dr. McDowell, and was entered as a student at Princeton: later 
he matriculated at William and Mary, where he was graduated, divid- 
ing honors with William C. Rives. He studied law, was admitted lo 
the bar and located at Vs'ashingion, Mississippi Territory. In the War 
of 1812 he served as a private soldier. In 1816 he was married to Mar- 
garet Chambers, of Bardstown, Ky., and abandoned the practice of law 
for the life of a planter. He was elected to the General Assembly of 
tho Mississippi Terriiory in ibio. in the Constitutional Convention of 
1817 he was one of the members from Wilkinson County. He was 
Lieutenant-Governor in the administration of Governors Holmes and 
Leake, and Governor ad interim to fill out the unexpired terms of both. 
In 1827 he was elected Governor over David Williams and Beverly R. 
Grayson, with scattering votes for A. Williams and D. W. Williams. 
He was elected for a second term in 1829 over George Winchester by 
a vote of 7,006 to 3,764. At the close of his second term he was solic- 
ited to become a candidate for the office of United States Senator, but 
declined. The last official position held by Governor Brandon was that 
of a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1832. He resigned 












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286 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERXORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

his position in that body before the close of the session because, it is 
said, of his opposition to the election of judges by the people. He re- 
turned to his plantation, Columbian Springs, near Fort Adams, where 
he died March 28, 1850. Governor Brandon was a typical Southern 
planter, cultured, genial and hospitable, and though he filled every 
official position that he ever occupied with credit and ability, and en- 
joyed the distinction that a life in the public service gave, he did not 
underA-alue the b'.essings of private life and in no occupation did he 
take a keener interest than in that of a planter. He was twice mar- 
ried. His last marriage, to Elizabeth Stanton of Natchez, occurred in 
1824. Six sons and two daughters were born of this marriage. 

Governor Brandon was the first native Mississippian to hold the 
office of Governor, and his service covered practically three terms. His 
portrait in oil has been placed in the Hall of Fame. 

Authorities: Executive Journal, Mississippi Archives, Mississippi 
Newspapers (1815-1830); Claiborne's Mississippi (1880), Encyclo- 
pedia of Mississippi History, Rowland (1907); Letters to Governor 
Brandon (1825-1832), History of Mississippi, Lowry and McCardle; 
School History of Mississippi, Riley; Memoirs of Mississippi, Good- 
speed. 



.- ' ABR AM M. SCOTT. 

TERil, JAXUABY 9, 1832, TO JUXE 12, 1833. 

Abram M. Scott was born in South Carolina in 1785. Very little is 
known of his early life before he came to Mississippi Territory and 
located in Wilkinson County. Before 1810 he had attained to some lo- 
cal prominence, and the territorial register for that year shows that 
he was Assessor of Wilkinson County, and in 1812 was collector of 
taxes. In the war against the Creeks he commanded a company in the 
First Mississippi Regiment, United States Volunteeers. He was a 
member of the Constitutional Convention of 1817 from Wilkinson 
County, and represented that county in the State ^seuaie in lizZ, 1S'J.^j 
and 1827. In 1822 he was Colonel on the staff of Governor Leake, and 
in 1824 he was appointed sheriff of Wilkinson County. In 1831 he was 
a candidate for Governor along with Hiram G. Runnels, Charles Lynch, 
Wiley P. Harris and Adam Gordon, and was elected by a plurality of 
247 votes over Runnels. During the first year of his administration 
the Constitutional Convention of 1832 met. The Constitution adopted 
was notable in that it adopted an entirely new plan for rne selection 
of the judiciary and provided for the election of judges by the people. 

It was during the administration of Governor Scott that the Legis- 
lature enacted a law for the erection of a new state House and appro- 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 287 

priated $95,000 to begin the building, which was occupied in 1839 in an 
unfinished condition. The new Constitution of 1832 provided that the 
Governor and all officials, civil and military, should continue in office 
until superseded pursuant to the provisions of the Constitution. The 
first Legislature was elected temporarily in December, 1832, to meet on 
the first Monday in January, and it provided for an election of State 
and county officers on the first Monday in May, 1833, to serve until the 
succeeding general election in November and after as if they had been 
chosen at that general election. The Legislature by Act of March 2, 
1833, provided for the May election, also that the regular general elec- 
tion of State and county officers, members of the Legislature and Con- 
gressmen should occur on the first Monday in November and the day 
after, biennially. At the election of State officers in May, 1833, Gov- 
ernor Scott was defeated by Hiram G. Runnels, the vote being 6,675 to 
6,117. He continued to hold office until his death, which occurred of 
cholera the following June. An interesting question arises as to who 
really was the Governor de jure of the State after the May, 1833, elec- 
tion. 

In announcing the death of Governor Scott the States Rights Banner 
said: "He was one of the best men, the most devoted public servant. 
He fell victim to his sense of public duty, for nothing but the pres- 
sure and importance of official business has kept him in this place 
since the cholera made its appearance." 

Governor Scott is buried in Greenwood Cemetery at Jactson. 

Authorities: Claiborne's Mississippi, (1880), Encyclopedia of Missis- 
sippi History, Rowland (1907); Executive Correspondence (1832 and 
1833), Mississippi Archives (1810-1833), History of Mississippi, Lowry 
and McCardle; School History of Mississippi, Riley; Memoirs of Mis- 
sissippi, Goodspeed. 



CHARLES LYNCH. 

term: juxe 12 to ^^o^'E.^rBER 20, 1833, ad interim: January 7, 1836, to 

JANUARY 8, 1838. 

Charles Lynch was born in South Carolina in 1783. The date of his 
removal to Mississippi is not known. He settled in Lawrence County, 
and before 1821 devoted himself to farming, having never held public 
office. In 1821 he was elected Probate Judge of Lawrence County by 
the Legislature. He reluctantly accepted the position, as he had no 
legal training. In 1827 he was elected to represent the district com- 
posed of Lawrence, Simpson and Covington Counties in the State Sen- 
ate. He was the leader of the Jacksonian Democracy in the Senate, 
and led the opposition to the United States Bank and the establishmeiit 



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288 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

of a branch in Mississippi. In January, 1829, lie was a candidate for 

United States Senator on an anti-bank platform, but was (defeated by- 
Thomas B. Reed. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1832 he 
was again elected to the State Senate, and was chosen President or 
that body. Upon the death of Governor Scott he succeeded as Gover- 
nor and served until the inauguration of Governor Runnels, November 
20, 1833. In his mess,?ge to the Legislature he took a firm stand 
against nullification in South Carolina. In the campaign of 1835 he 
announced for Governor in opposition to Governor Runnels, the caucus 
nominee of the Democratic party. He was supported by the friends 
of Senator Poindexter, who hop&d to gain through his influence the 
support of the Jacksonian Democracy. Runnels was the candidate of 
the friends of Robert J. Walker. After a campaign which was ramous 
in the political history of the State, Lynch was elected by a majority 
of 40-i. His election was due largely to the Whig vote which he re- 
ceived. Lynch was called by the opposition "The White, alias Van 
Buren, alias Jackson, alias anti- Jackson, alias anything candidate." He 
was inaugurated January 7, 1836. with an elaborate ceremonial. The 
Legislature of 1830 provided for the organization of ten new counties 
out of the Choctaw purchase and three more were made from the orig- 
inal counties of the Choctaw lands. Governor Lynch's service as Chief 
Executive terminated January S, 1838. After the end of his term he 
continued to reside in Jackson, and was entrusted, as sole commis- 
sioner, with the completion of the State House, executive mansion and 
penitentiary. He was also made President of the Alabama and Mis- 
sissippi Railroad and Banking Company, which had attempted to 
build a railroad from Jackson east, but was then in a bankrupt con- 
dition. The latter years of his life were spent at his country hom.e 
near Jackson, which was burned during the Civil War. He died Feb- 
ruary 9, 1853, and is buried at Greenwood Cemetery, Jacksom 

Authorities: Encyclopedia of Mississippi History (1907), Clai- 
borne's Mississippi, Mississippi Archives, Mississippi newspaper files 
(1821-1853), Letters to Governor Lynch (1833, 1836-1838), History of 
Mississippi, Lowry and McCardle; School Historj^ of Mississippi, Ri- 
ley; Memoirs of ^^liosissippi, Goodopeed. 



HIRAM G. RUNNELS. 

TERM, NOVEMBER 20, 1833, TO ^"■0\-EMBER 20, 1835. 

Hiram G. Runnels was born December 13, 1796, in Hancock County, 
Georgia. He was the third son of Harmon Runnels, a soldier of the 
Revolution, who came to Mississippi Territory in ISIO and settled i:a 
what is now Lawrence County. He was a member of the Territorial 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 289 

Legislature in 1813; delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1817, 
of the House of Representatives 1817-20, and State Senator 1837-38. 

Hiram G. Runnels, after acquiring a common school education, be- 
came a teacher in Lawrence County. He served as a private soldier 
in the War of 1S12. In 1S22 he was elected Auditor of Public Accounts 
by the Legislature and served by re-election uniil 1830. April 8, 1823, 
he was married to Aurelia Smith, daughter of Major David Smith, of 
Hinds County. In 1829 he was elected to the lower house of the Legis- 
lature, and served again in 1840. He was appointed receiver of pub- 
lic moneys in Mississippi by President Jackson in 1830. In 1831 he 
was a candidate for Governor against Abram M. Scott, Charles Lynch, 
W. P. Harris and Adam Gordon, and was defeated by a plurality of 247. 
He was again a candidate for Governor in 1833, and was elected over 
Abram M. Scott by a majority of 55S. The Legislature, at its January- 
March, 1833. session, enacted that the time for future meetings should 
be the first Monday in January, which fixed the next session in Janu- 
ary, 1836. When Governor Runnels was inaugurated, November 20, 
1833, the Legislature met at the same time. The Constitution of 1832 
do not fix a time for the installation of the Chief Executive, and the 
oversight had not been remedied by statute. The Constitution, how- 
ever, provided that the Governor should hold office for "two years from 
the time of his installation," and on November 20, 1835, Governor Run- 
nels retired from office. There was an interregnum from November 
•20 to December 3, when Secretary of State Dickson called a special 
session of the newly elected Senate. The Senate elected John A. Quit- 
man President, and he served as acting Governor from December 3, 
1835, to January 7, 1836. Governor Runnels was a candidate for reelec- 
tion in 1835, and was defeated by Charles Lynch by a vote of 9,867 to 
9,441. Upon the organization of the Union Bank in 1838 he was elected 
President at a salary of SIO.OOO a year. When the management of the 
bank was attacked by Governor McNutt he was publicly caned by Run- 
nels on the streets of Jackson. In 1840 Runnels fought a duel with 
Volney E. Howard, one of the directors of the Union Bank. In 1842 
he removed to Brazoria County, TcXaS. He was a delegate to the con- 
vention which formed the Constitutiun of Texas preparatory to its ad- 
mission into the Union, and was chairman of the Committee on the 
Legislative Department. He was afterwards elected State Senator 
from Galveston and Brazoria Counties. He removed to Harris County, 
Texas, about 1855, and after a short residence was elected to the State 
Senate. A short time after his election he was stricken with a fatal 
illness and died December 17, 1857. He is buried in Glenwood Ceme- 
tery, Houston, Texas. In announcing his death in the House of Rep- 
resentatives Mr. Henderson of Harris County said: "He came to 
Texas in 1842 under a call tor volunteers. Those who know him a? 
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290 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-19X7 

well as I have done for fifteen years can bear testimony of his moral 

worth, for I can assure you that in all the relations of life, either as 1 

public or private citizen, there was much to admire; he was brave, gen- | 

erous and confiding; his hand and purse were ever opened to a friend; | 

he was a kind parent, a devoted and affectionate husband, and whilst I 

we mourn his loss as a distinguished public man. we sympathize with | 

his bereaved family and send them resoltitions of condolence." h 

Authorities: Claiborne's Mississippi, Encyclopedia of Mississippi j 

History, Rowland; !Memoirs of ^Mississippi, Goodspeed; Lowry and I 
McCardle's History of Mississippi; School History of Mississippi, Ki- 
ley; Mississippi Archives and newspapers; newspapers of Brazoria and 
Harris Counties, Texas, 1842-1857, ^ 



JOHN ANTHONY QUITMAN. " ' f 

terms: DECEMBER 3, 1835, TO JA?rc:ABY 7, 18S6, ad interim; jaihtaby 10, 

1850, TO FEBRTTARY 3, 1851. | 

John Anthony Quitman was born at Rhinebeck. New York, Septem- 
ber 1, 1798. He was a grandson of a Prussian of distinction, whose -^ 
home was near the city of Cleves. on a small island in the river Rhine ^ 
The father of John Anthony Quitman was Frederick Henry Quitman. i 
He was educated at the University of Halle; became a clergyman and | 
was sent as a missionary to the Dutch possession of Curacoa, where he >| 
married the daughter of the Governor of the Island. He afterwards re- I 
moved to the State of New York, and soon rose to distinction in the j 
Lutheran ministry as President of the General Synod of that church * 
in the United States. j 

John Anthony Quitman was the youngest of three brothers and was I 

educated at Schoharie and Chadwick. Before attaining the age or . * 

twenty-one years he was an instructor at Mount Airy College, near J 

Philadelphia. His father intended him for the ministry and his train- 
ing was along that line. The young man's inclinations, however, led 
him to the l^.v/. In 1??^ h<^ ■^"^■nt to ^'binifo+ho O^i'^ ■*'o teach S'^hool 
and at the same tim^ to studv law. He securt^d '^m'^lovment '^s a clerk 
In the land office at Delaware, Ohio, and after a year was admitted to 
the bar. In 1821 he located in Natchez, and In a letter to his brother 
stated that his worldly possessions consisted of fifteen dollars. He had 
a letter of introduction to William B. Griffith, a famous lawyer of 
Natchez, and was given a place in his office. During the first year of 
his association with Judge Griffith he was made a partner. In 1824 he 
married Elizabeth Turner, daughter of Henry Turner, of Adams 
County, niece oj: Judge Edward Turner, and cousin of Judge Griffith's 
wife, In 1827 William B. Griffith died and Quitman formed a partner- 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERXORS OF :MTSSIS?IPPI. 1817-1917 291 

ship with John T. McMurran. In 1827 he was a candidate for the Legis- 
lature against Adam L. Bingaman and was elected. In 1828 he was 
elected Chancellor of the State at the age of thirty years, and held 
the position until 1S35. As a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1832 he framed the sections of the Constitution relating to 
the judiciary. In 1834 he resigned the Chancellorship and was 
elected to the State Senate from Adams County. In November, 
1835, Governor Runnels retired from the executive chair and Quit- 
man, who had been elected President of the Senate at a called ses- 
sion, held December 3, became Governor from December 3. 1835, to 
January 7, 1836. Soon after his retirement as Governor he was offered 
a position on the Supreme bench but declined. In 1S36 he raised a 
company and equipped it at his own expense for the purpose of aiding 
Texas in establishing her independence. He arrived only In time to 
rejoice with the victors of San Jacinto. Later in the year he was a 
candidate for Congress but was defeated. In 1837 he was elected Major- 
General of militia over William M. Gwin. In 1840 he again declined 
appointment on the Supreme Court. He was a candidate for Unltea 
States Senator against McNutt in 1845, but the Legislature elected 
Henry S. Foote. On July 1, 1846, he was appointed a Brigadier-Gen- 
era! for service in the war with Mexico. He was commissioned a 
Major-General for gallantry and meritorious service and voted a sword 
by Congress. In 1848 he was strongly supported at the Democratic 
National Convention for Vice-President. He was nominated for Gov- 
ernor by the Democrats of Mississippi in 1849, and was elected over 
Luke Lea, the Whig candidate, by a vote of 33,117 to 22,996. Governor 
Quitman was an ardent advocate of States Rights as opposed to ex- 
treme Nationality. He was also an "original expansionist," and fav- 
ored the annexation of Mexico and Cuba. Such was his sympathy with 
Lopez in his filibustering expedition as-ainst Cuba that he was indicted 
by the Federal grand jury at New Orleans for setting on foot the In- 
raslon of Cuba, in violation of the neutrality laws. After mature de- 
liberation he decided to resign the ofhce of Governor before submit- 
ting to arrest, which he did bv T>rnr>Tcrnnt^' on !^^iT':)d Fchniary 3, 1S31. 
The Indictment was dismissed in M^rph, 1851. Quitman again receivt^d 
the nomination for Governor In 1851, on the platform of opposition to 
the Compromise of 1850. He was opposed by Henry S. Foote, who ap- 
proved the Compromise. During his administration Governor Quit- 
man called a special session of the Legislature to convene November 
18, 1850, to test popular opinion in the State on the question of the 
Compromise. The Legislature provided for an election to be held the 
first Monday in September, 1851, for the election of delegates to a Con- 
vention for the consideration of public affairs. The election of dele- 
gates for the Convention was held during th^ campaign for governor 
antj resulted in the election of a large majority of "Union," or "Foote" 



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292 BIOGRAPHIES OP GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

delegates. After the defeat of his policy Quitman retired from the con- 
test for governor September 6, 1851. From 1851 to 1855 Governor 
Quitman ^'as engaged in active efforts for the liberation of Cuba. Ie 
1855 he was elected to Congress from the Fifth District, and two 
years later was re-elected. He received the highest vote on the first 
ballot for Vice-President at the National Democratic Convention of 
1856. During the winter of 1857-58 his health became greatly Im- 
paired. After his return to Natchez he rapidly lost his strength and 
died" July 17, 1858. J. F. H. Claiborne, in his exhaustive biography of 
Quitman, says: "He was personally the most popular man in Amer- 
ica at the period of his death, and for six years previous to his death. 
Could the machinery of parties have been dispensed with, the popular- 
ity tie brought from Mexico and his grand ideas of American progress 
would have carried him to the head of affairs." 

An original family portrait of Governor Quitman hangs in the State 
Hall of Fame. 

Authorities: Claiborne's Quitman (1860), Encyclopedia of Missis- 
sippi History, Rowland; The Bench and Bar of Mississippi, Lynch 
(1881); Bench and Bar of the South and Southwest, Foote (1876); 
Mississippi Archives and newspapers (1821-1857). 



ALEXANDER GALLATIN McNUTT 

TERM, JANUARY 8, 1838, TO JANTJARY 10, 1842. 

ATexander Gallatin McNutt was born in 1801, in Rockbridge County, 
Virginia. He was a descendant of a Scotch-Irish family that settled 
in the valley of the Shenandoah in the early development of that 
famous region. Governor McNutt. who was the chief executive of 
Nova Scotia under English rule, is buried in the Falling Springs 
church yard, Rockbridge County, Virginia, and Alexander G. McNutt 
was evidently a member of that family. He was graduated at old 
V/ashington College at Lexf-ngtor!. Va. He studied law and located in 
Jackson, Miss., for the practice of his profession. He remained at Jack- 
son only a short time and then located in Vicksburg, Until 1835 he de- 
voted himself exclusively to the practice of law and acquired a consider- 
able estate. In 1833 he married Elizabeth (Lewis) Caraeron,the widow 
of Joel S. Cameron, a partner of McNutt in planting. During the fam- 
ous campaign of 1835 he became a candidate for the State Senator from 
Warren County in the interest of Poindexter for United States Senator, 
and. was elected. At the session of 1837 he was elected President of 
the Senate. As a Senator he took an extreme pcsition against banking 
privileges, a policy that secured his election as Governor in 1837. He 
■was opposed by Benjamin W. Edwards, a Democrat, and J. R. Morgan 






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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 293 

and John A. Grimball, Wtiigs. Major Edwards died during the cam- 
paign and McNutt was elected by a plurality of 3,040 over Morgan. In 
1839 he was re-elected. The two administrations of McNutt are noted 
in the political history of Mississippi as a time of relentless war 
against the abuses in the management of the Planters and Union 
Banks, in which the State was a large stockholder. That policy finally 
terminated in the repudiation of the State bonds that had been sold to 
secure banking capital, it is evident now that the State was the vic- 
tim of dishonest and corrupt methods in the management of the banks. 
Tnere can be no doubt, however, that repudiation was a great wrong, 
and that a compi-omise settlement should have been effected with the 
holders oi the State bonds. 

Governor McNutt retired from the executive ofhce January 10, 1842. 
After a few years he sougat to re-enter public iiie and became a candi- 
date for United States Senator in opposition to John A. Quitman, Al- 
bert G. Brovv'n, Jacob Thompson, and William M. Gwin. The opposition 
entered into a novel agreement, which was that Henry S. Foote should 
follow McMutt and reply to his speeches, which he did with great suc- 
cess, i^'oote v.as not an avowed candidate for the United States Sen- 
ate when tue Legislature met, but was finally elected. In 1848 McNutt 
was a Democratic canaidate lor Presidential Elector and made a can- 
vass of the State. Vvnile engaged in his campaign he was attacked 
' with a fatal illness and died . at Cockrums Cross Koads in DeSoto 
County, October 22, l&i6. He is buried in Greenwood Cemetery, Jack- 
son. His portrait has been placed in the Hall of Fame by his relatives. 

The relentless war that Governor McNutt made on the "grafters" of 
his day was a just one, but he carried it too far and recklessly im- 
paired the credit of the State for years. He took pride in calling him- 
self 'The great Repudiator." While he was a man of ability and left 
a permanent impress upon the political affairs of Mississippi, his in- 
fluence was not for the best interests of the State. Reuben Davis, in 
his Recollections, page 84, says of him: "In some respects he was the 
most remarkable man I ever knew." 

Authorities: Bench and Bar of Mississippi, Lynch (1881); Bench 
and Bar of the South and the Southwest, Foote (1876) ; Casket of Rem- 
iniscences, Foote (1874); Encyclopedia of Mississippi History, Row- 
land (1907); Executive Journal (1837-42); Mississippi Archives ana 
-newspapers, 1828-1848. 



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TILGHMAN MAYFIELD TUCKER. , i 

TERM, JANUARY 10, 1842, TO JANUARY 10, 1844. 

Tilghman Mayfield Tucker was born in North Carolina February 5, :^ 

1802. He was the son of John Tucker and Margaret (Mayfield) 
Tucker, who removed to Alabama during the early youth of the future 
Governor of Mississippi. In the early 20's he entered the office of Dan-^ 
iel W. Wright as a law student. Judge Wright was one of the leaders 
of the Mississippi bar and was located at Hamilton, the first county 
seat of Monroe County. In 1832 he was elected to the High Court of 
Errors and Apper^.s. After being admitted to the bar Tilgnman M. 
Tucker located at Columbus, Lowndes County. In 1831 he was elected 
to the Legislature as the first representative of the county which was 
organized January 30, ISSO. He represented Lowndes County in the 
the lower house until 1S36, and in 1838 he was elected State Sen- ;' 

ator and served as a member of the upper house of the Legislature un- 
til 1842. In 1841 he was the Democratic candidate for Governor, ai a 
time when the political fortunes of the party were at a low ebb. The 
candidate of the Whigs and bond-paying Democrats was David O. Shat- ... 

tuck, a noted Methodist preacher, lawyer. Circuit Judge and popular 7 

political orator. The issue of the campaign was the repudiation of the 
Union Bank bonds, the Dem.ocrats favoring and the Whigs opposing. " | 

Tucker was elected by a vote of 19,059 to 16,773. In his inaugural ad- \ 

dress the new Governor said that "The transactions connected with /i 

said (Union J bank, both in its inception and final consummation, were ^ 

not governmental, but on the contrary were individual transactions "4 

performed not only without the authority of the Constitution of the 
state, but contrary to the express provisions thereof." During tne ad- 
ministration of Governor Tucker Richard S. Graves, the State Treas- '- 
urer, embezzled .^45,000 from the treasury and escaped to Canada. On ^ 
account of this scandal a special session of the Legislature was con- ^ 
vened July 10, 1843. A committee was appointed to investigate and '-^ 
report upon the defalcation. The committee was disposed to censure 
the Governor for not demanding an earlier investigation of the treas- -> 
ury, but said finally that "we are convinced that the action of the Gov- :; 
ernor was paralyzed, not by improper motives, but by an honorable ' i 
conviction that to have done more than he did would have been to . ;| 
transcend his constitutional power and authority." jf 
In 1843 Governor Tucker was nominated for Congress and served | 
one term. After his retirement from Congress he was not again a can- # 
didate for public oiTice. He afterwards made his home on his "Ck)tton- ^. 
wood" plantation in Louisiana. He died in Alabama April 30, 185r5, 
while visiting his father, and is buried at "Cottonwood." Governor J 
Tucker was married in 1829 to Sarah F. McBee, and in 1854 to Martha -:| 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 295 

A. Conger. "He was a man," says Henry S. Foote, in his Reminiscences, 
"of sound and vigorous intellect, of a chastened and moderate ambi- 
tions, and of a lofty independence worthy of all praise." 

Authorities: Casket of Reminiscences, Foote (1874); Encyclopedia 
of Mississippi History, Rowland (1907); Mississippi Archives and 
newspapers (1S25-1S59). 



ALBERT GALLATIN BROWN. 

TEiJM, JA2SUABY 10, 1844, TO JANUARY 10, 1848. 

Albert Gallatin Brown was born in Chester District, South Carolina, 
May 31, 1813, and was the second son of Joseph Brown, wno removed 
from South Carolina in 1823, and settled in what is now Copiah 
County. He was a thriity farmer and sent his son to Mississippi and 
Jefferson Colleges, where he received his education. Albert G. Brown 
began the study of law several years before he attained his majority in 
the office of Ephraim G. Peyton, at old Gallatin which was the county 
seat of Copiah County from 1824 to 1872. In 1S32, when nineteen years 
of age, he was elected a Brigadier-General of militia, and in 1833 was 
admitted to the bar. He married Elizabeth Frances Taliaferro, of Vir- 
ginia, but the young wife lived only a few months. In 1835 he was 
elected a representative in the Legislature- from Copiah County, and 
was chosen Speaker pro tempore during his first term. He continued 
to serve by re-election until 1838. He was instructed by his constitu- 
ents to vote for a United States Senator favorable to the National 
Bank or resign. He refused to vote as instructed, resigned and was 
re-elected. In 1839 he was elected to Congress, and served one term. 
On January 12, 1841, he married Roberta E. Young, daughter of Gen. 
Robert Young, of Alexandria, Va. He declined re-election to Congress 
and was elected Circuit Judze in 1841. 

In the State Democratic Convention of 1843 .John M. Taylor, of 
Hinds, Albert G Brown of Copiah, T. M. Tucker of Lowndes, Joseph 
Dunbar of Jefferson,, T. B. Woodward of Yazoo, R. C. Hancock of De- 
Soto, C. B. Green of Madison, Parmenas Briscoe of Claiborne, and An- 
drew Hays of Hinds were placed in nomination for Governor. Brown 
and Tucker led in the race, the contest ending on the eighth ballot by 
the nomination of Albert G. Brown. He was opposed by George R. 
Clayton, Whig, and Thomas H. Williams, independent bond-paying 
Democrat. Brown was elected by a vote of 21,03.j to 17,322 for Clay- 
ton, receiving a majority of about 2,000 over both opponents. The 
great issue of the campaign was the repudiation of the Union Bank 






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296 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

bonds, and the result was generally regarded as the expression of the 
popular will and an endorsement of the resolutions passed by the Leg- 
islature February IS, 1842, by which the bonds were repudiated. 

In 1845 Governor Brown was re-elected for a second term over 
Thomas Coopwood and Isaac X. Davis. Before the close of his second 
term he was again elected to Congress and took his seat in January, 
1848. He was re-elected in 1S49 and in 1851. During his congressional 
career Governor Brown was an uncompromising advocate of the ex- 
tension of slavery in the territories, and opposed the compromise of 
1850. He was the only "States Rights" Democrat elected in the Foote- 
Davis campaign of 1851. The Legislature elected in 1853 was largely 
Democratic through the efforts of Governor Brown, who nad maae a 
vigorous campaign as a candidate for United States Senator. On Jan- 
uary 7, 1854, the Legislature balloted for Senator, with the following 
result: Albert G. Brown, 76; Henry S. Foote, 22; William L. Sharkey, 
7; William A. Lake, 3; A. K, McClung, 3; F. M. Rogers. 2; John A. 
Quitman, 1; John D. Freeman, 1. Before Senator Brown tooK nis seat 
Stephen Adams was the only Senator from Mississippi from March 4, 
1853, to January 26, 1854, the vacancy being caused by the failure of 
Governor Foote to appoint a successor to Walker Brook. In 1859 Sen- 
ator Brown's "Speeches, Messages and other Writings" ed.ted by M. 
W. Cluskey, in a volume of 6u0 pages, was published. In 1860 many 
Democratic newspapers in Mississippi were flying the ticket: "For 
President, Albert G. Brown; for Vice-President, Fernando Wood." 

On his resignation from the Senate, after the secession of Missis- 
sippi from the Union, Senator Brown returned home and organized the 
Brown Rebels, a company that became a part of the Eighteenth Mis- 
sissippi 'Regiment, C. S. A. He was elected Captain of that company 
and served in Virginia until he was elected a member of the Confed- 
erate Senate from Mississippi. He represented the State in that body 
from February 18, 1862, to March 18, 1865. During the progress of re- 
construction Governor Brown advised the people of Mississippi that 
"it was best to meet Congress on its own platform and shake hands." 
His policy was unpopular and was received with distrust. He never 
returned to public life after the Civil War. After that time his life 
was uneventful and was spent quietly at his home near Terry, Hinas 
County, where he died June 12, 1880. He is buried in Greenwood Cem- 
etery, Jackson. 

Reuben Davis, in writing of Governor Brown in his "Recollections," 
says of him: "He was the best balanced man I ever knew, and the 
most successful in his life. I knew him well, and am certain that I 
never heard him make an unkind remark about any one in his life, 
and no person was ever known to speak of him unkindly." 

Authorities: Recollections of Mississippi and Mississipplans, Davis 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1S17-19I7 297 

(1891); Speeches and Writings of Albert G. Brown, Cluskey (1859); 
Encyclopedia of Mississippi History, Rowland (1907); Biographical 
Congressional Directory (1903); Executive Journal (1844-48); Mis- 
sissippi Archives and newspapers (1835-1880). 



JOSEPH W. MATTHEWS. 

TERM, JANUARY 10, 1848, TO JANUARY 10, 1850. 

Joseph W. Matthews was born in 1812 near Huntsville, Ala. During 
his early manhood he came to Mississippi as a government surveyor, 
engaged in laying out newly purchased Indian lands. Soon after the 
Chickasaw purchase he located as a planter in Marshall County, near 
the extinct town of Salem, Tippah County, now Benton Couniy. In 
1840 he was elected Representative to the Legislature from Marshall 
County, and was a Senator from that county in 1844-48. On June 7, 
1847, the Democratic State Convention met in the city of Jackson and 
was presided over by Judge Powhatan Ellis. The names of Joseph W. 
Matthews of Marshal', H. S. Bennett of Monroe. R. C. Hancock of De- 
Soto, and Stephen Adams of Monroe were presented to the conven- 
tion for the nomination for Governor, and Matthews was nominated 
on the third ballot by a majority of fifty-one to twenty-se\;en for Ben- 
nett and Hancock, Adams withdrawing after the second ballot. The 
Wliig candidate was Major A. B. Bradford of Marshall, one of the 
heroes of the Mexican war which was then in progress. Matthews 
was elected by a vote of 26,985 to 13,997. His simple life and manners 
gave occasion for the many campaign names which were given him, 
such as "Jo Salem," "Jo the well digger," and ''Old Coperas Breeches." 
He was inaugurated January 10, 1848, and his inaugural address wa- 
largely devoted to national political questions growing out of the war 
with Mexico. Some of the notable events of , his administration were 
the adopticu of Ilutchirison's Cede, ^lie building of thp Ja^-k?on and 
Brandon Railroad, the- advent of the telegraph, the founding of an 
institute for the blind, the law for leasing the Chickasaw school lands, 
the law for the sale of internal improvement lands to pay the Planters 
Bank bonds, the election of Jefferson Davis to the United States Sen- 
ate, the opening of the University of Mississippi in 1848 and the con- 
vention of 1849. He retired from the executive office January 10, 1850, 
and did not again enter public life. Reuben Davis, who knew Matthews 
personally, said of him in his "Recollections": "He had great prac- 
tical sense, but vva'i neither brilliant nor oratorical. He was peculiar 
and extremely pleasant. To hear him speak was like listening to a 
well told narrative, and you could almost suppose that you were 



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298 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERXOhs OF -AHSSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

listening to his personal experience of public events and observations 
of men and things. In all this be had the faculty of being earnest and 
impressive." 

Governor Matthe^Ys died August 27, 1862, at Palmetto, Ga., on his 
way to Richmond. Va. 

Authorities: Recollections of Mississippi and Mississippians, Davis 
(1891); Encyclopedia of Mississippi History, Ro^vland (1907); Missis- 
sippi Archives and newspapers (1S35-1862). 



JOHN ISAAC GUION. 
TERM, FEBSUARY 3 TO ^-ovE^^BER 4, 1851, ad interim. 

John Isaac Guion was born in Adams County, Mississippi Territory, 
November IS, 1802. He was the son of Major Isaac Guion, a native of 
Westchester County, New York, who enlisted in the Army of the Rev- 
olution August 1, 1775, and serred until the army was disbanded in 
1783. He re-enlisted in 1792 and commanded a company under "Wayne 
at, the battle of the Maumee. He commanded the detachment of troops 
sent by the United States Government to take possession of the Span- 
ish posts east of the ^Mississippi in 1797. 

John Isaac Guion was educated in Tennessee and took a law course 
at Lebanon, where he met and formed a lifelong friendship with "Wil- 
liam L. Sharkey. When the county seat of Warren County was re- 
moved from Warrentown to Vicksburg Guion and Sharkey located at 
that place and formed a partnership for the practice of law, whicli 
continued until Judge Sharkey went on the Supreme bench in 1832. 
After the retirement of Sharkey from the firm S. S. Prentiss took his 
place. In 1836 a special Circuit Court was established for the river 
counties and Guion was aDpointed Judge. He was one of the leaders 
of the Whig party in Mississippi. In 1842 he was elected to the State 
Senate from Warren County, and served until 184B, About this time 
he removed to Jackson and was e'ected a State Senator to represent 
that rity. In 1 ^=^^ the Prp^fd^nt of the Senate. Dabney Lipscomb, 
Democrat from Lowr.rlp? County, was taken sick during the session and 
Judge Guion was elected President pro tempore. Upon the resigna- 
tion of Governor Quitman, February 3, 1851, he became Governor and 
performed the duties of the office until the expiration of his term as 
Senator, November 3-4 of the same year. After his term as Governor 
ad interim he was elected a Judge of the Circuit Court for the capital 
district. He continued to reside in Jackson, and was regarded as one 
of the most eminent lawyers of the Mississippi bar, ranking with S. 
S. Prentiss, Henry S. Foote, William L. Sharkey and William Yerger. 
In his "Bench and Bar of tiie South and Southwest," Henry S Foote 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 209 

says of Guion: "He was a gentleman whose memory will always be 
dear to the people of :v!ississippi. He was decidedly a man ot ability, 
and possessed many endearing traits of characier. Nature bad lav- 
ished upon him some of her choicest gifts. He possessed a most 
symmetrical person, a face of much regularity and beauty, and a 
genial expression of countenance, which invited confidence and sym- 
pathy." This description by one of his great contemporaries is verified 
by the handsome oil portrait which has been placed in the State Hall 
of Fame. 

Judge Guion died at Jackson June 26, 1855, and is buried in Green- 
wood Cemetery. 

Authorities: Bench and Bar of the South and Southwest, Fooie 
(1876); Bench and Bar of Mississippi, Lynch (1881); Encyclopedia 
of Mississippi History, Rowland (1907); Mississippi Archives and 
newspapers (1810-1855); Claiborne's Mississippi (1880). 



. JAMES WHITFIELD 

. . TERM, NOVEMBER 24, 1851, TO JANUARY 1, 1852, ad interim. 

James Whitfield was born in Elbert County, Ga., Decemoer 15, 1791. 
When the prairie lands of East Mississippi were offered for settlemenr. 
a land office was located at Columbus, and many Georgians, attractea 
by the rich opportunities, purchased property in Lowndes County. 
James Whitfield came to Columbus from Georgia when the town was a 
small village. He engaged in planting and at the same time conducted 
a mercantile establishment. In 1S42 he was elected a representative 
in the Legis'atiire from Lowndes County and served continuously until 
1850. He was elected to the State Senate in 1851, and at a called ses- 
sion of the Sen:it9 was elected President November 25, 1852. The extra 
session was called for the purpose of electing a successor to John I. 
Guion, whose term of office had expired with the November election. 
Judge Guion had been performing the duties of Governor sines Feb- 
ruary 3, 1852, ztA hi: :i:cce-3cr. nz President of tho Senate, would Idg- 
come the chief executive- from, the date of his election to the date of 
the inauguration of the new Governor. From November 4 there had 
been an interregnum with no legally constituted State officials. The 
High Court of Errors and Appeals had decided (6 Howard, 582) that 
"all officers in this Siate are elected for limited terms, which expire at 
the time of the general election for the respective offices." During 
the interregnum Joseph Bell, Secretary of State, whose term of office 
had expired with the November election, continued to exercise the 
duties of his oiTice. He was advised that he could not legally act as 
Secretary of State, but, to avoid an entire failure of the executive de- 



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300 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

partment, he issued a proclamation calling- the Senate in extra ses- 
sion for the purpose of electing a President, who would at once be- 
come Governor of the State. The Senate convened November 24, 1851, 
with a small Democratic majority. Twenty-one ballots were taken for 
President. 0. R. Singleton and Joseph McAfee were the leading can- 
didates. The name of James Whitfield had been presented and with- 
drawn early in the balloting. He was again placed in nomination and 
was elected by a majority of one vote, and served as Governor of the 
State from November 24, 1851, to January 10, 1852. After he retired 
from office he was made President of the Columbus Banking and In- 
surance Company, a financial in.=;titution which maintained its credit 
during the Civil War and redeemed its circulation after its close. Gov- 
ernor Whitfield was President of the Company until his resignation In 
1870. In 1858 he was again elected Representative from Lownaea 
County in the Legislature He died at Columbus June 25, 1875, and 
Is buried at that place. 

Authorities: Encyclopedia of Mississippi History, Rowland (1907); 
Riley's School History of Mississippi, Lowry and IMcCardle's History 
of Mississippi, Mississippi Archives and newspapers (1835—1875). 



HENRY STUART FOOTE. 

TERM, JANUARY 10, 1852, TO JANUARY 5, 1854. 

Henry Stuart Foote was born in Fauquier County, Virginia, Sep- 
tember 20, 1800. He attended Washington College and was graduated 
in 1819. During his student life he was very proficient in the classics. 
After his graduation he studied law in Richmond and was admitted 
to the bar in 1822. In 1825 he located in Tuscumbia, Ala., and re- 
mained there five years engaged in the practice of his profession. He 
was also the editor of a Democratic newspaper. In 1830 he came to 
Mississippi and located at Natchez, and after a short residence there 
removed to Vicksburg and formed a partnership with R. P. Catlett, his 
brother-in-law. As a candidate for membership in the Constitutional 
Convention of 1832 he w^as an ardent advocate of an elective judiciary, 
and there is some authority for the claim that he was the first candi- 
date who advocated the election of the judges by the people. He was 
defeated by forty votes. In 1832 he established in association with his 
law partner the ^'Mississippian," a weekly newspaper published in 
Vicksburg. He afterw^ards removed to Raymond and formed a part- 
nership for the practice of law with Anderson Hutchenson. About this 
time he became interested in the independenr-e of Texas and enlisted in 
an expedition to aid that movement. He was a member of the lower 
house of the Legislature from Hinds County in 1839. In 1841 he pub- 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 301 

lished a history of Texas in two volumes, the preface being dated 
Raymond, Miss., January 5, 1S41. From 1S32 to 1847 Foote was re- 
garded as the most formidable political orator in the Democratic party 
of Mississippi. In the campaign of 1844 he was a candidate for Presi- 
dential Elector on the Polk and Dallas ticket. When Alexander G. 
McNutt became a candidate for the United States Senate in 1846 his 
opponents were John A. Quitman, Albert G. Brown, Jacob Thompson 
and William M. Gwin. It seems that Foote was appointed by theso 
gentlemen to lead the opposition to McNutt in the Democratic party. 
This political maneuver resulted in the defeat of all the avowea can- 
didates and the election of Foote to the United States Senate by the 
Legislature of 1847. He took his seat in the Senate December 6, 1847. 
When the ^-ompromise of 1850 was introduced in the Senate by Henry 
Clay it received the support of Foote, but was opposed by all the other 
representatives from Mississippi. The Legislature of the State passea 
resolutions censuring Foote and declaring that he had not represeniea 
the true interest of the people. On his return to Mississippi, after the 
adjournment of Congress, Foote defended his position on the compro- 
mise before the people in forty or fifty public addresses, in which he 
urged the election of delegates to a convention, which ne had called 
to meet in Jackson, for the purpose of securing an expression of popu- 
lar opinion on his political course. This convention met November 
18, 1850, endorsed Foote, approved the compromise and organized a 
Union party in Mississippi. The supporters of Senator Foote were 
mainly Whigs, with a strong minority of Union Democrats, and he was 
nominated for Governor by that combination of political elements. 
John A. Quitman was nominated by the Democratic-States Rights 
party, which was composed of a majority of Democrats and a minority 
of Whigs. Alter the election for delegates to a State convention had 
resulted in a victory for the Union party by a majority of 7,000, Quit- 
man withdrew from the contest and Jefferson, Davis resigned his seat 
in the United States Senatp to hpcomo the candidate of his party for 
governor. After making a few speeches Senator Davis was compelled 
to relinguish the canvass on account of an attack of pneumonia. Foote 
was elected Governor by a majority of 999 votes. He w^as inaugurated 
January 10, 1852, and resigned January 5, 1854, five days before the ex- 
piration of his term. He removed to California but returned in 1858 
and made his home in Vicksburg. Foote opposed the secession of the 
Southern States and was often out of harmony with the people of his 
section. He became a resident of the State of Tennessee and was 
elected a representative in the Confederate Congress from that State. 
After the war he continued to reside in Tennessee, and was superin- 
tendent of the mint at New Orleans during the administrations of 



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302 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

Grant and Hayes. He was twice married. His first wife was of the ' 

Winter family. After her death he married Mrs. Smiley, of Nashville. i 
Tenn. 

Governor Foote had strong literary tastes and was the author of ■ 
"Texas and Texans" (1S41), "War of the Rebellion" (1866), "Casket 

of Reminiscences" (1874), "Bench and Bar of the South and Soutn- ; 

west" (1876). Reuben Davis in his Recollections, says of him: ^ 
"Foote was in my judgment one of the first men of his time. I have 

never met any other man who was so well acquainted with the struct- I 

ure and theory of the different governments, .and his knowledge of his i 

own was both extensive and accurate. He was a thoroughly sound I 

hearted man. I was always fond of Foote." 1 

A fine oil portrait of Senator Foote has been presented to the Hall =' 

of Fame by his family. -| 

Authorities: The Bench and Bar of Mississippi, Lynch (1881); | 
Recollections of Mississippi and Mississippians, Davis (1891); History 
of the United States, Rhodes (1906); Encyclopedia of Mississippi His- ^ 

tory, Rowland (1907); Mississippi Archives and newspapers (1832- I 

1880). I 



JOHN JONES PETTUS. f 

TEBMs: JAI^TJARY 5 TO jAKUARY 10, 1854, ad interim; November 21, 1859, 1 

TO NOVEMBEE 16, 1863. f 

John Jones Pettus was born in Wilson County, Tennessee, October | 

9, 1813, and was the eldest son of John and Alice (Winston) Pettus. ^ 

He was descended from Revolutionary ancestry. Senator Edward 
Winston Pettus of Alabama was a younger son. ;i 

In his youth John J. Pettus located in Kemper County, and in early I 

manhood took a prominent part in the public affairs of his county. ] 

In 1S46 he was ele^-ted from Kemper County to a seat in the lower 
house of the Legislature, and ^^erved until 1858, In the latter year he I 

was elected to the State Senate from the district composed of Kemper '% 

and Neshoba Counties, and served continuously for ten years. He was j 

elected President of the State Senate in 1854, and on the resignation or f 

(Governor Foote, January 5, 1854, he became Governor, his term of of- 
fice lasting only five days. John J. McRae was the newly elected \ 
Governor. | 

The Democratic State Convention met in Jackson July 4, 1859, and | 

Pettus was nominated for Governor-. His opponent on the Whig 
ticket was Harvey W. Walter of :Marshall County. Pettus was nom- i 

inated by the Democrats as the representative of the extreme States ? 

Rights men, who favored the independence of the South if denied con- J 



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BIOGRAPHIES OB' GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1S17-1917 303 

stitutional rights in the Union. The election was held in October and 
resulted in the election of Pettus by a vote of 34,559 to 10,3U8. He 
was inaugurated November 21, 1S59, with elaborate ceremonies, the 
procession extending from the executive mansion to the capitol, being 
under the command of Richard Griffith, marshal of the day. In his 
inaugural address Governor Pettus advocated the holding of a conven- 
ion, representing all the Southern States, in connection with which 
.8 said, "To this council Mississippi will send her truest and best 
men." After the election of Abraham Lincoln was assured Governor 
Pettus called tne Legislature in session and recommended a constitu- 
tional convention. December 31 was set apart as a day of fasting and 
prayer, and the country was in a state of great excitement. The Con- 
stitutional Convention met January 7, 1861, and passed an ordinance 
of secession January 9, following, an action which with that of the 
other States, culminated in civil war. In 1861 Pettus was elected for a 
second term by a majority of 26,379 over Jacob Thompson and Madi- 
son McAfee. On May 11, 1863, Jackson was occupied by the Federal 
army, and on August 11 the State government v.'as temporarily moved 
to Enterprise and Meridian. The Governor ordered the removal of the 
government to Macon, and later called the Legislature to meet at 
Columbus. 

After the fall of the Confederate States Government Governor Pettus 
removed to Arkansas and died January 2S, 1867. 

Authorities: Encyclopedia of Mississippi History, Rowland (1907); 
Executive Journals (1854—59-63); Mississippi Archives and news- 
papers (1840-1867). 



^^'" JOHN J. McRAE. 

TEBM, JANUARY 16, 1854, TO JAJfUABY 16» 1857. 

John J. :McKae v:az bom at Snccdsboro, Xortli Carolina, January 10, 
1815. He was the son of John McRae, a merchant, who moved from 
North Carolina to Winchester, Wayne County, Mississippi, In 1817, 
opened a large mercantile establishment and operated a line of barges 
down the Pascagoula River for the shipment of cotton to Ivew orieans. 

John J. McRae received his early education at the Frederick school 
at Pascagoula, Miss., and was graduated from the Miami University, 
Ohio, in 1834. After his graduation he studied law in the office of 
Judge P. R. R. Pray at Pearlington. In 1835 he was married to Mrs. 
McGuire, a young widow of Pearlington. Soon after his marriage he 
was engaged in the removal of the Mississippi Indians to the wesi. 
He was one of the original promoters of , the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, 
and was active in securing popular support for the enterprise. In his 



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304 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OB^ MISSISSIPPI. 1817-191? 

early manhood he founded the Eastern Clarion, a newspaper published 
at Paulding. Jasper County. In 1S47 he was elected a member of the 
Legislature from Clarke County, and was re-elected in 1850. He took a 
prominent part in the exciting political contests of 1848-51, and was a 
popular orator of the States Rights Democracy under the leadership oi 
Davis, Brown and Quitman. He had many of the elements of the suc- 
cessful campaign speaker, and was, according to Reuben Davis, bright, 
gay, humorous and fascinating. He was speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives in 1850. In September, 1851, Jefferson Davis resigned his 
seat in the United States Senate to become a candidate for Governor, 
after Quitman had retired from the contest with Foote, and Governor 
Whitfield appointed McRae to fill the vacancy. He took his seat in 
December and served until March 7, following. The Legislature elected 
in 1851 was controlled by the Whigs and Union Democrats, and the 
two vacancies in the United States Senate, caused by the resignation oi 
Davis and Foote, were divided between them, Walker Brooke, a W^hig, 
succeeding. Foote, and Stephen Adams, a Union Democrat, succeeding 
McRae. 

The State Democratic convention met in Jackson May 2, 1853, and 
the names of John J. McRae of Clarke, William McWillie of Madison, 
and C. S. Tarpiey of Hinds were placed in nomination for Governor, 
and McRae was nominated on the second ballot by a vote of fifty to 
thirty-six for McWillie. Francis M. Rogers, of Monroe County, was 
nominated by the Whigs. McRae was elected by a vote of 32,116 to 
27,279. In 1855 he was re-elected over Charles D. Fontaine, the Whig 
and Know Nothing candidate, the vote standing 32,G66 for McRae ana 
27,579 for Fontaine. Governor McRae's term of office expired Novem- 
ber 16, 1857. He was succeeded by William McWillie. In 1858 McRae 
was elected to Congress to succeed Gen. John A. Quitman, and was 
serving as Congressman from Mississippi when the State withdrew 
from the Union in 1861. He was an ardent advocate of an indepen- 
dent nationality for the Southern States, and represented Mississippi 
in the first Congress of the Confederate States. When the cause of the 
Confederacy was lost Governor McRae was broken in health and 
fortune. His brother, Colin McRae, who had acted as the financial 
agent for the Confederate States in Europe' during the war, at its close 
made his home in Belize, British Honduras. Governor McRae was 
deeply attached to his brother and desired to visit him. In making 
the journey from New Orleans to Belize he was so much weakened by 
the rough voyage that, he was prostrated on his arrival and died a few 
days afterwards, .^lay 31, 1868. He is buried in the <emeter>- i.t B. Izie. 
An excellent oil portrait of Governor McRae has been placed in the 
State's Hall of Fame. 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS' OF MISSISSIFPI. 1817-1917 305 

Authorities: Lowry and McCardle's History of Mississippi; Riley's 
School History of Mississippi; Foote's Recollections of Mississippi 
and Mississippians; Mississippi Archives and newspapers (1847-1868); 
Encyclopedia of Mississippi History, Rowland (1907). 



WILLIAM McWILLIE. 

TERM, XOVEMBER 16, 1857, TO XOVEMBEB 21, 1859. 

William Mc Willie was born in Kershaw District, South Carolina, 
November 17, 1795. He was a descendant of John McWiilie, of Scot- 
land, w^ho was attached to the cause of the Stuarts. His son, Adam- 
McWiilie, father of William McWiilie, immigrated to America and 
settled in South Carolina and commanded a regiment of troops in the 
War of 1812. 

When William McWiilie was preparing for college he enlisted in his 
father's regiment as adjutant. He was graduated at South Carolina 
College, Columbia, in 1817. Immediately after his graduation he be- 
gan the study of law; was admitted to the bar in 1818 and located at 
Camden. He soon auained eminence in his profession and was one of 
the attorneys selected by the Union party in South Carolina to argue 
the test oath case before the Supreme Court of the State during the 
nullification period. In 1S3G he was made President of the Bank of 
Camden and retired from the practice of law. He was elected to the 
State Senate of South Carolina in 1835 and served until 1840. He re- 
moved to Mississippi in 1845 and settled in the northeastern portion 
of Madison County and engaged in planting on a large scale. He 
called his beautiful plantation home "Kirkw^ood." 

In 1848 Mr. McWiilie was a candidate for Presidential Elector from 
the Third Congressional District on the Cass and Butler ticket. He w^as 
elected to the thirty-first Congress as a Democrat over Patrick W. 
Tompkins, Whi^, and served from December 3, 1849, to March 3, 1851. 
In 1851 the Democratic party was defeated in Mississippi by a com- 
bination of Whigs and Union Democrats under the leadership of Henry 
S. Foote, and McWiilie w^as defeated for Congress by John D. Free- 
man, a Union Democrat. At the Democratic convention of 1857 Wil- 
liam McWiilie of Madison, James Drane of Choctaw, W^ R. Cannon of 
Oktibbeha, R. S. Greer of Marshall, and C. S. Tarpley of Hinds were 
placed in nomination for Governor. The first ballot stood: McWiilie, 
17; Drane, 17; Cannon, 27; Greer, 25; Tarpley, 11. On the fourteenth 
ballot McWiilie v.as nominated by three votes over Cannon. His 
American party opponent was Edward M. Yerger. On October 6 Mc- 
Wiilie w^as elected by a vote of 27,376 to 14,095. He was inaugurated 
20 — m 



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306 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1S17-1917 

under the provisions of the fifth amendment to the Constitution of 
1832, November 16, 1857. In discussing the Kansas conflict and the 
Dred Scott decision, in his inaugural address, he said that he hoped 
that disruption might yet be avoided, but disruption was inevitable if 
things traveled as they were then tending. An appeal to patriotic and 
conservative men everywhere to stand fast and struggle for Constitu- 
tion and Union was, "with thorough preparation on our part, all that 
we can do." 

Governor McWillie was twice married. His first wife was Nancy 
Cunningham; after her death he married Catherine Anderson. When 
he retired from public life he returned to his home in Kirkwood. He 
was "active in the support of the Confederate cause, and his eldest son, 
Captain Adam McWillie, of the Camden Rifles, was killed in the first 
battle of Manassas. 

Governor McWiilie died at Kirkwood March 3, 1869, and is buried 
there. His portrait has been placed in the Hall of Fame by Ms family, 
at the request of the State. 

Authorities: Biogi'aphicai Congressional Directory (1903); Ency- 
clopedia of Mississippi History, Rowland (1907); Mississippi Archives 
and newspapers (1845-1869). 



CHARLES CLARK. 

TEEM, NOVEMBEB 16, 1863, TO N0\-E2k£BEB 22, 1865. 

Charles Clark was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1810. He was de- 
scended from a family that settled in Maryland during early colonial 
days. His grandfather was a soldier of the Revolution and was a pio- 
neer in the occupation and settlement of the Northwest Territory. 
When Charles Clark was about twenty-one years of age he, having 
gained a collegiate education, left Ohio and located in Jefferson Coun- 
ty, Mississippi, and b'^'^ame a '=chool T-paoQer, stu'lyir.j lav.- at the same 
time. ScK^n after he H,ta-act<id the attention and gained tne friendsnip 
of Gen. Thomas Hinds, one of the heroes of the battle of New Orleans, 
which greatly promoted his advancement. In 1838 he was elected to 
the House of Representatives from Jefferson Ck)unty as a Whig, and 
served by reelection until 1841. W^hen war against Mexico was de- 
clared, and Mississippi v.as "called upon to send a regiment of troops, 
he organized a cavaiiy company and offered it for active service, but 
it was not accepted, as no cavalry commands had been called for by 
the War Department. He organized the Thomas Hinds Guards, a 
company of infantry, and, on the call of Governor Brown for a second 
regiment, he offered it to the State and it was accepted and became a 
part of the Second Regiment Mississippi Volunteers. After tlie reslg- 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 307 

nation of Col. Reuben Davis, on account of illness, Captain Clark was 
elected Colonel of the regiment. In the political campaign of 1861 he 
took a prominent part as a Union Democrat. In the early 50's he re- 
moved to his plantation in Bolivar County. In 1S56 he was a repre- 
sentative in the Legislature from that county, and served in the ses- 
sions of 1556, 1859, 1860, 1861. He was the Whig candidate for 
Congress from the Second District in 1857 against Reuben Davis, but 
was defeated by 2,500 votes. In 1850 he was one of the delegates 
from Mississippi to the Charleston and Baltimore conventions. As a 
candidate for the Constitutional Conventions of 1861, on a platform 
for the independence of the Southern States, he was defeated by Miles 
McGehee. The convention of 1861 elected him a Brigadier-General in 
the "Army of Mississippi," and he was later promoted to Major-Gen- 
eral. He was in command of the Mississippi troops at Pensacola, and 
on May 22, 1861, was commissioned a Brigadier-General in the Con- 
federate States service, and was assigned to duty in Virginia, and 
later to the "Army of the Mississippi," under General Albert Sidney 
Johnston. He commanded a di\ision at the battle of Shiloh and was 
wounded in the shoulder. At the battle of Baton Pvouge his left hip 
was shattered and he was captured and taken to New Orleans. In 1863 
he was elected Governor by a vote of 16,128 to 4,863 for A. M. West 
and 2,009 for Reuben Davis. He was inaugurated at Columbus Novem- 
ber 16, 1863, and served until Ma> 22, 1865, when he was removed by 
military authority, after the State government had been brought back 
to Jackson. He was imprisoned by Federal authority at Fort Pulaski, 
Savannah. Judge T. J. Wharton, in describing the arrest of Governor 
Clark in the executive ofiice of the old capitoi, says: "The old ^soldier 
when informed of the purpose of the officers, straightened his mangled 
limbs as best he could, and with great difficulty mounted his crutches 
and with a look of defiance said, "General Osband, I denounce before 
high heaven and the civilized world this unparalleled act of tyranny 
and usurpation. I am the duly and constitutionally elected Governor 
of the State of Mississippi, and would resist, if in my power, to the 
last extremity the enforcement of your order. I only yield obedience 
because I have no power to resist.' " 

After Governor Clark's release from imprisonment he returned to 
his home in Bolivar County and resumed the practice of law. In 1876 
he was appointed Chancellor of the Fourth District by Governor Stone. 
He died December 17, 1877, at his residence in Bolivar Coimty, and is 
buried there. In announcing his death Governor Stone said: "Eminent 
as a soldier, statesman and jurist, pure and guileless in private life, 
he has gone to his grave mourned by the people of the entire State." 

Authorities: Encyclopedia oi Mississippi History, Rowland (1907); 
Recollections of Mississippi and Mississippians, Davis (1891); Mis- 
sissippi Archives and newspapers (1835-1877). 



,.IH*-i.I' 



SOS BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 
WILLIAM LEWIS SHARKEY 

■ 4 

TERM, JANUARY 13 TO OCTOBER 16, 1865 (PROVISIONAL). - ,'^ 

William Lewis Sharkey was born near the Mussel shoals of tne 
Holston River on the East Tennessee path from the Atlantic coast to 
Nashville and Natchez, in the year 1797. He was the son of Patrick 
Sharkey, a native of Ireland, who immigrated to America with his 
brother, Michael, who afterwards became a captain in the Army of the 
Revolution. After the Revolution Patrick Sharkey married the 
daughter of a German pioneer, whg bore him three sons, William 
Lewis, Jacob Rhodes and James Elliott. In 1803 he moved to Missis- 
sippi Territory and settled in what is now Warren County, near the 
extinct town of Warrenton, the first county seat. 

When William L. Sharkey was seventeen years of age he enlisted lu 
a company from ^Mississippi Territory, and took part in the battle of 
New Orleans. He lost his parents at an early age and the support of 
his younger brothers fell to his lot. By the exercise of rigid economy 
he was enabled to enter college at Greeneville, Tenn., and later studied 
law at Lebanon. After his return home he continued his law studies 
at Natchez in the oihce of Judge Edward Turner. He was admittea 
to the bar in 1822, and opened an ofhce at Warrenton in 1825. When 
the county seat of Warren County was removed to Vicksburg, he lo- 
cated there and formed a partnership with John I. Guion. In 1828-29 
he was a member of the lower house of the Legislature from Warren 
County, and in 1832 was Circuit Judge. In 1832 Judge Sharkey waa 
elected to the High Court of Errors and Appeals, and was chosen 
Chief Justice by his associates, Judges Cotesworth, Pinckney Smith 
and Daniel W. Wright. He was an Old Line Whig, and was always - 

in opposition to the- dominant party. In 1848 President Taylor offered 
him a position in the Cabinet, which he declined. In 1850 he pre- ;:, 

sided over the Nashville convention. ^ f; 

Judge Sharkey resigned from the High Court of Errors and Appeals t 

October 1, 1850, and retnrnf^d to the nractice of law in Jackson. Dur- 
ing the administration of President Fillmore he v/as induced to ac- I 

cept the position of Consul to Cuba, which he held for a short time. f'; 

He was also offered the position of Secretary of War by Fillmore, but -^ 

declined it. In 1854, in connection with William L. Harris and Henry ;! 

T. Ellett, Judge Sharkey was appointed to revise, digest and codify the s 

laws of the State, and the Code of 1857 is the result of their labors. .^ 

On sectional questions, Judge Sharkey was decidedly conservative and 
opposed the establishment of a Southern Confederacy, but so loyal was "^^ 

he to his State and section that no one for a moment questioned his ? 

attitude as meaning otherwise than what, he thought was for the best ^ 

good of the country. After the war Governor Clark appointed Wil- S 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 309 

Ham L. Sharkey and William Yerger commissioners to Washington to 
arrange a plan for the reconstruction of the State government. Pres- 
ident Johnson made Judge Sharkey provisional Governor, and unaer 
the presidential plan of reconstruction he acted as Ggvemor from 
June 13 to October 16, 1865. A Constitutional Convention was called 
July 1, to meet in Jackson August 14, 1865. The Convention met on 
the day appointed and during the course of its proceedings elected Wil- 
liam L. Sharkey and James L. Alcorn United States Senators, but 
they were not permitted to take their seats in the National Congress. 
Judge Sharkey returned to Jackson and resumed the practice of law. 
After the passage of the Reconstruction Act in 1867, its constitutional- 
ity was attacked, in behalf of the State of Mississippi, in an applica- 
tion by Judge Sharkey and Robert J. Walker, to the Supreme Court of 
the United States, for an injunction to prevent the enforcement of the 
law. The case is reported as Mississippi v. Johnson, 4 Wall, 475. The 
Court declined to express an opinion on the constitutionality of the act, 
and decided that the President could not be enjoined from the perform- 
ance of official duty. Judge Sharkey continued the practice of law at 
Jackson until his death, which occurred in Washington, D. C, July 30, 
1873. His remains were brought to Jackson and interred in Green- 
wood Cemetery. 

An oil painting of Judge Sharkey has been placed in the Mississippi 
Hall of Fame. 

Authorities: Bench and Bar of the South and Southwest, Foote 
(1876); Bench and Bar of Mississippi, Lynch; Encyclopedia of Mis- 
sissippi History, Rowland; Mississippi Reports, Archives and news- 
papers (1828-1873). 



' BENJAMIN GRUBB HUMPHREYS. 
TERM, OCTOBEE 16, 1865, TO JU^'E 15, 1868. 

Benjamin Grubb Humpureys was born August 26, ISOS, at the Her- 
mitage, the family home on Bayou Pierre, in Claiborne County, Mis- 
sissippi. His father was George Wilson Humphreys, son of Ralph and 
Agnes (Wilson) Humphreys. Ra.ph Humphreys was a soldier in the 
Army of the Revolution, and was descended from a family that came 
to America from the northern part of Ireland. He settled in the 
Natchez District at Grindstone Ford in 1788. 

Benjamin Grubb Humphreys, on the death of his mother in 1817, 
was sent to the home of his grandfather, Major David Smith of 
Christian County, Kentucky, where he attended school during his 
childhood. In 1§21 he was sent to a New Jersey school, where he re- 



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310 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

mained until 1824. In 1825 he returned to Port Gibson, Miss., and 
secured employment as a clerk. In the same year he received an ap- 
pointment to West Point, and entered the class with Robert E. Lee. 
In 1827 he was dismissed from the Academy with a number of otner 
students for* a breach of discipline, after which he returned home and 
assisted his father in the management of his plantation. On March 15, 
1832, he married Mary McLaughlin, daughter of Dougald McLaughlin, 
and made a plantation home on the Big Black River in Claiborne 
County. His wife died in 1835. In 1839 he represented Claiborne 
County in the lower house of the Legislature, as a Whig, and in the 
Senate, 1840-44. He married Mildred Hickman, daughter of J. H. 
Maury, of Port Gibson, December 3, 1839. In 1846 he removed to Sun- 
flower County and established his home on Roebuck Lake. From 1846 
to 1861 he lived the life of a planter. In 1861 he organized the San- 
flower Guards, proceeded at once to Virginia and joined the Confeder- 
ate Army. He was commissioned Captain May 18, 1861, and on Sep- 
tember 11 was made Colonel of the Twenty-first Mississippi Regiment. 
After the death of General William Barksdale, at Gettysburg, he was 
promoted to Brigadier-General, and was commissioned August 14, 1863. 
He took an active part in all the great campaigns of the Army of 
Northern Virginia, giving gallant service until he was wounded at 
Berryville, Va., in September, 1864. After his recovery he was as- 
signed, in February, 1865, to duty in South Mississippi, where he 
served until the close of the war. 

General Humphreys was elected Governor of Mississippi October 2, 
1865, under the reconstruction policy of President Johnson. He re- 
ceived a vote of 17,814 to 14,528 for Judge E. S. Fischer, and 9.422 for 
William S. Patton. He was inaugurated October 16, 1865, and exer- 
cised the duties of office until June 15, 1868, when he was ejected 
from the executive oirice by an armed force acting under the orders or 
Gen. Irwin McDowel, jMilitary Commander of Mississippi. By this 
military occupation the reign of the "Carpet Baggers" was inaugur- 
ated in the State. 

After his removal from office Governor Humphreys engaged in the 
insurance business in Jackson. In 1869 he removed to Vicksburg, 
where he made his home until 1877. In that year he returned to his 
plantation in the new county of Leflore, where he died December 20, 
1882. A fine oil portrait of Governor Humphreys has been placed In 
the Hall of Fame. 

Authorities: Memoirs of Mississippi, Vol I, Goodspeed (1891); 
Encyclopedia of Mississippi History, Rowland (1907); Mississippi 
Archives and newspapers (1825-1882). 













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Photographic copy of an oil portrait in the Mississippi Hall of Fame. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF GO^T^RXORS OF ^riSSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 311 

ADELBERT AMES 

terms: JUNE 15, 1868, to march 10, 1870 (miutary): January 4, 1874, 
TO 3r-\ECH 29, 1876. 

Adelbert Ames was born at Rockland, Maine, October 3, 1835. He 
entered the military academy at West Point in 1856, and upon grad- 
uation in 1861 v.'8.s assigned to duty as Second Lieutenant of Artillery. 
His battery took part in the first battle of Manassas. He served in 
the Union Army throughout the war, and was promoted for gallantry 
on the field. At the close of hostilities he held the rank of Brevet- 
Major-General of volunteers. In 1866 on the mustering out of the vol- 
unteer army he accepted the rank of Lieutenant Colonel of the Twen- 
ty-fourth Infantry, which had been assigned to duty in Mississippi. 
June 15, 1868. he was appointed Military Governor of the State under 
the reconstruction law, and proceeded to take possession of the execu- 
tive office and residence by force of arm.s. In 1869 he was appointed 
military commander of the Fourth District, and exercised the powers 
of arbitrary government with little regard for civil authority. Upon 
the reorganization of the State government, under the reconstruction 
laws. Governor Ames was elected to the United States Senate by the 
Legislature, and took his seat April 1, 1870. In 1873 he was elected 
Governor, as the candidate of the radicals, over J. L. Alcorn, conser- 
vative Republican, the vote being 69,870 to 50,490 for Alcorn, and was 
inaugurated January 4, 1874. Three negro State officials had been 
elected on the Ames ticket: A. K. Davis, Lieutenant-Governor; James 
Hill, Secretary of State; and T. W. Cardoza, Superintendent of Edu- 
cation. There were nine negro Senators and fifty-five Representatives, 
and both houses were presided over by negro officers. A Democraticic 
Legislature was elected in '1875, and when it met in January, a com- 
mittee of the house v/as appointed to investigate the official conduct 
of the Governor. After a session of thirty-eight days a majority of the 
committee reported that Ames should be impeached for official mis- 
conduct, on eleven charges. • 

Lieutenant-Governor Davis was impeached and removed from office 
on a charge of othcial corruption and Cardoza was allowed to resign, 
after having been impeached for official malfeasance in twelve in- 
stances. On March 29th the articles of impeachment against Governor 
Ames were dismissed and he resigned the office the same day. 

Governor Ames was generallv regarded by the people of the State as 
honest in money matters, but many of his associates in the adminis- 
tration of the government were notoriously corrupt. Surrounded as 
he was by such public servants, it is reasonable to suppose that he 
bad some knowledge of their methods, and his failure to denounce 






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312 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

them leads to the belief that he placed party success above the pub- 
lic welfare. After his resig-nation Governor Ames made his home in 
Lowell, Mass., where he still resides. 

Authorities: Reconstruction in Mississippi, Garner (1901); Ency- 
clopedia of Mississippi History, Rowland (1907); Historical Register, 
United States Army, Heitman (1903); Mississippi Archives and news- 
papers (1868-1876). 



JAMES LUSK ALCORN 



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TEBM, MARCH 10, 1870, TO xo\t:mber 30, 1871. -I 

James Lusk Alcorn was born November 4, 1816, at Lusk's Ferry '■• 

(now Berry's Ferry), on the Ohio River, near Golconda, III. His first ■ 

paternal ancestor in America came from the North of Ireland and set- 
tled in Philadelphia in 1721. His father was James Alcorn; his mother 
Louisa Lusk, a native of South Carolina, and a daughter of James 
Lusk, a soldier of the Revolution. 

James Lusk Alcorn was reared in Kentucky, and was educated at '1 

Cumberland College. Princeton, Ky. After teaching school for a term ; 

In Jackson, Ark., he returned to Kentucky and was made deputy sheriff v* 

of Lexington County, After filling that office for five years he was | 

elected to the Kentucky Legislature. He then studied law and was J* 

admitted to the bar, and located at Delta. Coahoma County, Mississippi. 
After the county seat was removed from Port Royal to Friars Point, 
he opened a law office at the latter place. In 1846 and again in 1856 
he represented Coahoma County in the Legislature, and was State Sen- 
ator from the counties of Coahoma, Tallahatchie and Panola from 1848 
to 1856. He was nominated for Governor by the Whigs and Know- 
nothings in 1857, but declined to accept a nomination for Congress by '; 
the same parties. His opponent on the Democratic ticket was L. Q. C. ^ j 
Lamar, A joint canvass was made and is famous as the opening chap- ^ ■ 
ter in the political career of Mississippi's "Great Pacihcator.' Alcorn ^_ 
was defeated. During his legislative career Mr, Alcorn initiated the .^ 
levee system for the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta. He consistently opposed J 
the secession of the Southern States, but when Mississippi decided to ^| 
take that course he yielded to the judgment of the majority and signed | 
the ordinance of secession. In the military organization provided for '^ 
by the convention he was made a Brigadier-General of the Army of j 
Mississippi, and took part in organizing the State troops for duty. J 
When the troops under his command were mustered into the service i 
of the Confederate States he was not continued in command by Presi- -, 
dent Davis, hence, saw little active service. In 1865 he was a member j 



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GOV. JAMES LUSK ALCORX 
Photographic copy of an oil portrait in the Mississippi Hall of Fame. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF JVIISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 313 

of the lower house of the Mississippi Legislature, and upon the re- 
organization of the State government was elected to the United States 
Senate, but with his colleague, William L. Sharkey, was not permitted 
to take his seat in the National Congress. In the re-allignment of po- 
litical parties in ^Mississippi, after the adoption of the Constitution of 
1868, Alcorn joined the Republican party, and received its nomination 
for Governor in 1869, and was elected over Louis Dent, the candidate 
of the National Union Republican party, representing the conserva- 
tives of the State. He was inaugurated March 10, 1870. Governor Al- 
corn was elected to the United States Senate January 19, 1870, for the 
term beginning March 4, 1S71, and resigned the office of Governor No- 
vember 30, 1871. In 1873 he was again a candidate for Governor 
against Adeibert Ames, The latter was elected by a vote of 69,870 to 
50,490. His term as United States Senator expired March 1, 1877, and 
he was succeeded by L. Q. C. Lamar. After Governor Alcorn's retire- 
ment frOm public life he returned to his home, '"Eagle's Nest," Coa- 
homa County. He represented Coahoma County in the Constitutional 
Convention of 1890. This was his last public service. He died at his 
plantation home December 20, 1894. Though out of harmony with the 
Democratic party of his State, which bitterly opposed him, he was an 
abler, stronger and better man than many of his contemporaries ad- 
judged him. 

Authorities: Biographical Congressional Directory (1903); Recon- 
struction in Mississippi, Garner ^901); Encyclopedia of Mississippi 
History, Rowland (1907); Mississippi Archives and newspapers (1840- 
1894). 



RIDGLEY CEYLON POWERS. 

TERM, NOVEMBER 30, 1871, TO JANUARY 4, 1874. 

Ridgley Ceylon Powders was born December 24, 1836, at Mecca, 
Trumbull County, Ohio. He is the son of Milo and Lucy (Dickinson) 
Powers. His paternal ancestors were Enc^lish; his maternal grand- 
father Samuel Dickinson, was of Irish ancestry, and was Captain of a 
Connecticut company in the War of 1812. His paternal grandfather 
was a private in the War of 1812, 

Ridgley C. Powers attended the common schools of his native county, 
and was prepared for college at the Western Reserve Seminary at 
Farmington, Ohio. After his preparatory course had btca completed 
he taught school at Loami, Sangamon County, Illinois, and then en- 
tered the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where he was gradu- 
ated after a three years' course. He took a post-graduate course at 
Union College, Schenectady, New York, and was graduated with dls- 



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314 BIOGiiAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 

tinction in 1862. On his return home he enlisted as a private in the 
One Hundred and Tvrenty-Fifth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, U. S. A. 
When his regiment was mustered into service he was made Second 
Lieutenant of Company C and assigned to duty in the Army of the 
Cumberland, xlt the close of the war he held the rank of Colonel by 
brevet, and was mustered out of the volunteer service at New Orleans 
in 1865. In December, 1865, he located in Noxubee County, Miss., six 
miles east of Shuqualak, and engaged in cotton planting. In 1868 he 
was appointed Sheriff of Noxubee County, under the military rule of 
Colonel Adelbert Ames. He was the Republican candidate for Lieu- 
tenant-Governor in 1869 on the Alcorn ticket, and was elected to that 
office. Upon the resignation of Governor Alcorn, November 30, 1871, 
he became Governor of the State, and discharged the duties of the of- 
fice until January 4, 1S74. While the administration of Governor Pow- 
ers was marked by extravagance and corruption on the part of many 
State and county oiiicials, his own honesty was never doubted, and he 
retained the conhdence and respect of the best people of the State. On 
May 5, 1875, he married Louisa Born, of Cleveland, Ohio. In 1879 Gov- 
ernor Powers moved to Prescott, Arizona, and was made President or 
the good government league for the suppression of lawlessness. His 
first wife died in 1SS2, and in 1S92 he married Mary J. Wilson at Du- 
luth, Minnesota. He is now living at Los Angeles, CaL 

Authorities: Encyclopedia of Mississippi History-, Rowland (1907); 
History of Mississippi, Lowry and McCardle; School History of Mis- 
sissippi, Riley; Mississippi Archives and newspapers (1S65_1879). 



JOHN MARSHALL STONE. . t 

TEBMs: MARCH 29, 1876, TO jA^TUAEY lO, 1878, ud interim; jantjaby 10, | 

1878, TO JANUARY 9, 1882; jajsoaey 13, 1890, to jatsUaby 20, 1896. x ^ 

-* . '"'^■ 
John Marshall Stons ^\"is born near Milan, Gib^-ron County, Tenn., 

April 30, 1830. He Was the son of Ashcr and Judith (Royal) Stcne, 
both natives of Virginia. Asher Stone w-as a descendent of Joshua J 

Stone, his first American ancestor. His paternal and maternal an- 
cestors, William Stone and Richard Royall, were soldiers in the Amer- 
ican Revolution. Asher Stone died in 1841, leaving a wife and nine 
children in straightened circumstances, a condition which was relieved i 

to a large extent by the legacy of a maternal ancestor. 4 

John Marshall Stone, after receiving a common school education, 
taught school in his native county. After several years he removed to 
Eastport, a village in Tishomingo County, Miss., and accepted a posi- I 

tion as clerk in a country store. In 1855 lie was station agent for the | 



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GOV. JOHX MARSHALL STONE 
Photographic copy of an oil portrait in the Mississippi Hall of Fame. 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVEK.XOKS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 315 

Memphis and Charleston Railroad at luka, and continued in that em- 
ployment until iS61. lu the spring of that year he was elected Cap- 
tain of the luka Kihes, which was assigned "to the Second Mississippi 
Regiment of Infantry as Company K, for duty in Virginia. He was 
elected Colonel or the Regiment April 12, 186-'. As Senior Colonel of 
Davis' Brigade ne was frequently in command, and gamed special dis- 
tinction in Stone -,vail jcickson's hank attack at the battle of Chancel- 
lorsville. After the svar he returned to luka and resumed his position 
as railroad agent. In 1869 he was elected to the State Senate from Al- 
corn, Itawamba, Prentiss and Tishomingo Counties, and served 
throughout the reconstruction period. May 2, 1S72, he married Mary 
Gillam Coman, of Athens, Ga. 

At tJie session of 1876 of the Siace Legislature John M. Stone was 
elected President pro tempore of the Senate, and upon the impeach- 
ment of Davis, the negro Lieutenant-Governor, and the resignation oi 
Governor Ames, he assumed the duties of Governor March 29, 1876. At 
the Democratic Convention of August 1-2, 18 77, he was nominated for 
Governor on the tenth ballot o\er B. G. Humphreys and Robert Lowry, 
the opposing candidates, and was elected by practically a unanimous 
vote. He was inauguiated for a full term of lour years January 10, 
1878. In 1881 he was agam a candidate for tne nomination, but was 
defeated by Robert Lowry. Alter his retirement in 1882, he returned 
to luka, and in 1886 was appointed a member of the Mississippi Rail- 
road Commission by Governor Lowry. In 1889 he recexvea tne Demo- 
cratic nomination for Governor over John R. Cameron; was elected m 
November, and inaugurated January 13, liOu. His term expired Janu- 
ary 2, 1896. In the same year he was elected President of the Mer- 
chants Bank of Jackson, and upon the resignation of General Stephen 
to that position. Governor Stone aied March 26, IjUU, at Holly Springs, 
D. Lee from the Presidency of the A. & M. College in 1899, was elected 
Miss., and is buried at luka. He was one of the strong characters of 
the reconstruction period, and was very much beloved by the people 
of Mississippi, 

An oil portrait of Governor Stone has been presented to the Hall of 
Fame by his wife, whose devotion to his memory is very marked. 

Authorities: Encyclopedia of ^Mississippi History, Rowland (1907); 
School History of Alississippi, Riley; Lowry and McCardle's History oi 
Mississippi, Mississippi Archives and newspapers (1861-1900). 



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316 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

ROBERT LOWRY. 

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TEfiM, JANUARY 9, 1882, TO JAXUABY 13, 1890. 

Robert Lowry was born March 10, 1829, in Chesterfield District, 
South Carolina. His father was Robert Lowry, a native of the same 
State, and a descendant of Scotch-Irish ancestry. About 1833 the eider 
Robert Lowry moved to West Tennessee, and thence to Tishomingo 
County, Miss., in 1840. About 1841 Robert' Lowry, Jr., located at Ra- 
leigh, Smith County, and made his home with his uncle, Judge James 
Lowry. He remained at Raleigh, engaged in the mercantile business, 
until 1851, when he embarked in the same business with his uncle, at 
Brandon, Rankin County. In 1854 he removed to Arkansas, where he 
read law and was admitted to the bar. After a residence of five years 
in that State he returned to Brandon and formed a law partnership 
with Judge A. G. Mayers. In 18G1 he enlisted as a private in the Ran- 
kin Grays, commanded by Capt. J. J. Thornton, and at the organiza- 
tion of the Sixth Mississippi Regiment, at Grenada, was elected Major, 
with Thornton Colonel. Colonel Thornton was wounded at the battle 
of Shiloh, and being further disabled by a severe attack of fever, re- 
signed hii command, and Major Lowry, who was also wounded in tne 
same battle, was elected Colonel of the regiment and was commis- 
sioned in May, 1862. He led his regiment at the battles of Corinth, 
Port Gibson and Baker's Creek; was with Johnston during the siege or 
Vicksburg; went with Polk's army lo Georgia in the spring of 1864. 
and thereafter was identified with the Army of Tennessee. When Gen. 
John Adams was killed at the battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864, 
he succeeded to the command^ and was commissioned Brigadier-Gen- 
eral February 4, 1865. He commanded a brigade in Hood's army dur- 
ing the Nashville campaign, and was with Johnston at his surrenaei 
at Greensboro, North Carolina, February 4, 1865. After the war he 
returned to Brandon and resumed the practice of law. In 1865 he was x 
elected to the State Senate from Rankin and Smith Counties as a Dem- 
crat. In is77 he was a pronimeut canaidate in the 6taLe Demo- 
cratic Convention for Governor, but was defeated by John M. Stone. 
He was nominated for Governor in 1881 in opposition to S. S. Calhoon, 
John M. Stone, Ethelbert Barksdale, W. S. Featherston and Robert L. 
Taylor, and was elected over Benjamin King by a vote of 77,727 to 
52,009. He was inaugurated January 9, 1882, and in 1885 was re- 
elected for another term of four years. His term expired January 13, 
1890. In 1891, in connection with William H. McCardle, he prepared 
and published a history of Mississippi. From 1890 until his death 
Governor Lowry engaged in the practice of law in Jackson. In 1901 
he was a candidate for United States Senator for the unexpired term 



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GOV. ROBERT LOWRY 
Photographic copy of an oil portrait in the Mississippi Hall of Fame. 



BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 317 

of Senator E. C. Walthall, but was defeated by W. V. Sullivan. Gov- 
ernor Lowry died at his home in Jackson. Jan. IS. 1910. 

An oil portrait of Governor Lowry has been placed in the Hall of 
Fame by his family, at the request of the Historical Department. 

Authorities: Encyclopedia of Mississippi History, Rowland (1907); 
Official and Statistical Register of :\Iississippi. Rowland (1904): Mis- 
sissippi Archives and newspapers (1861-1907). School History- of Mis- 
sissippi, Riley; Lowry and McCardle's History of Mississippi. 



ANSLEM JOSEPH McLAURIN. 

TERM, JANUARY 20, 1896, TO ja:xtjary 16, 1900. 

Anslem Joseph McLaurin w^as bom March 26, 1848, at Brandon, 
Miss. He is the son of Lauchlin McLaurin and wife, Ellen Caroline 
Tullus. His paternal ancestors immigrated to America from Scotland; 
maternal from Wales. John London, his maternal great-grandfather, 
was a soldier of the Revolution and took part in the battles of Lexing- 
ton and Bunker Hill. Lauchlin McLaurin represented Smith County 
in the State Legislature in 1841, 1861, 1865 and 1875. When an infant 
the parents of Senator McLaurin removed to Smith County, where he 
was reared on a farm; attended the neighborhood schools of thai 
county until he was sixteen years of age, when he joined the Confed- 
erate Army and served as a private soldier in the Third Mississippi 
Cavalry, enlisting August, 1864. After the war he entered the Sum- 
merville Institute and continued through the Junior year; studied law 
at home at night, after work hours: w'as licensed to practice law Dy 
Judge John Watts, July 3, 1868: located at Raleigh. Smith County, 
Miss., for the practice of his profession the first Monday in October, 
1868; practiced there until March. 1876, at w^hich date lie removed to 
Brandon, Miss. He w^as elected District Attorney In November, 1871; 
elected to the House of Representatives from Rankin County in No- 
vember, 1879: w^as e^'^ctor from tbp St?>.te-at-iarge in 188^: delegate 
from Rankin County to the Constitutional Convention in 1890; elected 
United States Senator February 7, 1894, to fill out the unexpired term 
of Senator Edward C. Walthall, resigned; elected Governor in Novem- 
ber, 1895, for a term of four years, beginning January 21, 1896, and 
ending January 16, 1900; re-elected to the United States Senate in Jan- 
uary, 1900, over Congressman John Allen, and took his seat March 4, 
1901; re-elected January 20, for a term of six years, to begin March 4, 
1907. Senator McLaurin was always a loyal Democrat, and served as 
Chairman of County and Congressional Democratic Executive Com- 
mittees. He was a member and steward of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South; a Royal Arch Mason and Knight of Honor. He was 



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318 BIOGRAPHIES OF Gd^VERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

married at Trenton. Miss., February 22, 1870. to Laura Elvira Vic- 
toria "Ranch, daughter of John Ranch and vrife, Epsilon Kanch, of Treti- | 
ton, Miss. Mrs. McLaurin's paternal ancestors immigrated to America ] 
from Germany: maternal from England and Germany: Tier father, i 
John Ranch. Tvas a scholarly theologian. As a member of the Consti- .; 
tutional Convention of 1890. Senator McLaurin advocated the disfran- ^ 
chisement of wifebeaters. the insertion of a provision requiring the - 
payment of a pension of at least seventy-five dollars a year to all dls- \ 
abled, needy Confederate soldiers, the election of the Judiciary by pop- ] 
ular vote, and in a message to the Ledslature made the first recom- -^ 
mendation for the entablishment of a textile school for the A. and M. j 
College. Governor McLaurin died at his home in Brandon, Mississippi, J 
Dec. 22, 1909. 5 



ANT>"R"C"^^ TTOT'c^TOV TOVCTNO. 

TirR"\T, .TA"!7TT\T»T "fR. 1P00. TO J K^Vr \-Ry 19. 1'^04. 



AndrP'«v ITp'^-tqfrcn T rcntHno -rrr^a hrsf-n Mo-rr Iff IC?^/! *ti T,n"vrrPT^C«« j 

HniTnt^. "'^Tfcc! TTn ?c! f'«^ nr\-n r\f Tn'h'n T^r^moc n-mfl A-nn^n T5/>rtn^ fPom- 5 

S^v^ T^nnorTrto ho+h of rr-hnr-n «1ipf^ ■nr'ho-n 'ho -rrfnc o emnQll rhn*^. Pris .| 

oarlv pd^irnfin-n "wae nrnTift-p/^ f-n thp roTnTnn-n e!r»"hnMe? o^ Ty^wrenc | 

frt fTia r7n«!«! rtf 15?7?n On rf^trrTifno- hnrpf* fr/rm rollog-p ho •WJ^c; rnfldp ^ 

Cfrrnft f>rif^ r!hnnrP7*v OiorV n^ T>nTvrQT>po Pmmfv pnd ejorved fo'ir venr-? | 

Tn 1RS0 >io o-n+PTo/^ fh/^ TTnfvprc^fv r>f Vf^o^n'n n«! n cf^i/forit n^ Tnw. r?TT<^ 4 

was gr^'.dnpt'^'^ frorn +hqt ^ncfftTitfoTi. TTp ■n^j^a n'^'miffprl to prp/'tirp in | 

fVx^ ^/^Ti—-'-- ^" Tir;^^;^^; • • - -i^ni t--, /"•'u ii .-•, rri T* /^v.o'Vto-m ftn/^ To. 5 

rptPd qt Mo-nff r»pnn. TT'rnTr^ 1^90 to 1??<?4 ho ^n<! <?t?»tP c?PTintor from 1 

Tynwrencp, Pikp nn^l T.inroln Countfpc! Tn 1SRR ho xra*? npnointpd | 
TTnfted Statp=? District Attnrnpv for the Sonf-hom 'niptrirt of Mis^issinni ^ -• 

wood for thp nrartiop nf l^w TTp wnq r>T>r>niTitpd rh^ncpllor of thp ??pv- -J 

pnth District by Governor Sfonp. and remove'l fn GrepnvillP He was | 

re-apnointed in 189« bv Governor McLaurin and resipmed in Anril o' ,| 

fh9, same vear to become a cand!datf» for Governor. Tn thp campaign ^ 

for Governor hp w^s onnospd hv E. A. Critz. Hobp^t PowpIV James K. I 

Vardaman. J. E. McCool and W. A. Monteomery. Tn th^ Democratic J 

State .Convention hp was nominated on the first ballot, and In Novem- ^ 

ber was elected over R. K. Prewitt. the Populist candidate, bv a vote | 

r»f /•'> ''7'? to « 0A7 On Torni-^rv 1^ lOnr, hp t,'oc, ir^r^iio-nntpi GoVPmor. .; 

In 1903 Governor Longlno announced himself as a candidate to succeed ^ 

Uon. Hernando DeSoto Money In the United States Senate. Tn the prt- | 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 319 

mary election held August 6, 1903. Senator Money was re-elected by a 
vote of 59,758 to 36.121. Governor Lonsrino retired from the executive 
chair January 19, 1904, and since that time has resided In Jackson, 
engaged In the practice of la\v. and the promotion of hnsiness enter- 
prises. In addition to the official positions held by Governor Longino 
he has been an active particinant in all the State and Democratic Con- 
ventions held in Mississir.pi since he attained his majority. In 1900 
he was chairman of the Mississippi delegation to the Kansas City Con- 
vention, which nominated William Jennings Bryan a second time for 
the presidency. On April 14, 1887, he was married to Marion Buckley^ 
daughter of James M. and Bethany (Craft) Buckley of Jackson, Mis- 
sissippi. --^^-^r^ 

Authorities: Encyclopedia of Mississippi History, Rowland (1907): 
Mississippi Archives and newspapers (1875-1907), School History of 
Mississippi, Riley. 



JAMES XnrBLE VARDAMAN. 

TERM, JANTTARY 19, 1904, TO JAmjARY 21, 1908. 

James Kimble Vardaman was born July 26, 1861, in Jackson County; 
Texas. He Is the son of W. 3. Vardaman and wife, Mary Fox Varda- 
man. His father was a native of Mississippi and was bom In Copiah 
County, moved to Texas in 1858: served through the war as a Confed- 
erate soldier, and returned to Yalobusha County, Mississippi, in 1868. 
His paternal grandfather was a soldier of the United States in the "War 
of 1812. Governor Vardaman attended the public schools of Yalobusha 
County; read law at Carrollton, Miss., in the office of Helm & Somer- 
ville; began the practice of law at Winona in 1882; edited the Winona 
Advance in ISS?: r?movp<:l to Greenwood and engaged in newspaper 
work; edited the Greenwood Enterprise from 1890 to 1896; founded 
TTie CommoniceaUTi in 1896; represented Leflore County in the House 
of Representatives, sessions of 1890, 1892 and 1894; was Speaker of the 
House in ISOl: "^"3.^ D':'nccr?.^!C Pre='Td°'"^"1"'l FiPotor in 15?92 and 1896; 
was President of the Electoral College in 1?92 and 1896; served during 
the Spanish- American War; was Captain of Company A, Fifth Regi- 
ment, U. S. V. Infantry; promoted to Major; served in Santiago, Cuba, 
from August 1898, to May, 1899; was a candidate for Governor in 1895 
and 1899; was nominated for Governor by the Democratic party in the 
first general primary- election ever held in the State, receiving in the 
first primary 39,679 votes, to 34,813 for F. A. Critz, and 24,233 for E. P. 
Noel; in the second primary, in which F. A. Critz was the opposing 
candidate, receiving 53,032 to 46,249 for Critz, being nominated by a 
piajority of 6,783; elected Governor November 3, 1903. Governor Var- 



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320. BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-1917 

daman is a member of the Methodist Church, Knights and Ladies of 
Honor, Mason and Knight of Pythias: was married May 31. ISSS, at 
Winona. Mi?«., to 3'r-\ Aimp^ E. Robinson, daugliter of Dr. A. A. Burle- 
son. Mrs. Vardaman is a native of Alabama, and her family has been 
distinguished in that State and in Texas. Governor Vardaman was 
the first Chief Executive inaugurated in the new Capitol, his inaugura- 
tion taking place in the House of Representatives January 19, 1904. 

In 1907 Governor Vardaman was a candidate for United States Sen- 
ator, to succeed Senator Hernando DeSoto Money, in opposition to Con- 
gressman John Sharp Williams. He based his campaign on the negro 
issue; contended that the Constitution of 1890 would not prevent negro 
rule in Mississippi, and advocated the repeal of the Fifteenth Amend- 
ment and modification of the Fourteenth. The primary election was 
held August 1, 1907, and resulted in the nomination of Mr. Williams 
by a vote of 59,496 to 58,848. After his retirement from the executive 
office, Governor Vardaman became the editor of The Issue, a weekly 
newspaper published at Jackson: was a candidate for United States 
senator before the legislature in the McLaurin succession and was de- 
feated by LeRoy Percy; August 1st, 1911, he was nominated for United 
States senator over Le Roy Percy and C. H. Alexander and took his 
seat March 4, 1913. 



EDMOND FAVOR NOEL. I 

TERM, JAXUARY 21, 1908, TO JANUARY 16, 1912. i 

Edmond Favor Noel was bom Mar^^h 4, 1856, on his father's farm | 

near Lexington, in Holmes County, Miss. He is the son of Lela^nd _ 

Noel and his wife, Margaret M. (Sanders) Noel. His paternal an- ^ 

cestors came from France to England about the time of the Huguenot 1 

massacre, and from England to the Rappahannock River district, ^ 

Essex County, Virginia, in 1680. There they lived until in 1835, the f 
Governor's father, Leland Noel, came to Mississippi settling in Holmes n ,i 

County, .on the farm which is still in the possession of the family. '' 
He served in the Confederate Arrny, and while a prisoner in the hands 

of the Federals in 1863 suffered such exposure that he lost his eye- .! 

sight therefrom, and was blind to the time of his death, thirty-three J 

years later. Governor Noel attended irregular country schools until j 

the fall of 1872, when he entered the high school at Louisville, Ky., | 

taking a three years' course there. Each year he took one of the high- j 

est honors, and at the close of his last session was awarded the high- I 

est honor of his class. He did not enter a college or professional i 

school, but read law und?r his uncle, Major D. W. Sanders, an attor- • 
ney of Louisville; ^\'as admitted to the bar in March. 1877, at Lexing- 
ton, after an examination in open court. He located for practice in 



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BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-1917 321 

Lexington, where he has since resided and practiced. Governor Noel 
was elected Representative in 1881, District Attorney of Fifth Judicial 
District in 1887, State Senator in 1895 and again in 1899. candidate for 
Governor in 1903, elected Governor in 1907. During the Spanish- 
American was he was a Captain in the Second Mississippi Volunteer 
Infantry, under General Fitzhugh Lee, serving from May to December, 
1898. He is a Democrat and has been a member of the State Executive 
Committee and Chairman of the County Committee for several years 
each; is a member of the Missionary Baptist Church, a Knight Temp- 
lar, a Shriner, Knight of Honor, Knight of Pythias and Woodman of 
the World. He was married September 12, 1905, at Pickens, Miss., to 
Mrs. Alice (Tye) Neilson. daughter of Col. J. F. Tye and wife, Josephine 
(Clarke) Tye. Mrs. Noel's ancestors came from Mechlenburg County, 
N. C, her grandmother's brother Nathaniel Alexander, was one of the 
first Governors of North Carolina, and her great-grandfather, Abraham 
also of the amendment making judges elective. It may be noted of 
Governor Noel that though not winning in every political contest, he 
has never failed of election to an ofiBce which he sought. His contests 
have always been purely individual, free from combinations or fac- 
tional alignments, and the same may be said of his entire political 
career. On retiring from the executive ofRce Governor Noel returned 
to his home at Lexington and resumed the practice of law. 



EARL LEROY BREWER. f," 

TERM, JAXTARY 16, 1912, TO -TA^rrARY 18. 1916. 

Earl LeRoy Brewer, of Clarksdale, was born August 11, 1869, in 
Carroll County, Mississippi. He is the son of Ratciiff Rodney and 
Mary (McEachem) Brewer, and grandson of LeRoy and Mary (Rat- 
cliff) Brewer, of Emory. Holmes County, Mississippi. Ratciiff Rod- 
ney Brewer was a faithful Confederate soldier. He enlisted in Com- 
pany A, Ballentine's Regiment of Cavalry, as a private, April 10, 1862. 
at Vaiden, Mississippi; was promoted to First-Lieutenant, and at the 
close of the war was captain of his company, winning his promotion 
from the ranks by meritorious conduct. Governor Brewer's paternal 
ancestors were Scotch, maternal Irish; they were agricultual people 
and never held public office. His father died during his early youth, 
and, being the eldest son, the support of the family depended largely 
upon him. He attended the country schools of Carroll County; entered 
the law school of the University of Mississippi, and was graduated with 
the degree of LL.B. in 1892; located at Water Valley Mississippi, for 
the practice of his profession, in June. 1892, forming a partnership 
with Julian C. Wilson, a classmate, afterwards Chancellor of the Third 
District, and now a prominent lawyer of the Memphis bar. GoTemor 
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322 BIOGRAPHIES OF GOVERNORS OF MISSISSIPPI. 1S17-1917 

Brewer was elected to the State Senate from the Twenty-eighth Dis- 
trict, in November, 1S95, and served from 1S96 to 1900. In 1902 the 
Legislature created the Eleventh Circuit Court District, and he was 
appointed District Attorney by Governor Longino. Soon after his ap- 
pointment he removed to Clarksdale. In 1907 he resigned his posi- 
tion to become a candidate for Governor. In 1911 he was accorded the 
unusual honor of being elected Governor without opposition, and was 
inaugurated January 16, 1912. In his inaugural address he stressed 
the importance of the abolition of gambling in cotton futures: reforma- 
tion of child labor laws: better provision for the care of juvenile 
offenders: progressive methods in public education: and the reforma- 
tion of the laws of taxation. Governor Brewer is a Democrat; was a 
member of the State Democratic Executive Committee from 1895 to 
1899; he is a member of the Presbyterian Church, and is a ruling 
elder in that denomination: is a Mason, Knight of Pythias, Odd Fellow, 
Woodman of the world, and Elk, and was a member of the Grange and 
Farmers' Alliance w'hen those organizations were active in the State. 
He has always been active in public affairs, and has consistently ad- 
vocated progressive measures for the betterment of conditions among 
the working classes. In his political contests he has made his appeal 
directly to the people. He was married to Minnie, datighter of Edward 
and Minnie M. Block, of St. Louis, October 5, 1897, at Water Valley, 
Mississippi. Mrs. Brewer is of German descent, and the name is 
prominent in the annals and lecords of Germany. The first of the 
family to come to America was the explorer, Adriene Block, for whom 
Block Island was named. Governor and Mrs, Brewer have three 
children: Minnie Elizabeth, bom in Water Valley, Mississippi. July 
28, 1898; Ida Earlene, born at Water Valley July 16, 1901; and Edna 
Claudia, born at Clarksdale, Mississippi, July 29, 1906. Governor 
Brewer resumed the practice of law at Clarksdale after the expiration 
of his term of office. 



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SUPEEME CilVllT OE THE STATE OE 
MISSISSIPPI. 

1817-32. 

Under the constitution of 1817, the inhabited part of the State was 
divided into four judicial districts, for each of which the Legislature 
elected a judge of the supreme court, whose duty it was also to hold 
the superior court twice a year in each of his counties. Judges could 
be removed by the governor upon "'the address of two-thirds of each 
house of the general assembly," and an age limit of sixty-five years was 
established, but there was no fixed term of office. Each court had the 
appointment of its own clerk. 

The supreme court held its sessions at Natchez until an act of the 
Legislature in February, 1S26, required its removal to Monticello. 
But in 1828 the December term was restored to Natchez. 

The districts were: First, the northern part of the old Natchez dis- 
trict (Warren. Claiborne and Jefferson counties) ; Second, Adams, 
Franklin and Lawrence; Third, Wilkinson, Amite, Pike and Marion; 
Fourth, Hancock, Wayne, Green and Jackson. By the Poindexter code. 
1822, the new county of Monroe, all the upper Tombigbee country then 
settled, was added to the Fourth district, and the new county of Hinds, 
embracing all the Choctaw cession of 1820, was added to the First 
district. The name of "districts" was changed to "circuits," and the 
superior courts to circuit courts, a circuit court to be held as before, 
twice a year in each county, by the judge of the supreme court ap- 
pointed to that circuit, who must reside in it after his appointment. 
So the circuits continued until 1828, when the Fifth circuit was created, 
including what was originally Hinds and Monroe Counties. 

In the change from Territorial to State government, the Territorial 
judges held over until the Legislature could elect, which act was de- 
ferred for some time because the Legislature adjourned after a few 
days' session in October, 1817, on account of the yellow fever. In the 
recess, Governor Holmes appointed John Taylor to succeed Judge 
Leake, elected to the United States senate; Lytaan Harding to succeed 
Attorney-General Christopher Rankin, resigned; and Powhatan Ellis, 
judge to hold superior court east of Pearl, as provided in the constit'T- 
tion. After the Legislature had come together again, at Natchez, the 
two houses balloted, January 21, 1818, for judges of the supreme court. 






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324 SUPREME COURT OF STATE OF MlSSISSIPn. 1817-32 

For the first district the vote was: William B. Shields. 21; Joshua G. 

Clark, 11; Second district, John Taylor, 32; Third district, John P. ; 

Hampton, 32; Fourth district, Powhatan Ellis. 27; William J. Minton. • 

5. It was provided, by a resolution introduced by Cowles :Mead, that j 
the judge of the Second district should be presiding judge of the 
supreme court, for the time being, to be succeeded in order by the 
judges of the First, Third and Fourth districts. There was no officiallv 

entitled "chief justice." By act of January, 1823, the supreme court I 

was authorized to appoint one of their number, at each term, to 'de- | 

liver the opinions of the court in writing. _, ; 

The personnel of the supreme court, before its first session in ^, 
June, 1818, was changed by the appointment of Shields to be the first 

judge of the United States district court. Joshua G. Clarke was ap- „ 

pointed to succeed him on the State bench. The list then stood: ^ 

Taylor, Hampton, Ellis, Clarke. Following is a full list, with dates . 

of appointments : - 



JUDGES OF SUPREME AND CIRCUIT COURTS. , 

First Circuit: William B. Shields, 1818: Joshua G. Clark-. 1818: ~4 

Bela Metcalf. November. 1S21: Richard Stockton. Jr., August, 1822: | 

Joshua Child, January*, 1825: Wm. L. Sharkey, November, 1831. ad in- | 

terim; Alexander Montgomery, the first native Mississippian on the -| 

bench, was elected over Sharkey in November, 1831. Second circuit: -J 

John Taylor, 1818; Walter Leake, 1820; Louis Winston. 1821: Edward ^ 

Turner, 1825-33. Fourth circuit. Powhatan Ellis, 1818; Isac.c Cald- 4 

well, ad interim, 1825; John Black. 1825; Eli Huston, Decem.ber. 1832. '' 

Third circuit: John P. Hampton, 181S. died; George Winchester, ad i 

interim, 1827; Harry Cage, 1S28, resigned; C. P. Smith, ad interim. ^ 

May, 1832. Fifth circuit: This was established in 1828. including the ■? 

two regions originally called Monroe and Hinds counties. Isaac R. J 

Nicholson w^as elected over Isaac Caldwell by a small majority, as ^ ] 

judge, and Buckner Harris, district attorney. I 



HIGH COURT OF ERRORS AND APPEALS. 

Under the constitution of 1832, this body took the place of the Su- 
preme court of 1817-32. The name w^as doubtless intended to empha- 
size the desire that found expression in the constitution, that this 
court should "have no jurisdiction, but such as properly belongs to a 
court of errors and appeals." The former supreme court was made 
up of the circuit judges. Since 1833, the high or supreme court of 
Mississippi has been a separate tribunal in personnel as well as func- 
tion. The high court was composed of three members, one to be elected 
by the people of each of three districts into which the State was dl- 






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SUPREME COURT OF STATE OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-32 325 

vided for that purpose. The sessions were to be twice a year where 
the Legislature should direct, until 1836, and after that at the seat of 
government. The tirst judges eleoted were to serve for two, four and 
six years, according to the number of votes they received afterward 
the term was six years. 

William L. Sharkey, Cotesworth P. Smith and Daniel W, Wright 
were elected in May, 1833. Judge Sharkey's term expired in two years. 
Smith's in four, and Wright held the full term of six years. Sharkey 
was re-elected in 1835, 18-il and 1847. He was chosen chief justice hy 
his colleagues, in 1S33, and continued to be accorded that honor until 
the end of his service. Sharkey resigned October 1, 1851, and Colin 
S. Tarpley accepted appointment as chief justice, by Acting-Governor 
Whitfield, but did not serve, and resigned, the right of appointment be- 
ing questionable. Judge Sharkey's district elected William Yerger, in 
the latter part of 1851. Alexander H. Handy was elected in 1853, 
served through the Confederate States period, and was chief justice 
1864-65. 

Justice Smith was succeeded by P. Rutilius R. Pray, elected in No- 
vember, 1837. He died in January, 1840, and ex- Justice Smith was ap- 
pointed by the governor to hll the place until the special e-ection 
called in February, 1840, when Edward Turner was elected. He filled 
out the term of Justice Pray, and was not a candidate for re-election 
in 1843, when Joseph S. B. Thacher was elected. The latter was de- 
feated for re-election in 1849 by Cotesworth P. Smith, who was made 
chief justice in November, 1851, an honor which he retained until his 
death in 1863. His successor on the bench was David W. Hurst, 1863- 
65. 

Justice Wright resigned in 1838, and James F. Trotter was appointed 
in December, 1838. He was elected in November, 1839, but resigned 
in 1842; the governor appointed Reuben Davis in April, who served 
until a special August election, when Alexander M. Clayton was the 
popular choice. Clayton was re-elected in 1845 and served the full 
term, until the November election, 1851. He was succeeded by Eph- 
raim S. Fisher, elected in 1851 and 1857, who resigned in 1858. His 
successor was William L. Harris. An act of 1850 authorized the hold- 
ing of an annual session of the High Court at Oxford; but the gover- 
nor stated in 1852, that no such court had been held on account of non- 
attendance of the bar, and he recommended the repeal of the law. 

The constitution of 18G1 made no change in the High Court. "The 
functions of the supreme (High) court were virtually suspended dur- 
ing the war, although its organization was maintained, and a few cases 
of special importance were heard and determined. At the April term, 
1861, only three cases were decided; at the October term, 12. In 1S62 
there were no meetings of the court. At the April term, 1863, two cases 
were heard; at the October term, 1864, two cases, and in 1865 none. 






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326 SUPREME COURT OF STATE OF MISSISSIPPI, ISIT-:^- 

It does not appear that the Confederate States disirict court was ever 
in session." (Garner's Reconstruction). 

The terms of all olficers ceased, upon the fall of the Confederate 
power, in May, 1865. 

Under the presidential reconstruction and constitution of 1865, 
which was a restoration of the constitution of 1832, with required 
amendments, there was an election of judges of the High court, Octo- 
ber 2, 1865, and Alexander H. Handy and William L. Harris were re- 
elected and Henry T. Ellet was chosen to succeed Hurst. It was noted 
among the features of this political crisis, that the judges were all 
"original secessionists." (Testimony of Judge Sharkey.) 

The first term, (a special one) was in January, 1866, when Judge 
Handy was made chief justice. The legislature of 1866-67 passed an 
act creating four high court districts, court to be held once a year at 
Oxford, Jackson, Macon and Mississippi City. But the high court held 
this to be unconstitutional, and continued to hold two sessions a year, 
-^t Jackson only. Unde^' the congressional policy General Ord became 
military .commandant in 1867, and his administration led to the resig- 
nation of Chief Justice Handy, October 1, who said in his letter to the 
governor, "The conduct of the commanding general is such an invasion 
of the legitimate powers of the judiciary as to place it in a condition 
of military duress in which I cannot seem to acquiesce by acting under 
it." The other members of the court followed his example. The gov- 
ernor appointed Thomas G. Shackleford, Ephraim G. Peyton and E. 
Jeffords. Shackleford was chosen chief justice. In 1869, Judge Jef- 
fords was succeeded by George F. Brown. This court decided in Octo- 
ber, 1869, the important case of Thomas vs. Taylor, denying the va- 
lidity of the "cotton money" issued by the State government during 
the secession period. 

The high court v/as succeeded, under the constituticn of IS 9, by 
the supreme court organized in the spring of 1870. 



SUPREME COURT, 1870-1917. 

The constitution of 1869 created, as did the constitution of 1 SI 7, a "Su- 
preme court," of three judges The power to elect these judges and all 
others was again delegated; but to the governor, by and wi;,h the advice 
and consent of the senate, not to the legislature, as in 1817_32, Tlie term 
of the supreme judges was to be nine years, but to begin with, to se- 
cure individual alternation, the terms were respectively three, six and 
nine years. The terms of the supreme court were to be held at the 
seat of government twice a year. Governor Alcorn's appointees were 
H. F. Simrall and Ephraim G. Peyton, old citizens of the State, and 
Jonathan Tarbe^l, a Union soldier from New York who had settled 



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Supreme court of state of Mississippi. 1817-32 32? 

after the war in Scott county. Peyton and Tarbell were the only Re- 
publicans who have ever been appointed to the supreme bench. The 
justices were installed in office May 10, 1870, in the presence of the two 
houses of the legislature, and Judge Simrall drew for the term of nine 
years, Peyton for three, and Tarbell for six years. They were sworn 
in by Governor Alcorn. Peyton was made chief justice. Ke was re- 
appointed for a full term of nine years from May 11, 1873, at the close 
of his three year term. In the early part of 1876. when the Democratic 
party was again in control of the legislature, and the impeachment 
trial of Governor Ames was set for March 28, to be presided over by 
the chief justice, Peyton was requested by resolution of the legislature 
to resign, until the ''emergency" had passed, which he did, and Judge 
Simrall was elected chief justice in his place. 

By an act of the legislature, approved April 11, 1876, by Governor 
Stone, which was general in form, but so drawn as to apply in only 
one case, Chief Justice Peyton, on account of failing health, was retired 
on half pay, and was succeeded. May 10, 1876, by H. H. Chalmers for 
the remainder of his unexpired term. J. A, P. Campbell was appointed 
in place of Jonathan Tarbell, whose six year term expired, May 10. 
1876. Judge Simrall's term expired May 10, 1878, and he was suc- 
ceeded by J. Z. George, who was chosen chief justice. The code 01 
1880 provided that the chief justice should be the judge whose term 
expired in the shortest time. Judge George resigned February 10, 
1881, to enter the United States Senate, and was succeeded by T. E. 
Cooper, Judge Chalmers becoming jusice by virtue of the provision 
of 1880. In 1882, Judge Chalmers was re-appointed, and in regular 
order Judge Campbell became chief justice. When Judge Campbell's 
term expired in 1885, he was re-appointed, and Judge Cooper becamt^ 
chief justice. Judge Chalmers died January 1, 1885, and was suc- 
ceeded by James M. Arnold, who by regular rule was Chief Justice 
from Judge Cooper's re-appointment in 1888 to his own resignation. 
October 1, 1889. Thomas H. Woods was appointed to fill out Judge 
Arnold's term, and was made chief justice from the time of his ap- 
pointment until 1891. 

In the constitutional convention of 1890, Mr. McLaurin of Sharkey 
county proposed a supreme court of five judges to be elected by the 
people of five districts for terms of twenty years. But this did not find 
favor, and the plan of appointment by the governor was a part of the 
general plan of government which the convention adopted, not so much 
from choice, but because of what was regarded at that time as neces- 
sity. Thp judiciary article, as reported by the committee composed of 
Wiley P. Harris, chairman, and Simrall, Featherston, Taylor, Fewell, 
Chrisman, Smith (of Warren), McLaurin (of Rankin), Ford, McLean, 
(of Grenada), Hooker, .Sykes, Blair, Barnett, Campbell, Xoland, Lacey, 
Sexton, Lee, (of Madison), Allen and Eskridge, and adopted, provided 



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328 SUPREME COURT OF STATE OF MISSISSIPPI. 1817-32 

for a supreme court, with the jurisdiction of a court of appeals, to be 
composed of three judges, appointed by the governor, with the advice 
and consent of the senate, each judge for and from one of three dis- 
tricts to be formed by the legislature. The term of office is nine years, 
after the usual apportionment of three, six and nine years at the be- 
ginning. Court is he'.d twice a year at the seat of Government. The 
court at that time was composed of Justices Thomas H. Woods, J. A. 
P. Campbell, and T. E. Cooper, who were continued in office as from 
the State at large. Judge Woods was re-appointed in 1891. and ,there- 
upon Judge Campbell became chief justice for the second time. The 
next appointment was of A. H. Whitfield in place of Judge Campbell, 
whose term expired in 1894. The Code of 1892 provided that the judge 
who had been for the longest time continuously a member of the court 
should be chief justice, and under this provision Judge Cooper was 
chief justice from 1894 to December, 1896, when he resigned, and was 
succeeded by Thomas R. Stockdale for the remainder of the unexpired 
term. Judge Woods became chief justice on the resignation of Chief 
Justice Cooper. In 1897. Samuel H. Terral was appointed to succeed 
Judge Stockdale, whose term had expired. In 1900, Judge Woods' term 
expired, and he was succeeded by S. S. Calhoun, Judge Whitfield be- 
coming chief justice. On the 29th of January, 1898, an amendment id 
the constitution, known as the "Noel Amendment," had been adopten 
■by both houses of the legislature making all the judiciary elective; 
this was voted on by the people in the election of i899, and receivea 
over two-thirds of all the votes cast on the amendment, but not a ma- 
jority of all the votes cast at the election. The legislature of 19('0 heia 
that it had been adopted, and on January 26, passed a concurrent reso- 
lution inserting it in the constitution. In the May, 1900, term of tnc 
Lincoln circuit court, the matter was brought up by Judge Robeit 
Powell for adjudication; and the circuit court held that the amend- 
ment had not been legally adopted. The State appealed the case, and 
the supreme court, in the latter part of May, affirmed the decision of 
the lower court, on the ground, first, that the Legislature w^as not the 
final judge; second, that the details of electing supreme judges, chan- 
cellors, etc., made more than one amendment; third, that a majority of 
all voting at the election was required. An amendment to the consti- 
tution to the same effect passed the house in the session of 1904, but 
failed to pass in the senate. Judge Terral died in March, 1903, and J. 
H. Price was appointed in his place. Chief Justice Whitfield's term 
expired in 1903, and he was re-appointed, March 9. Judge Price re- 
signed in August, 1903, and Jeff Truly was appointed to fill out the 
term. The Supreme Court was then constituted, A. H. Whitfield, Chief 
Justice; associates S. S. Calhoun and Jeff Truly. Upon the expiration 
of the term of Judge Truy. in 1906, he wa.s succeeded by Robert B. 
Mayes. Justice S. S. Calhoun died in 1908 and was succeeded by R. 



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SUPREME COURT OF STATE OF MISSISSIPPI, 1817-32 329 

V. Fletcher. On the expiration of the Calhoun term, Judge Fletcher 
was succeeded by Sidney :\I. Smith. In 1910, Chief Justice Whitfield 
resigned to accept appointment as a member of the Supreme Court 
Commission, and W. D. Anderson was appointed to succeed him. Judge 
Anderson resigned Oct. 1, 1911, and was succeeded by Wm. C. McLean. 
In 1912, Sam C. Cook was appointed in the Whitfield succession. In 
1912, Chief Justice R. B. Mayes resigned and Richard F. Reed was 
appointed to succeed him. In 1915. J. M. Stevens was appointed to 
succeed Judge Reed in the Whitfield succession. . In 1916, the judiciary 
was made elective and the Supreme Court was increased to six mem- 
bers. C. D. Potter, E. 0. Sykes and J. B. Holden were appointed a^ 
interim. At the election in 1916. E. O. Sykes, J. B. Holden and George 
H. Ethridge were elected. 

The Supreme Court, as now constituted, consists of S. M. Smith, 
Chief Justice; Associate Justices, Sam C. Cook, J. M. Stevens, E. O. 
Sykes, J. B. Holden and Geo. H. Ethridge. 



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THE JUDICIAKY OF MISSISSIPPI. 



Judiciary Territorial. Under the ordinance of 1787, the funda- 
mental act of organization of the Mississippi Territory, the president 
appointed three judges to constitute the highest court of the Territory, 
and also, with the governor, to adopt for the government of the Ter- 
ritory, such laws of the States as seemed applicable. In practice, both 
in Ohio and Mississippi, they were simply guided by such principles 
of legislation as they were familiar with in the States, and framed 
laws to suit the conditions they found. This was made the subject of 
technical remonstrance, but very likely was the wiser method. The 
first judges appointed by President John Adams were Peter Bryan 
Bruin of Bayou Pierre, and Daniel Tilton of New Hampshire, May 7, 
1798. Two or three weeks after his arrival, Governor Sargent wrote: 
"My great source of uneasiness is the want of the judges. I pray God 
Mr. McGuire may soon arrive, or some law character. In a court from 
which is no appeal, most certainly there should be a law knowledge. 
Judge Bruin, a worthy and sensible man, is beyond doubt deficient, 
and Judge Tilton cannot have had more reading and experience. Un-- 
der these circumstances might it not be advisable to make compensa- 
tion to some gentleman learned in the law to reside here as an attor- 
ney for the United States and Territory?" Meanwhile the president 
had selected William McGuire, of Virginia, as the third judge. Dur- 
ing the long and embarrassing delay for the arrival of the judges, the 
governor was obliged to make temporary appointments ot conservators 
of the peace and sheriffs of two districts that he was not yet author- 
ized to designate as counties. He also, after waiting three months, 
found it necessary to appoint William Dunbar as a probate commis- 
sioner, to care for estates of descendents according to his best judg- 
ment, until laws could be provided. These acts were used as the pre- 
text of bitter political criticism. J. F. H. C'aiborne, in his history or 
Mississippi, (p. 208) without noting the circumstances, or the careful 
manner in which the appointment was made, as provisional, and omit- 
ting the name of the appointee, "a very worthy one," calls this the gov- 
ernor's "greatest stretch of authority," and adds. "Truly has it been 
said by an astute commentator, 'Royalty could do no more.' " The 



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THE JUDICIARY OF MISSISSIPPI 331 

comments of the same authority regarding the laws adopted after the 
arrival of the judges is that "Tilton and McGuire aided the governor 
in concocting a code of laws incompatible with the spirit of our insti- 
tutions and with the constitution of the United States, most of which 
were annulled by Congress, and soon after this worthy pair disap- 
peared and never returned." 

The early laws were signed by Sargent, Bruin and Tilton. 

In the criminal code, punishments were provided for treason and 
arson, including forfeiture of property. This penalty was evidently in 
conflct with the constitution, and all Sargent could say in justification 
was that they had forgotten the constitutional provision and would 
repeal the penalty. 

It was also a constitutional provision that treason should be a sub- 
ject of Congressional -legislation only. But these penalties were a 
small part of the body of laws adopted. Their prominence is due to 
the disputes of the period. As for "unusual punishments" it cannot 
be said that the punishments provided by Sargent and the Judges were 
excessive, as compared with those afterwards provided by the general 
assembly. Imprisonment for debt, whipping at the post, the pillory 
and stocks, were in vogue for many years afterwards. It was the com- 
plaint of later governors that the criminal code was in some respects 
too severe to be enforced. The records show that murders, riots, and 
offences against property were frequent at all times, as the situation 
of the Natchez district made inevitable. 

J. F. H. 'Claiborne's exhaustive abstract of congressional legislation 
regarding the Sargent code shows that the laws giving the governor a 
fee of ?8 for issuing licenses to sell intoxicants, and giving the juGges 
fees in certain cases, were disapproved. If any others were annulled, 
the record does not show it. The fee for marriage license by the gov- 
ernor seems to have been unrevoked. The S8 fee was required in cases 
where the parties asked a special dispensation without the publishing 
of banns, under ordinary conditions, the fee was 75 cents, which can- 
not be called excessive even in pioneer days. 

.Judge Tilton did not arrivp until January 10. 1799. brinein? no law 
books except the acts of the last two sessions of Congress. Sargent. 
Bruin and Tilton then set about legislating with no guide at hand but 
the laws of the Northwest territory, upon which the new laws were 
based, much to the regret of the governor, who expressed this regret 
long before the circumstance was made the basis of an attack upon 
him. A list of expired or repealed laws in the digest of 1816 indicates 
that February 28, 1799, the judicial-legislature adopted laws regulat- 
ing a militia, establishing courts of judicature and a court of probate, 
providing for sheriffs, coroners, recorders, and treasurers, regulating 
marriages, regulating taverns and retailers of liquors Twenty more 
laws were adopted in 1799, nine more in 1800, after which there were 



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332 THE JUDICIARY OF MTSSISSIPFI 

no new enactments until the session of the Legislature begun in De- 
cember, ISOl. After that the functions of the judiciary and legislature 
were separated, and the judges appointed by the president held court 
at such times and places, and under such regulations, as the general 
assembly provided. The laws provided for justices of the peace in 
each county, also justices of the Court of General Quarier Sessions, to 
meet on the lirst ^Mondays of May, August, November and February; 
also a court of common pleas to convene on the succeeding Wednesdays 
of the same months, and a court of probate, to be held by the judge 
thereof, beginning on the first Saturdays following the opening of the 
court of Quarter Sessions. The court of common pleas was "to hold 
pleas of assize, scire facias, replevins, and hear and determine all man- 
ner of pleas, actions, suits and causes of a civil nature, real, personal 
and mixed;" the court of quarter sessions had the functions of a grand 
jury. The justices of the common pleas court of Adams County were 
eight in number, of the court of quarter sessions, six, these in addition 
to eleven justices of the peace a probate judge, and a full list of county 
officers. 

It seemed to be the intention of the governor to interest the popula- 
tion as far as possible in the administration of the laws. At the head 
of this judicial system was the supreme court, composed of the judges 
appointed by the president, which was made an appellate tribunal with 
original jurisdiction over the graver crimes, and the summoning of a 
grand jury. This court sat in each of the two original counties and in 
1800, a session on the Tombigbee was required. 

Governor Sargent proposed to reserve to himself the admission of 
attorneys to practice, against which Judge Tilton protested, threaten- 
ing to resign and leave the territory; and actually did depart, but re- 
turned. Governor Claiborne asserted the same right, as appears from 
a letter in his Journal, addressed to Judge Lewis, introducing Stephen 
Bullock, an applicant i'or license to practice law, in order that the 
judge might examine him and certify his opinion. So also with suc- 
ceeding governors. In Governor Williams' Journal appears the fol- 
lowing list of attorneys admitted to practice in the last six months of 
1805: James S. Rawlins, William Murray, Peter Walker, Francis 
Vicker, Charles Baldwin, Lemuel Henry, Isaac Baldwin, John I. Bell. 
Judge McGuire, called the chief justice, arrived in the summer of 1799, 
and returned to Virginia in the fall, complaining that he could not 
live on the salary. At this juncture the governor appointed Lyman 
Harding attorney for the United States and territory. 

September 29, 1799, Robert Starke was commissioned by the Gover- 
nor as clerk of the supreme court of the territory. 

Judge Tilion returned and departed again in the spring of ISOO, to 
visit the seat of Washington county, on the Tombigbee, by way of New 
Orleans. In place of McGuire, President Adams appointed Seth Lewis 



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THE JUDICIARY OF MISSISSIPPI - S33 

of Tennessee, grandson of one of the Connecticut settlers in Natchez 
district in 1774. He was commissioned ^Nlay 13, and was on duty In 
the fall of 1800, the matter of Philip Xolan being referred to him and 
Bruin, October 4. 

Regarding the system of courts. Governor Claiborne wrote, Decem- 
ber 20, ISOl, "The legislature is engaged upon a new judiciary system. 
The manner in which the superior and inferior courts have heretofore 
been arranged is generally condemned. There is certainly room for 
improvement." "An act to provide for the more convenient organiza- 
tion of the courts" was passed Jan. 26, 1802. The change in the 
inferior courts is shovrn by the following appointments made by the 
governor: 

Adams county: Justices of the peace and justices of the county 
court: William Dunbar (declined), William Vousdan, Samuel Brooks, 
Bernard Lintot (declined), Abraham Ellis, James Parrell, Adam 
Truly, Caleb King, George Fitzgerald, David Ker, sheriff; Peter 
Walker, clerk of the county court; John Henderson, treasurer; RoD- 
ert Stark, clerk of Adams district court; Abner L. Duncan, attorney- 
general for Adams district; Archibald Lewis, clerk ana master in 
equity for Adams district. 

Jefferson county: Cato West, Thomas Calvit, Jacob Stampley, 
Henry Green, Zachariah Kirkland and John Hopkins, justices. John 
Girault, clerk of county court; Daniel James, clerk of Jefferson district 
court; Felix Hughes, clerk and master in equity. 

Claiborne county: William Downs, G. W. Humphreys, James Stans- 
field, Ebenezer Smith, Daniel Burnett, James Harman, justices. Sam- 
uel Coburn, sheriff; Matthew Tierney, clerk; Samuel Gibson, coroner. 

Wilkinson county: John Ellis, Hugh Davis, John Collins, Richard 
Butler, William Ogden, Thomas Dawson, justices. Henry Hunter, 
sheriff; Samuel Lightner, clerk. 

A superior court was he.d in each of the three districts, Adams, Jef- 
ferson and Washington, by the Territorial judges, to which each in- 
ferior court was to nominate thirty-six jurors. 

In December, 1802. there was presented to Congress the petition of 
William Murray and others, practitioners of law, in opposition to a 
petition said to be in circulation praying for the abolishment of the 
Territorial judges. 

In 1807 the inferior court system was established that was main- 
tained during the remainder of the Territorial period. The governor' 
appointed five persons in each county as justices of the peace and of 
the quorum for that county. One of them was commissioned chief 
justice of the orphans' court. These justices, or any three of them, 
held county court and orphans' court at stated terms. 

In the same year was established the system of circuit courts, sit- 
ting in each county, and district superior court, by the Territorial 



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334 THE JUDICIARY OF MISSISSIPPI 

judges, as well as the Territorial supreme court. By act of December 
22, 1809, the supreme court and the districts superior courts were 
abolished, and the Territorial judges were required to hold a super- 
ior court of law and equity in each county. This system continued 
until after the act of January 20, 1814, adopted upon the repeatea 
recommendation of Governor Williams. By this act "The supreme 
court of errors and appeals" was created, meeting twice a year in the 
courthouse of Adams county. Two of the Territorial judges could hold 
this court. The judges of Washington district (the Mobile region) and 
Madison county (Tennessee river) were not required to attend. The 
particular recommendation of the governor was that this should be a 
"judicial tribunal to which all cases of difficulty arising in the superior 
courts of the counties might be adjourned at the discretion of the pre- 
siding judge." It was so provided in the act, giving the court that pe- 
culiar function in addition to those of a court of appeals. 

Governors Claiborne and Williams united in an appeal to the secre- 
tary of state in October, 1807, that there should be provision for "ap- 
peal from decisions in the territories of Orleans and Mississippi. By 
the present system, the supreme court of each territory is a court of 
original and dernier resort. Before these tribunals causes of very 
great concern to individuals are often brought; causes extremely com- 
plex, involving many intricate points of law, and in deciding or which 
the ablest judges may err." They suggested a court of appeal for ihe 
two territories. 

The superior court of the county of Adams was the most important 
in the Territory, and in 1811 it was so crowded with criminal prosecu- 
tions that only a few appeals could be heard, and all the civil causes 
at issue, which were very numerous, were necessarily continued. (Mes- 
sage of Daingerfield). 

When Gov. Claiborne came to the Territory, in the latter part of 
1801, he made a report regarding the supreme court, similar to thai of 
his predecessor. "The chief justice, Mr. Lewis, is certainly a man of 
talent, and was respectable as a lawyer," but Judges Tilton and Bruin 
were amiable gentlemen, not qualified for the position. Tilion, he 
said, had read law a > ear or so, but he had never practiced. "Uiiior- 
tunately there is a great difference between the judges of the supreme 
court and the people. One half of the citizens, and perhaps a greater 
number, have no confidence in the judiciary, the members of the two 
houses of the Assembly are among the most prejudiced, and I fea» 
'upon this subject they will be inclined to legislate rather against men 
than upon principle. This is really an unpleasant state of things and 
will not fail to be a source of much trouble to me." He went on to 
specify the cause of complaint against the court, that it had ruled 
against the admission of testimony, to prove that Spanish grants, made 
just before the evacuation, had been dated back to appear of date 









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THK .TT'nTCTARY OF MTSSISSIPPl S35 

previous to the treaty, about three years earlier. The governor sus- 
tained the court sufficiently to persuade the legislature to abandon for 
the time a proposed act to authorize the admission of such testimony. 
"A statute for the admission of parole testimony to disprove a record 
would be a great innovation upon the law of evidence, and might lead 
to injurious consequences, and yet I can see no other way in which 
the frauds complained of can be guarded against, unless, indeed, a 
court of chancery would reach ihe case, and it seems to be the opin- 
ion of most of the lawyers here it would not." (Claiborne to Madison, 
Dec. 20, 1801). It is evident that the governor was with the court in 
its legal opinions in this case, notwithstanding his estimate of its abil- 
ity, while the legislature was instinctively right. 

The governor reported, in February, 1802: "A violent dispute has 
arisen between the two houses of assembly and Mr. Lewis, the chief 
justice of this territory, who has many friends. Upon the petition of 
some citizens, the assembly authorized the taking of depositions as to 
the official conduct of the judge, with a view, 1 suppose, oi exhibiting 
to Congress charges against the judge." Among the old documents of 
the Department of Archives and History is a resolution of both houses, 
providing that John E.lis, William Vousdan and George Fitzgerald, at- 
tend at the government house, "'to take the depositions of sundry per- 
sons respecting the dirferent complaints of Col. Thomas Green, Nathan- 
iel Tomlinson and others against Governor Sargent and certain judges, 
by them complained of by petition respecting undue administration." 

In January or February, 1802, Judge Tilton left Natchez and from 
that city sailed in June, supposedly tor the eastern states, but it was 
afterwards reported that he went direct to Liverpool on some commer- 
cial business. Gov. Claiborne recommended David Ker, a pioneer of 
education, as Tiltons successor, and his commission arrived in De- 
cember. 

At the beginning of l&o3 the Territorial judges were Peter B. Bruin, 
Seth Lewis and David Ker. Lewis was succeeded by Tnomas Rodney 
of Delaware, who was at the same time (1803) appointed one of the 
land title CDmmissioners. Upon the death of Judge Ker in 1805» 
George Matthews, Jr., of Georgia, was appointed, July 1, and after he 
was transferred to the Territory of Orleans, Walter Leake, of Virginia 
was api-ointed and commissioned March 2, 1807. One of the last ap- 
pointments of Pre.sident Jefferson, conhrmed in March, 1809, was of 
Francis Xavier Martin, of North Carolina, to succeed Judge Bruin, 
resigned. Martin soon resigned, and Oliver Fitts, of North Carolina, 
was appointed in his place, April 18, 1810. A letter of Gov. Holmes, 
January 30, 1811, refers to the recent "Melancholy event of Judge Rod- 
ney's death. . . Judge Fitts set off for North Carolina early in De- 
cember, and Judge Leake resides about sixty miles from this place 
(Washington)." 



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336 THE JUDICIARY OF MISSISSIPPI 

David Campbell of Tennessee was appointed to succeed Rodney, 
March 3, 1811. Josiah Simpson was commissioned February 18, 18iz, 
to succeed Judge Fitts, and was again commissioned February 9, 1816. 
George Poindexter was appointed March 3, 1813, to succeed Campbell. 
The judges continued in office, after the adoption of the constitution, 
in 1817, until the legislature cou'.d establish a new system, but the 
power of appointment passed to the governor, who named John Tay- 
lor as the successor of Judge Leake, elected United States senator in 
October, 1817, and Lyman Harding to succeed Christopher Rankin, as 
Territorial attorney-general west of Pearl. 

An act of Congress, March 27, 1804, provided for an additional judge 
for the Mississippi Territory, to reside at or near the Tombigbee set- 
tlement, and exercise the jurisdiction of the superior court under the 
Mississippi act for the more convenient organization of the courts. 
Ephraim Kirby, of Connecticut, land commissioner in that region, was 
appointed April 6, but he died in the following October. To succeed 
him, the president appointed Harry Toulmin, who thereafter was a 
man of great prominence in that isolated settlement, known as Wash- 
ington county. He was succeeded as judge by Stevenson Archer, of 
Maryland, commissioned March 6, 1817, who served until the admis- 
sion of Alabama as a State in 181-9. 

Acting-Governor West said in 1804: "The appointment of an addi- 
tional judge, to reside in Washington county, is not only beneficial to 
the people of that county, but a great relief to this part of the Terri- 
tory by enabling the judges residing here to perform more services in 
these districts; and will, it is believed, with other weighty reasons, 
justify a change in our judiciary; an object desirable and necessary 
in the opinion of many of the best informed amongst us." 

Another additional judge for 3.Iadison county, on the great bend of 
the Tennessee river, the northern nucleus of Alabama, was authorized 
in 1810, and Obadiah Jones was appointed. Jones was a citizen of 
Georgia, and was appointed to the bench of Mississsippi territory in 
1805. Apparently he did not accept, as he was appointed to a similar 
office in Illinois territory in 1809. He served there, it appears, be- 
fore coming to Madison county in 18 lu. Thus, in 1810-11 there were 
five Territorial judges — Rodney, Toulmin, Leake, Fitz, and Jones; and 
so it continued, with changes in the personnel, until the end of the 
Territoral period. In 1816-17 the list, arranged by seniority, was 
Toulmin, Leake, Jones, Simpson, Poindexter. 

In January, 1814, the general assembly instructed the delegate of 
the Territory to use his best exertions for a law to authorize the ap- 
pointment of an additional judge for Washington district, with juris- 
diction also over "the counties of Mobile. Hancock and Jackson, com- 
posing that part of Louisiana which has been annexed to this territory, 
and also to the county of Marion, a part of which only is within the 



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THE JUDICIARY OF .AIISSISSIPFI 337 

present limits of Washington district; and that the said judges be 
authorized to hold a court of errors and appeals at Saint Stephens, 
within said district thereby obviating the incon- 
veniences of parties being compelled to travel three hundred miles to 
prosecute errors and appea'.s." 

George Poindexter began the duties of attorney-general by appoint- 
ment of Governor Claiborne, in December, 1803. An act of 1807 re- 
quired two attorneys-general, east and west of Pearl river. Poindex- 
ter resigned early in 1807 to go to congress, and was succeeded, west 
of Pearl, by Seth Lewis, ex-judge. Upon the resignation of the latter, 
William B. Shields was appointed in September, 1808. The first attor- 
ney-general for the eastern district was Nicholas Perkins, (moved to 
Madison, 1809), after whom came Lemuel Henry (1809) and Col. 
Joseph Carson. In 1809 an attorney-general for Madison county (Ala- 
bama) was authorized, and Louis Winston was appointed. He servea 
till 1817, then resigned, becoming a citizen of Mississippi. An act of 
1812 provided for an attorney-general for all the counties east of Pearl 
river, except Hancock, (as then bounded), which was assigned to the 
attorney-general west of Pearl. An act of 1816 created the office of 
attorney-general for the counties of Lawrence, Pike, Marion, Hancocs: 
and Jackson. 

The Territorial judges, though appointed by the president, held 
court as provided by the general assembly. 

An act of Congress of March 3, 1805, provided that these judges. 
sitting as the superior court of the Mississippi territory should in all 
cases in which the United States is concerned, have the same jurisdic- 
tion as defined for the Federal district court of Kentucky in 1789, with 
the right of appeal to the supreme court of the United States. 

In 1813, a law passed authorizing the appointment of an attorney of 
the United States and a United States marshal, in each territory. 
Thomas D. Anderson was commissioned as attorney July 29, 1813, and 
William Crawford (for the Mobile region) December 10, 1814. The 
first marshal v/as John Haines, who served from 1813 to 1818. 

Judiciary, lSl7-3'f. Under the constitution of 1817, the legislature 
provided for justices of the peace, county courts, district (circuit) 
courts and a supreme court. The system was not thoroughly worked 
out until the preparation of Poindexter's code in 1822. All the judicial 
officers, down to and including justices of the peace, were elected by 
the legislature. 

There was an attorney-general for the State, and a district attorney 
for each district, though at first only two were elected, Robert McGill 
for the third district, and John Elliott (clerk of the Jackson county 
land office) for the fourth. The attorney-general was expected to look 
after the district courr business in one or two districts, at the outset. 
The attorneys-general were chosen from the ablest lawyers of the 
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State. The vote for attorney-general in January, 1818, was, Lyman '; 

Harding 17, John Burton 14, Thomas B. Reed 1. Harding died in 
1820. Edward Turner served by appointment until the legislature 
elected Thomas B. Reed, 1821, the vote being Reed 20, Turner 13. In 
January, 1825, Richard Stockton, Jr., was elected, receiving 23 votes | 

. to 21 for George Adams. On Stockton's death in 1827, George Adams 
was appointed and elected in 1828. He resigned in 1829, the governor 
appointed R. H. Buckner, and the legislature voted in 1830, Richard M. 
Gaines 27, Buckner 15. Gaines served until after the change in con- 
stitution. L 

At the outset, in 1818, there was one local court, the "county court," 
and the legislature elected for each county a chief justice and two 
justices of the quorum. These were at first: Warren — John Trum- 
bull, Isaac Rapalja, Francis Griffin. Claiborne — Daniel Vertner, Joseph 
Moore, William Wills. Jefferson — James G. Wood, Isaac Dunbar, Ben- 
jamin M. BuUin. Adams — Elijah Smith, William D. Baker, Alexander 
Covington. Franklin — Bailey E. Chaney, Daniel Cameron, Bartlett 
Ford. Winkinson — James Caraway, Charles Stewart, Moses Liddell- 
Amite — Thomas Torrence, Jesse Talbot, Hugh Bennett. Pike — James 
Y. McNabb, Richardson Bowman, Peter Quinn. Lawrence — George W. 
King, John Regan, Eli Garner. Marion — Charles M. Norton, Reese 
Perkins, William Lott. Hancock — John B. Lordasse, John R. Herrin, ^ 

John Burnett, Jr. Jackson — John Williams, Samuel Davis, John 1 

Davies. Greene — Asa Hartfield, Jacob Carter, William Morgan. 
Wayne — James Patton, Josiah Watts, Clinch Gray. The functions of 
this county court were, "a court of probate * * * for orphans' t 

business, for county police, and for the trial of slaves." Geo. W. ; 

Humphreys and Cowles Mead were among the justices elected to fill i 

vacancies in 1820. l 

Gov. Poindexter persuaded the legislature in November, 1821, before - 

the completion of his code, to create the state chancery court and coun- 'I 

ty "Orphans' Court." For the latter court the legislature elected a pro- 4 

bate judge and a "register of the orphans' court," for each county, 
separate rrom the county court. The same act provided an ample > 

code of over forty pages, for the settlement of estates and regulation j 

of guardianships, probably prepared by Gov. Poindexter. The first « 

judges of probate elected at the same session, were: Henry Manadier \ 

for Warren, P. A. VanDorn for Claiborne, George Winchester for 1 

Jefferson, Henry Postlewaite for Adams. Thomas H, Prosser for Wil- 
kinson. Charles Davis for Amite, Elijah W. Brown for Franklin, I 
Charles Lynch for Lawrence, Coleman Nichols for Covington, Roger A. I 
Hearn for Hancock, Thomas Hubbard for Jackson, Griffin H. HoUoman | 
for Perry, William Howze for Wayne, Robert McCarthy for Greene, J 
Richardson Bowman for Pike, James Phillips for Marion, Littleberry ? 



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THE JUDICIARY OF MISSISSIPPI 339 

Hawkins for Monroe, E. Brashears for Hinds. They were required to 
hold court every mouth, at first, and after 1824, quarterly. 

At the same time, (1S21) a new act was passed regulating the county 
courts, which were henceforth held by the probate judge and two of 
the justices, doing away with the chief justices of 1818. They were 
also provided with a clerk of the county court. The clerks of the 
county court were continued. Sessions were to be quarterly. This 
court had jurisdiction in suits involving $20 to $50, and charges of 
felony against slaves. Under this code the justices of the peace were 
to be appointed by the governor, one or two for each "captain's dis- 
trict." 

A criminal court was established at Natchez in 1823, and Edward 
Turner was appointed judge. He was succeeded by George Winchester, 
1825; Robert H. Adams, 1827, declined; Duncan S. Walker, 1827; 
John M. Maury, 1828 to his resignation, January, 1833. 

On the subject of grand juries, Gov. Leake said in his message of 
1825, that the promiscuous drawing of names resulted in the choice 
of many who were totally incapable of performing the duty. "Indeed, 
it has frequently happened that not a member of the grand jury could 
be selected by the court capable of acting as foreman. * * * The 
great incapacity of grand juries has introduced the practice of the 
attorney-general and district attorneys giving their attendance in the 
rooms of the grand juries, for the purpose of instructing them in the 
discharge of their various duties. Though this practice may not as 
yet have been productive of any serious evil, yet it is one that ought 
not to prevail." His further remarks indicated that the district at- 
torneys, generally young lawyers, had misled the juries through ignor- 
ance. 

Judiciary, 1833-70. Under the constitution of 1832, all judicial offi- 
cers were elected by the people. This was regarded as a great step 
toward democratic government. For the election of the judges of the 
High court of errors and appeals, the State was divided into three 
districts. There was also a grouping of the counties into convenient 
circuits, and a circuit judge elected by the voters of each circuit. 
This court was to sit twice a year in each county, and to have original 
jurisdiction in all criminal cases, and in all civil cases where the 
sum in dispute exceeded $50. A separate superior court of chancery 
was^ required, with full jurisdiction in matters of equity; but it was 
provided that causes involving no -great value, • also divorces and fore- 
closures of mortgages, might be entrusted to the circuit court, and in 
1856 the constitution was amended so that all such business was given 
td the circuit courts and the separate chancery court was abolishd. 

There was to be a court of probate in each county, having charge 
also of cases of lunacy. 

Tbe probate court sat monthly in nearly every county, the judges 
receiving a meagre compensation from fees and a small per diem 



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•40 THE JUDtClARi' OF MISSISSIPPI 

allowance. The practice in these courts was very various and conflict- 
ing in different counties, until it was settled by the opinions of the 
High court and the Treatise on the Law and Practice of the Probate 
Courts, by Ralph North, 1845, and the probate Digest, published by 
John M. Chilton, 1S46. In 1847, W. C. Sraedes wrote that "the prac- 
tice in the probate courts is assuming a more consistent and sys- 
tematic shape," 

The system included justices of the peace in each county, and 
county boards of police of five members, to care for roads, highways, 
ferries, bridges, etc. 

All these o£5cers were to be elected by the people of the State or cir- 
cuit, county or district they were to serve, — a revolutionary step in 
the choice of the judiciary, — that served as an example to all other 
States in the Union. 

In 1836, the legislature established a criminal court for the counties 

of Warren, Claiborne, Jefferson, Adams and Wilkinson, ta have con- 

' current jurisdiction in criminal matters with the circuit court. John 

I. Guion was the first judge, for about one year, and afterward J. S. 

B. Thacher held the office until the court was abolished in 1840. 

For the circuit courts the State was first divided into four circuits, 
in which James F. Trotter, A. M. Kegan, Thomas A. Willis and Alex- 
ander Montgomery were chosen judges. The number was soon en- 
larged to six, and it kept pace with the rapid development of the 
State. A full list of circuit judges, 1833-1904, is given in this Miss- 
issippi Register. 

The judicial divisions Avere reorganized in 1840, to make eleven 

. circuits, court to be held in each county twice a year. The judges 

were then: George Coaiter, H. F. Caruthers, C. C. Cage, A. G. Brown, 

Henry Mounger, H. S. Bennett, J. H. Rollins, James M. Howry, Stephen 

Adams, M. L. Fitch, V. T. Crawford. 

Said Governor Brown (1842) : "Our State was the first in the 
Union, and perhaps in the civilized world, to elect judicial officers by 
popular suffrage. It was a bold experiment in the science of govern- 
ment, and by some it has been condemned in unqualified terms, as cal- 
culated to corrupt the judiciary and endanger the faithful administra- 
tion of justice. Others are still in -doubt whether so great an innova- 
tion on the usual mode of appointing judges will not in the end be 
productive of evil. But much the greater number of our people are 
satisfied with the system and wish to see it perpetuated. I was 
among its earliest advocates, and experience has strengthened me in 
my conviction of its superiority over ail others." But he suggested 
that "judges and all officers not political in character should be 
ohosen at an election separate from the election of congressmen and 



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THE JUDICIARY OF MISSISSIPPI 341 

governor." An attempt was made to amend the constitution accord- 
ingly, but It failed because enough people did not take the trouble to 
vote upon it. 

Gov. Matthews, in his message of 1S50, commented on the delays and 
miscarriages of justice incident to the common law rules of pleading, 
and advocated the adoption of a simplified code of pleading similar to 
that used in the chancery courts. 

The constitution of 1861, made no change in the judicial system, 
but the legislation caused by the war interfered with its operation.^ 
•'The functions of the lower courts were to a considerable extent sus- 
pended by an act of the legislature in 1861," which practically closed 
them, so far as civil business was concerned. All actions for debt or 
for the enforcement of contracts were suspended until twelve months 
after the close of the war. All sales under trust deeds, mortgages 
and judgments were likewise prohibited. Whatever may have been 
the opinion of the bar as to the constitutionality of such legislation, 
none of them ever had the temerity to bring the question to a test. 
Moreover it was made unlawful to prosecute suit against any soldier 
in actual service. These acts practically left the courts with criminal 
jurisdiction only, and as no inconsiderable number of criminal cases 
Avere settled by the military authorities, it is reasonable to suppose 
that the business of the courts was nominal." Court officers were 
exempt from conscription, but deputy clerks, and all but one of the 
deputy sheriffs in each county, were made liable to conscription in 
1864. Unusual powers were granted by the legislature to meet the 
exigencies of war, such as the removal of the records, and the re- 
placement from memory of records destroyed. (Garner, Reconstruc- 
tion, 40-42). In fact, Mississippi was more or less under martial law, 
to the derangement, suppression or subordination of civil law, from 
1865 to 1870. 

Whatever may have happened in 1861-65, it was the opinion of the 
supreme court afterward, "That the laws of the State, civil and crim- 
inal, as they stood at the date of the secession ordinance, continued In 
force afterward, precisely as before, unaffected by that ordinance, or 
by the war, or by the deposition of the State magistrates in the montii 
of May, 1865. The laws themselves were not suspended during the 
administrations of General Canby and Provisional Governor Sharkey. 
but only their administration was temporarily suspended." The terms 
of all officers were held to have terminated in May, 1865. Gov. Sharkey 
issued a proc.amation, July 1, 1865, generally re-appointing the judges 
and clerks of probate courts, county boards, and officers, and justices, 
but not the circuit and chancery judges. 

As a natural result of the license of war and the State and Confed- 
erate military reguiarions, there v,-as great confusion regarding the 
ownership of cotton, horses and mules, in 1865. Military tribunals 



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342 THK JI^DirTARY OF ^TTSSTSSTPPT 

were the only resorts for justice until Provisional Governor Sharkey 
revived the replevin laws by proclamation, authorizing summary ad- 
judication of disputes before two justices of the peace. July 12, by 
another proclamation he created Special Courts of Equity to try dio- 
putes, mainly regarding cotton contracts, and from time to time he 
regulated the functions of these courts which, despite his best efforts. 
were very unpopular. The constitutional convention of 1S65 made an 
ordinance by which these courts were "recognized to be in existence." 
provided for appeal to the High court, and declared that these special 
courts should cease to be after the re-establishraent of the regular sys- 
tem of courts; the special equity courts "shall not be recognized be- 
yond the then unfinished and instituted business of the same," and 
their records should pass to the circuit courts. The legislature at- 
tempted in 1S65 to close these courts by transfer of the unfinished busi- 
ness, but Gov. Humphreys vetoed the bill because it was the evident 
intention of the Convention to permit the special courts to finish their 
business on hand. On the same ground a bill to wind up the special 
equity court at Jackson was vetoed, in February, 1867. In 1869, the 
supreme court ruled that these courts had been fully empowered undBi' 
the orders of the commander-in-chief of the United States army. 

Otherwise, except by providing for petty courts deemed necessary or. 
account of emancipation, the constitutional convention of 1865 made 
no change in the judiciary. 

The legislature of October, 1865, created county courts, particularly 
to take cognizance of prosecutions by information for petty crim-es, as 
authorized by the amended constitution. Special courts of the same 
powers were established in the towns of Jackson, Okolona, Grenada. 
Itleridian and Corinth. In 1866, the probate judges were made the sole 
judges of these county and special courts, and terms v\-ere nxed at dir- 
ferent intervals in various counties. (Mayes). 

Under this legislation the circuit and other courts resumed their 
sessions in November, 1865. In organizing the circuit court of DeSotd 
County, Feb. 19, 18GG, Judge Trotter said: "It is upwards oi rour 
years, I believe, since a court was organized and holden in DeSoto 
county." But the military government continued to assert the power 
to set aside the doings of the courts, until 1870. 

In 1868, Gen. Gillera by proclamation created boards of arbitration 
to settle disputes between employers and laborers. In a certain case 
he set aside a decision of one of these courts, and an appeal was taken 
to the circuit court. Judge Tarbell, a Northern man, sustained tbfj 
general commanding. On appeal to the supreme court of thn Stare, 
two justices denied that the military commander, though he had large 
powers regarding political questions and police duties, was authorized 



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THE JUDICIARY OF MISSISSIPPI 343 

to set aside the jud^nnent of a court in a civil case. Judge Tarbell, 
who had meanwhile been appointed to the Supreme court, dissented. 
(Welborne vs. Mayrant, 48 Miss. 633). 

Judiciary. 1S70-1917. The constitution of 1869 again delegated the 
right of the people to choose the judges, the appointing power being 
given to the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate. The 
judicial system consisted of a supreme court of three judges; circuit 
courts, judges to be appointed for six years, the districts to be ar- 
ranged by the legislature: a chancery court in each county, chancery 
districts to be created, with a chancellor with four years term in each, 
to hold court at least four times a year in each county; two clerks. 
for the circuit and chancery courts in each county "a competent 
number of justices of the peace;" an attorney-general of the State, 
and district attorneys. The judicial article of this constitution was 
prepared by Judge R. A. Hill, as the fruit of his experience in Ten- 
nessee and Mississippi, was approved by some of the ablest lawyers of 
the State, and adopted by the convention through the efforts of George 
C. McKee, chairman of the judiciary committee and the most influen- 
tial member. The radical changes were the appointment of judges. 
which is continued, for similar reasons, in the constitution of 1890, 
the blending into one of the probate and equity systems, which is also 
adopted in the later constitution. (President's Address, 1890, S.ate Bar 
Assoc.) The legislature of 1870 created fifteen circuits, and the circuit 
judges appointed by Governor Alcorn were, J. M. Smiley, M. D. Brad- 
ford, W. M. Hancock, B. B. Boone, G. C. Chandler, A. Alderson, Uriah 
Milsaps, Robert Leachman, J. A. Orr, O. Davis, C. C. Shackleford, Eph- 
raim S. Fisher, Jason Niles, W. B. Cunningham, George F. Brown. 

The chancery districts were 20 in number, and the first chancellors 
appointed were, J. M. Ellis, O. H. Whitfield, W. G. Henderson, A. E. 
Reynolds, G. S. McMillan, D. P. Coffy, J. J. Hooker, E. Stafford E. G. 
Peyton, D. X. Walker. Wesley Drane. T. R. Gowen, Edwin Hill, E. W. 
Cabaniss, Austin Pollard, Thomas Christian, Dewitt Stearns, J. F. 
Simmons. Samuel Young, Theodoric Lyon. 

These chancery courts took the place of the old chancery system and 
the county probate courts. 

County courts, particularly for the petty misdemeanor business, 
were also authorized by the constitution of 1869, which adopted the 
amendment of 1865, but the county courts were abolished by the legis- 
lature of 1870, and the business transferred to the circuit courts and 
magistrates. 

The jurisdiction of justices of the peace was increased to $150 and 
after the legislature of 1870 conferred upon them the jurisdiction of 
the county courts of 18G5, they became an important part of the ju- 
dicial machinery. 



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I-..- 



344 THE JUDICIARY OF MISSISSIPPI J 

i 

Tn 1875 there was adopted by popu'ar vote the third amendment to j 
the constitution, which was inserted by the leg^islature of 1S76, author- j 
izing the legislature to divide the State into a convenient number of | 
chancery districts, chancellors to be appointed in the same manner aa J 
circuit judges, for a term of four years, court to be held in each county ^ 
twice a year. Under this amendment the legislature of 1S76 reduced 1 
the number of districts and chancellors from 26 to 12. A further re- 5 
duction was made to six in 1888. i 
By the constitution of 1890 "not much change was made in the ju- \ 
diciary provisions. The supreme judges must be cliosen from their i 
respective districts as well as for them, for terms of nine years. The \ 
terms of chsncellors and circuit judges are fixed at four years. If 
suits are brought into the circuit court, when they should have been 
brought into the chancery court, they shall not be dismissed, but trans- 
ferred, and vice versa. The chancery court is given jurisdiction lo . 
decree possessions, rents, improvements and taxes, in all suits to try i 
tit'e and remove clouds; and in all cases in which it had jurisdiction 
auxiliary, to courts of common law it may exhaust jurisdiction, al- ^ 
though the legal remedy may not have been exhausted or the legal 
title established by a suit at law, and it may entertain suits on the , 
bonds of fiduciaries or public officers for property received, or wasted. 1 
or lost by neglect or failure to collect, or suits involving inquiry into \ 
mutual accounts. The jurisdiction of justices of the peace is raised to | 
$200." (Edward Mayes, in ^Memoirs of Mississippi.) | 
Under the code of 1892 and amendments there were ten circuits and I 
seven chancery districts, until 1S04, vvhen there was a re-districting \ 
with eleven circuits and eight chancery districts. .| 
In 1886, Gov. Lowry gave particular attention to the abuses growing ^, 
out of the payment of witness fees in criminal cases by the public. | 
The pajrment was made by the State before 1876 and after that by the ] 
counties, but equally fell upon the people, though the transfer made an -^ 
apparently great reduction of State expenses. The governor said: | 
"The administration of criminal law is grossly scandalized by the fre- | 
quent instances of convictions of petty charges (in the circuit courts), 
followed by a hue of $1 and a fee of $10 or ->20 to the district attorney 
and other costs. In some of the districts of this State, the fees of dis- i 
trict-attorneys amount to thousands of dollars, far more than is real- J 

ized by the school fund from the convictions he procures • I 

There are 152 circuit courts annually he'd in this State at a cost of | 

from $200,000 to §300,000. Probably half the time of the 152 courts | 

is consumed in the trial of petty misdemeanors. This is a great, and i 
it seems a growing evil." ■ -4 

In 1894, Gov. Stone said in his message: "There is something rad- :\ 
ically wrong in the matter of costs in criminal proceedings m tne 

courts of justices of the peace. It often happens that the alleged of- | 



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THE JUDICIARY OF MJSSISSIPFT 345 

fender is fined from one to five dollars and the bill of costs runs up to 
$25 or ?30, and sometimes S40 or more, and the result is an indefinite 
term on the county farm for a very trivial offense. It is charged that 
in some instances there are great abuses of the law in whicn large 
numbers of witnesses are summoned for no other purpose than to swell 
the bill of costs." 

In his message of 1S9S, Gov. McLaurin recommended a return to 
the elective system of 1832-65. "The system of appointing judges and 
chancellors is a legacy left us by a government formed unaer a con- 
stitution framed by a heterogeneous convention of non-resident adven- 
turers and spoilsmen, in the place of an elective system which we had 

given a fair trial and with which we were entirely satisfied 

The theory of our government is that we have three separate and in- 
dependent departments — Executive, Legislative and Judiciary — and 
that it is a government of the people, by the people and for the peo- 
ple To make this true, in fact as well as in theory, each department 
should come directly from the hands of the people." 

An amendment to the constitution, providing for election of su- 
preme, circuit, and. chancery judges by the people, in the various dis- 
tricts, was submitted to popular vote at the general election in 1899, 
and received 21,169 votes for, and 8,643 against. The legislature Ol 
1900 inserted the amendment in the constitution, and passed a law ad- 
justing the judiciary thereto, and providing for appointments to fill 
vacancies. The constitution provides that amendments must receive 
"a majority of the qualified electors voting," to be adopted. The total 
vote for governor at this election was 48,280. The governor made ap- 
pointments under the act of legislature, but several test cases were 
brought. Judge Robert Powell, though not commissioned under the 
law of 1900, held a regular term of circuit court in Lincoln county 
under his former comm.ission, which would have been yet effective if 
the amendment were a nullity. On quo warranto proceedings, in the 
circuit court, it was held by a special judge that the amendment was 
void, and on appeal to the supreme court this judgement was affirmed 
May 30, 1900, on the 'jronnd tliat the amendment had not received the 
required majority. 

The circuit judges appointed in 1876 were: J. S. Hamra, S. S. Cal- 
houn, J. W. C. Watson, James M. Smiley, William Cothran, J. A. 
Green, B. F. Trimble, Upton M. Young, A. G. Mayers, James M. Ar- 
nold, Samuel Powell. In 1878: J. B. Chrisman, and Ralph North. In 
1880: J. W. Buchanan. In 1882: J. W. Buchanan, W. S. Featherston. 
A. T. Roane, B. F. Trimble, J. M. Arnold, S. H. Terral, A. G. Mayers, 
S. S. Calhoun, Warren Cowan, T. J. Wharton. In 1884: Chrisman and 
North re-appointed. In 18h5; William M. Rogers. In 1886: J. H. 
Wynn, Charles H. Campbell. In 1887: L. E. Houston. In 1888: Ter- 
ral and Mayers re-appointed. In 1889: George Winston, John G. Gil- 



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346 THE JUDICIARY OF MISSISSIPPI 

land, Ralph North, J. B. Chrisman, R. W. Williamson, James T. Fant. 
"William P. Cassedy. In 1S92: Eugene Johnson and C. H. Campbell. 
In 1893: Newman Cayce. In 1S94: A. G. Mayers, S. H. Terral, William 
P. Cassedy. In 1896: Robert Powell. William K. McLaurin, Z. M. 
Stephens, F. A. Montmomery, W. F. Stevens, John W. Fewell, Green 

B. Huddleston, T. A. Wood. In 1897: E. O. Sykes. In 1898: John R. 
Enochs, Jeff Truly. In 1900: Robert Powell, Patrick Henry, E. O. Sykes, 
T. A. Wood, F. A. Montgomery, W. F. Stevens, Jeff Truly, J. R. Enochs. 
Frank E. Larkin, G. Q. Hall, P. H. Lowrey. In 1901: George Anderson, 
James H. Neville, E. 0. Sykes. In 1902: John R. Enochs, Samuel'C. 
Cook, Jeff Truly. In 1903: A. McC. Kimbrough, D. M. Miller, Will T. 
McDonald, J. B. Boothe, M. H. Wilkinson. 

Under the Act of 1901, the judges of the circuit courts were in 1905 
as follows: Circuit Court — First district, E. 0. Sykes; Second, Will T. 
McDonald; Third, J. B. Boothe; Fourth, A. McC. Kimbrough; Fifth, 
J. T, Dunn; Sixth, M. H. Wilkinson; Seventh; D. M. Miller; Eighth, 
John R. Enachs; Ninth, O. W. Catchings; Tenth, Robert F. Cochran; 

Eleventh, Samuel C. Cook. j 

In 1906: Eleventh, Samuel C. Cook; Twelfth, W. H. Cook; Eighth, J. ] 

R. Byrd; Thirteenth, R. L. Bullard; Fourth, S. M. Smith. \ 

In 1907: Seventh, W. H. Potter; Sixth, M. H. Wilkinson; Third, W. 1 

A. Roane. ^ 

In 1908: Fifth, G. A. McLean; Tenth, J. L. Buckley. | 

In 1909: First, J. H. Mitchell; Fourth, J. M. Cashin. I 

In 1910: Second, T. H. Barrett; Ninth, H. C. Mounger; Eleventh, S. I 

C. Cook; Twelfth, P. B. Johnson; Thirteenth, W. H. Hughes; Four- I 
teenth, D. M. xMiller; Fifteenth, A. E. Weathersby; Sixteenth, T. B. 1 
Carroll; Seventeenth, N. A. Taylor. ' 

In 1911: Third, H. K. Mahon; Sixth, E. E. Brown; Seventh, W. A. j 

Henry; Eighth, C. L. Dobbs. | 

In 1912: Eleventh, T. B. Watkins; Fourth, Monroe McClurg; Fiftn. ] 

Jas. A. Teat; Tenth, W. W. Venable; Eighth, J. D. Carr. • | 

In 1913: First, Claude Clayton; Second, Jas. H. Neville; Fourth, F. | 

C. Everett; Sixth, R. E. Jackson; Ninth, E. L. Brien; Eleventh, W. A. 4 

i 
Alcorn, Jr. ^ 

In 1914: Twelfth, Paul B. Johnson; Fourteenth, J. B. Holden; Third, | 

J. L. Bates; Fifth, H. H. Rogers; Seventh, W. H. Potter; Thirteenth. | 

W. H. Hughes; Fifteenth, A. E. Weath-ersby; Sixteenth, T. B. Carroll. j 

In 1915: Tenth, W. W. Venable. j 

In 1916: Tenth, R. W. Heidelberg; Fourteenth, J. F. Guynes. J 

Chancellors. E. Stafford and W. A. Drennan were appointed in | 

1872-73 to fill vacancies. The appointees in 1874, some of them the | 

subject of much political dispute, were Thomas Walton, E. H. Os- : 

good, C. A. Sullivan, Hiram Cassidy, Jr., W. B. Peyton, J. D. Barton, 

J J. Dennis, W. D. Frazee, P. P. Bailey, L. C. Abbott, H. W. Warren. j 



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THE JUDICIARY OF MISSISSIPPI 347 

Rasselas Boyd, R. B. Stone, William Breck, Thomas Christian, J. P. 
Simmons. T. R. Gowan, A. E. Reynolds, J. N. Campbell. In 1875 the 
appointees were: H. R. Ware, R. Boyd, J. J. Dennis, J. N. Campbell, 
R. B. Stone, C. C. Cullens, E. G. Peyton, E. Hill, 0. H. Whitfield, J. B. 
Deason, G. S. McMillan, W. G. Henderson. In 1S76, under Stone's ad- 
ministration, the appointees were: George Wood, Charles Clark, L. 
Haughton, R. W. Williamson. U. M. Young, J. C. Grey, E. G. 
Peyton, Jr., T. Y. Berry. L. Brame. T. B. Graham. A. B. Fly. In 
1878: W. G. Phelps, Ralph North. J. B. Morgan. In 1880: L. Haugh- 
ton, A. B. Fly, W. G. Phelps, R. W. Williamson. F. A. Critz, George' 
Wood, T. B. Graham, E. G. Peyton. Jr., H. S. YanEaton, U. M. Young. 
In 1882: J. G. Hall, Ralph North. Warren Cowan. In 1883: Launch 
McLaurin, Sylvanus Evans, Baxter ^vIcFarland. In 1S84: F. A. Critz, 
T. B. Graham, E. G. Peyton, Jr., R. W. Williamson, B. T. Kimbrough. 
In 1886: W. G. Phelps, Warren Cowan, J. O. Hall, W. R. Trigg. In 
1887: Launch McLaurin, Baxter McFarland, Sylvanus Evans. In 1888: 
T. B. Graham. In 1890: H. C. Conn, B. T. Kimbrough, Claude Pin- 
tard, Sylvanus Evans, Baxter McFarland, W. R. Trigg. In 1892: W. T. 
Houston, T. B. Graham. In 1894: B. T. Kimbrough, A. H. Longino, H. 
C. Conn, Claude Pintard. In 1895: Baxter :McFarland. In 1896: N. C. 
Hil'., T. B. Graham. In 1897: A. M. Byrd. In 1898: James C. Long- 
street, A. H. Longino, H. C. Conn, W. C. Martin, A. McC. Kimbrough, 
H L Mu'.drow. In 190U: N. C. Hill, Stone Deavours. In 1901: A. M. 
Byrd. In 1902: H. C. Conn, James C. Longstreet, W. P. S. Ventress. 
In 1903: J. F. McCool, C. C. Moody, R. B. Mayes, Julian C. Wilson, H. 
L. Muldrow. In 1904: J. L. McCaskill, T. A. Wood, Percy Bell, in 
1905: W. J. Lamb, J. Q. Robins. In 1906: G. G. Lyell, J. S. Hicks, I. 
T. Blount. In 1907: J. F. McCool. In 1910: J. Q. Robins. In 1908: 
Sam Whitman, Jr. In 1911: D. M. Kimbrough. In 1910: J. S. HiCKS, 
G. G. Lyell. In 1911: J. F. McCool. In 1908: M. E. Denton, T. A. 
Woods. In 1910: E. N. Thomas, R. E. Sheehy. In 1912: J. M. Ste- 
vens, Jos. A. May, G. C. Tann. In 1913: P. Z. Jones, Jas. G. McGowen. 
In 1914: O. B. Taylor, A. J. Mclntyre, A. Y. Woodward, R. W. Cutrer, 
W. M. Denny, Jr., D. M. Russell, E. N. Thomas. 



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AN OUTLIXE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI. 

1540-1917. 



EARLY EXPLORATIONS. 

1540. Hernando DeSoto, the most daring and adventurous of the 
Spanish explorers, on his celebrated expedition, enters the State of 
Mississippi, and remained within the present limits about one year. 
DeSoto and his Spaniards were the firsi white men who attempted to 
explore the territory which is now the State of Mississippi. He dis- 
covered the Mississippi River in what is now Tunica County, Missis- 
sippi, May 8, 154.1. 

1673. Lewis Joliet and Pere Jacques Marquette make an exploring 
tour down the Mississippi River and descend as far as latitude 33. 

1683. LaSalle, the fearless French explorer and pioneer, descends ^ 

the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. . • :j| 

SETTLEMENTS— A COLONY OF FRANCE, 1699-1763. ^ 

1699. The first colony is planted on 3Iississippi soil on the Bay of 
Biloxi, by LeMoyne de Iberville at Fort de :\Iaurepas. 

1700. The present site of Natchez is visited by IberviUe, Bienville ;; 
and de Tonti, with a view of establishing a permanent settlement. 

1712. The white population of the colony is shown to be 500; fifty 1 

women and children. .? 

1716. The French, under the direction, of Bienville, Governor or 
Louisiana, build Fort Roialie, where the city of Natch:z nov.- stands. 

1717 The Mississippi Company is chartered and given the exclusive _ 

privilege of developing Louisiana and New France. The company was ^^ 

obligated by the terms of the charter to locate within the territory, 
named in the charter, 6,000 white people and 3,000 negro slaves. 

1718. In attempting to locate settlers the Mississippi Company 
makes extensive land grants on the Yazoo River, at Natchez, on the ^ 

Bay of St. Louis, and on Pascagoula Bay. ' ' . 'm 

1720. Three hundred settlers come to Natchez for the purpose of *^ 

■ ■ - -'-i 

establishing permanent homes. | 

1721. Three hundred colonists arrive at Pascagoula and establish a ^ 
settlement. 



4 



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SEAL OF THE PROVINCE OF WEST FLORIDA ATTACHED TO THE BRITISH PATENTS 



AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI. 15 40-1917 349 

1723. The seat of government of Louisiana is removed to New 
Orleans. 

1723. Copper coins made for the use of the French colonies and 
brought to Biloxi in May . 

1723. September 11. A destructive hurricane sweeps over Biloxi, 
Natchez and New Orleans. 

1729. The French soldiers at Fort Rosalie are massacred by tne 
Natchez tribe of Indians, 200 killed and 227 men, women and children 
taken prisoners. 

1730. January 29. The Choctaws defeat the Natchez, take sixty 
scalps and eighteen prisoners. 

1730. As the result of the massacre of Fort Rosalie, the Natchez 
tribe of Indians is driven from their country by the French and Choc- 
taw Indians, and their tribal unity is destroyed; part of the tribe join 
the Chickasaws. 

1732. January 27. The French take 427 Natchez prisoners to New 
Orleans from their place of retreat west of the Mississippi R.iver. 

1732. The present territory of Mississippi becomes a part of the 
Colony of Georgia by proprietary charter. 

1735. Card or paper money authorized by France for circulation m 
New Orleans. 

1736. Governor Bienville attempts to subdue the warlike Chicka- 
saws, without success. 

1742. John Howard and party sent by the colony of Virginia, de- 
scend the Mississippi and are taken prisoners by the French. 

1746. The French make peace with Kalush Homa, or Red Shoes, a 
Choctaw chief. 



AN ENGLISH PROVINCE, 1763-1779. 

1763. Mississippi becomes a province of England, by treaty witn 
Prance, under the nnme of the Province of West Florida, and includ- 
ing that portion of the present territory of the State which lies be- 
tween the thirty-first parallel and the Gulf of Mexico. 

1763. Capt. George Johnston is made Governor of West Florida. 

1764. By the decree of the King of England, the limits of West 
Florida are extended north to the mouth of the Yazoo River. 

1766. Yellow fever in Louisiana. 

1768. A colony of Scotch Highlanders make a settlement about 
thirty miles east of Natchez, and call it "Scotia." 

1772. Richard and Samuel Swayze, of New Jersey, purchase land on 
the Homochitto, within the present limits of Adams County, and form 
a permanent settlement It has been claimed that Samuel Swayze, 



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AN OUTLIXE HISTORY OF IMTSSTSSTPFT, I'lO-ioiT 



who was a Congregational minister, built the first Protestant church In 
Mississippi. 

1778. James Willing, by authority of the Continentdvi congres??, 
visits the settlements of Mississippi in order to enlist the people in 
the efforts of the Colonies to become free and independent. 

1778. Fort Panmure, on the site of the old Fort Rosalie, of the 
French, is garrisoned by a company of British infantry under com- 
mand of Capt. Michael Jackson. 



A PROVINCE OP SPAIN. 1779-1798. 

1779-80. The English forces are expelled from the Province of West 
Florida by the Spaniards, under comniEnl of Gen. don Bernardo de 
Galvez, and all miitary posts are occupied by Spanish troops. 

1781. The people of the Natchez District rise against the authority 
of the Spaniards, capture Fort Panmure and raise the English flag. 

1781. Don Carlos de Grandpre is appointed civil and military Gov- 
ernor of the Natchez District, and takes measures to punish the peo- 
ple for the capture of Fort Panmure. As a result, many of the inhab- 
itants leave the territory in order to escape punishment. 

1782. Under the terms of a treaty of peace, the southern boundary 
of the United States is fixed at the thirty-first parallel of north lati- 
tude, from the Mississippi to the St. Mary's River. In the cession of 
Florida to Spain, there is no mention of a northern boundary, and 
Spain claims as far north as the Yazoo River. 

1785. Georgia establishes the County of Bourbon, which includes all 
lands east of the Mississippi, between latitude SI'' and the mouth o'.' 
the Yazoo River, to which the. Indian title had bee_i extingu'shcd. 

1786. January 3. The treaty of Hopevv-ell between the United States 
and the Choctaw Nation, defining the limits of the nation. 

1786. January 10. Treaty of Hopewell, between the United Stat-s 
and the Chickasaw Nation, laying out the limits of the Nation. 

1788. Georgia repeals tiit: act tatabli^hing tlie County of Bourijoii. 

1789. Conflicting claims between the United States, Spain and 
Georgia over the so-called County of Bourbon, with all parties seeking 
to secure control. 

1795. The State of Georgia sells to four companies the territory in 
dispute, conisting of about 3,000,000 acres, at the rate of 2^^ cects per 
acre. This act is famous in history as the "Yazoo fraud." 

1795. Daniel Clark, of Fort Adams, Wilkinson County, introduces 
the use of Whitney's cotton gin. 

1795. By the treaty of :\radrid. the southern boundary of the Unitel 
States is fixed at 31° of latitude; the western boundary is fixed at the 
middle of the Mississippi River, and free navigation is given. 



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AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI. 1540-1917 351 

1796. Public condemnation of the Yazoo fraud becomes so intense 
that the State of Georgia repeals the law, which sold valuable lands to 
the four companies. 

1796. Andrew Ellicott is appointed Commissioner, on the part of 
the United States, to fix the southern boundary with the Spanish auth- 
orities, and arrives at Natchez February 24. 1797, and holds a confer- 
ence with the Spanish Commissioner, Don .Manuel Gaycso de Lemos. 

1797. February 29. Ellicott pitches his tent on the bluff at Natchez, 
forms a military camp for his escort, and hoists the stars and stripes. 
Governor Gayoso objects to the flag being raised, and directs that it 
be taken down; the demands meet with a positive refusal. 

At this stage it seems to have been the policy of Governor-General 
Carondelet and Governor Gayoso to delay the transfer of the Natchez 
District, with the purpose of ultimately defeating it, and while Elli- 
cott, as the representative of the United States, was treated with cere- 
monious courtesy and politeness, all sorts of excuses were given fo'r 
the delay of the Spanish authorities in carrying out the terms of the 
treaty. 

1797. March 1. Ellicott advises with the people of Natchez and sur- 
rounding country, and, finds them loyal to the American cause. The 
month of 2^Iarch passes in diplomatic delays on the part of Governor 
Gayoso, which cause protests from Col. Ellicott. / 

On the 29th of March, 1797, Governor Gayoso issued a proclamation, 
assigning as a motive his apprehensions that the dangerous insinua- 
tion of busy malignant persons might agitate and disturb the public 
tranquility. The people were cautioned against being led by their 
"innocent credulity" into any measures which might frustrate all the 
advantages they would have a right to expect, if they continued, as 
heretofore, their strict attachment to His Majesty. 

The proclamation produced great irritation among the people, and 
served to confirm their suspicions that the evacuation of the country 
would be indefinitely postponed. 

As an evidence of uneasinpss, a numbpr of prominent citizens r-allpd 
upon Col. Ellicott. with Narseworthy Hunter, who afterwards became 
the first Territorial Delegate to Congress, as chairman. 

An address was presented to Col. Ellicott which called upon him, 
"In the name of every friend of that emblem of peace and science 
which had been recently displayed to them, to stand forth 'with a con- 
fidence suitable to the dignity of his commission, and demand of the 
Governor passports with leave for aU such as would dispose of their 
property and avail themselves of a change of situation by withdrawing 
from the United States." 

1797. April. Offers were made by Col. Thomas Green and others to 
flia Col, JJlUgott in expelling the Spaniards and taking possession of 



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AX OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI, 1540-1917 



the country by force. Col. Anthony Hutchins is said to have proposed 
that Governor Gayoso be surprised, seized and conveyed as a prisoner 
among the Chickasaw Indians. 

1797. April 15. Lieutenant Pope, of the American forces under 
General Anthony Wayne, arrives at "Walnut Hills, with his company; 
Col. Ellicott urges him to come at once to Natchez, as a rupture be- 
tween the United States and Spain is impending. 

On April 24, Lieutenant Pope arrives at Natchez with his detachment 
of troops. 

1797. May. During the month of May active preparations were 
made at New Orleans, by Governor Carondelet, to reinforce the garri- 
sons at Natchez and Walnut Hills, and detachments of Spanish troops 
were sent to both places. 

1797. June. A great majority of the people of the Natchez District 
were becoming highly indignant at the delay of the Spanish author- 
ities, and were impatient to become citizens of the United States. 

'At this time of excitement, an itinerant Baptist preacher, Hannah 
by name, was ordered into close confinement by Governor Gayoso, 
which action was construed by the friends of the United States as an 
unwarranted attack on the rights and privileges of an American citi- 



It was a time of tumult and excitement in Natchez, and the Spanish 
Governor and his sympathizers had to flee to the forts for protection. 

The most active friends of the United States waited upon Col. Elli- 
cott and Lieutenant Pope, and notified them of their intention of at- 
tacking the Spaniards, and were with difficulty restrained from open- 
ing hostilities. 

Conapanies of militia were organized, and a meeting of the inhabi- 
tants was called for June 20, for the purpose of adopting ways and 
means for the protection of American interests. 

1797. June 20. On this day the proposed meeting of the inhabitants 
took place at the house of Benjamin Bealk, about eight miles east of 
Natchez, near the crossing of the Natchez trace, at the muddy ford of 
St. Catherine's Creek. It was decided by the meeting to appoint a 
Committee of Safety, to whom should be left the management of af- 
fairs. 

The committee was elected by the people, and consisted of the fol- 
lowing members: Anthony Hutchins, Bernard Lintot, Isaac Gaillard, 
William Ratliff, Cato West, Joseph Bernard, Gabriel Benoist, Andrew 
Ellicott and Lieutenant Pope. 

1797. June 22. The Committee of Safety submitted the following 
proposition to Governor Gayoso: 

"First: The inhabitants of the District of Natchez, who, under the 
belief and persuasion that they were citizens of the United States, 
agreeably to the treaty, have assembled and embodied themselves, are 



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not to be persecuted or injured for their conduct on that account, but 
to stand exonerated and acquitted. 

"Secondly: The inhabitants of the Government aforesaid, above the 
thirty-first degree of north latitude, are not to be embodied as militia 
or called upon to aid in any military operations, except in case of In 
dian invasion, or the suppression of riots during the present state of 
uncertainty, owing to the late treaty betvv-een His Catholic Majesty and 
the United States not being fully carried into effect. 

Don Manuel Gayoso de Lemos. Brigadier in the Royal Armies, Gov- 
ernor, Military and Political, of the Natchez and its dependencies, etc.: 
"Thirdly: The laws of Spain in the above district shall be con- 
tinued, and on all occasions be executed with mildness and modera- 
tion; nor shall any inhabitant be transported as a prisoner out of this 
Government under any pretext whatever; and, notwithstanding the op- 
eration of the law aforesaid is hereby admitted, yet the inhabitants 
shall be considered to be in an actual state of neutrality during the 
continuance of their uncertainty as mentioned in the second proposi- 
tion. 

"Fourthly: We, the Committee aforesaid, do engage to recommend 
it to our constituents, and to the utmost of our power to observe the 
peace, and promote the due execution of justice. 

"ANTHONY HUTCPINS, 
"BERNARD LINTOT, 
"ISAAC GAILLARD, 
"WILLIAM RATLIFF, 
"CATO WEST. 
"JOSEPH BERNARD, 
"GABRIEL BENOIST." 

The foregoing propositions were agreed to by the Governor as fol- 
lows: 

"Being always desirous of promoting the public good, we do join in 
the same sentiment with the Committee, by acceding to their proposi- 
tion in the manner following: By the present. I do hereby accede to 
the foregoing propositions established and agreed upon for the pur- 
pose of establishing the peace and tranquillity of the country; and 
that it may be constant and notorious, I sign the present under the 
seal of my arms, and countersigned by the Secretary of this Govern- 
ment, at Natchez, the twenty-second day of June, 1797. 

"MANUEL GAYOSO DE LEMOS, 
"JOSEPH VI DAL, Secretary," 
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354 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI, 15t0-191? j 

"On the following day the Governor and his officers left the fort and J 

returned to their houses. | 

"It is worthy of remark that during the two weeks in which the In- i 

habitants were in a state of revolt no act of violence or breach of the 1 

peace took place. ' J 

"The necessity of electing a permanent committee to aid in preserv- I 

ing the good order and peace of the country was strongly impressed | 

upon the Governor, who, fully concurring in the propriety of the meas- 
ure, issued a proclamation on the following day for that purpose; and ^ 
the following gentlemen were chosen: Joseph Bernard, Peter B. | 
Bruin, Daniel Clark, Gabriel Benoist, Philander Smith, Isaac Gaillard. 1 
Roger Dickson, William RatliiT and Frederick Kimball. | 

"The election of this committee, in effect, put an end to the Spanish ' | 

authority in the country. All but one of the committee (Frederick ; 

Kimball, whose sentiments were doubtful, and whose residence proved j 

to be below the line) ; were staunch friends to the Government of the 
United States. '. 

"The committee held its first meeting in the house occupied by the I 

-American Commissioner, on the 15th of July, having as before de- f 

clined the use of the Government house tendered for that purpose. ,- 

"Contrary to expectations. Col. Hutchins declined serving on the * 

last committee, pleading his age and infirmities in excuse. He at- | 

tended the first meeting of the committee, however, as a spectator, and f 

manifested great dissatisfaction with its proceedings, which wera di- J 

rectel first to securing the country to the United States, and, secondly. j 

to the preservation of peace and good order. :| 

"Having established their neutrality, and rid themselves of the Span- "** 

ish authority so far as it was seriously obnoxious to them, dissensions * 

soon ensued between the inhabitants themselves, rival parties resulted I 

and an abortive attempt was made to supersede the permanent com- ^' 

mittee by the choice of another. The newly acquired liberties of the ^ 

inhabitants were- jeopardized, and the Spanish officers looked on with t 

complacency at a state of things which promised, in the end, to re- j 

store their lost authority. 

"By some very original and unauthorized devices, the semblance of j 

a counter-committee was got up, but beyond denunciations, which j 

proved harmless, and the getting up of a memorial to Congress, which J 

was disregarded, its labors were fruitless. ' I 

"Although threatened at one time with an armed force of forty men, | 

who were assembled on the Bayou Pierre, assured of the protection j 

of the American arms, the committee pursued the even tenor of its J 

way." (From B. L. C. Wailes.) ' '^ 

1797. June 24. The following citizens were selected by the people j 

as a Permanent Committee of Safety, with the consent of (Jovernor q 



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AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF illSSISSIPFI. 1540-1917 355 

Gayoso: Joseph Bernard, Peter Bryan Bruin, Daniel Clark, Gabriel 

Benoist. Philander Smith, Isaac Galiard, Roger Dickson, William Rat- 

iiff and Frederick Kimball. | 

The election of the Committee practically put an end to Spanish j 

authority. | 

1797. July 28. Governor Gayoso is appointed to succeed the Baron I 

de Carondelet as Governor-General, by the Court of Madrid, and leaves j 

for his new post June 30, leaving Major Stephen Minor to represent I 

him at Natchez. I 

171)7. In July, a yellow fever epidemic prevailed in Natchez, ana | 

several of Col. E licott's men died from it. In order to escape the rav- "■ '• 

ages of the disease, Ellicott removed his encampment to a beautiful i 

flowing spring six miles east of Natchez, wbich is now on the campus 
of Jefferson College, and is called "EUicott's Spring." * 

1797. First printing in Mississippi Territory at Walnut Hills (now 
Vicksburg) by Andrew Marschalk, a soldier of the garrison. 

1798. January 10. Governor Gayoso informs Ellicott by letter that 
he had been ordered to evacuate the forts at Natchez and Walnut Hills. 

1798. March 30. The Spaniards quietly evacuate all the posts of 
the country at night, and next morning they were occupied by the 
American troops. 



' A TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES, 1798-1817. 

1798. April 7. By Act of Congress approved April 7, 1798, th3 Mis- 
sissippi Territory is created with boundaries as follows: "All that 
tract of country bounded on the v.est by the Mississippi, on th3 nor^h 
by a line to be drawn due east from the mouth of the Yazoa to the 
"Chatahouchee River, on the east by the River Chatahouchee, and on 
the south by the thirty-first degree of north latitude, shall b?, and 
hereby is, constituted one district, to be called the Mississippi Terii- 
tory." 

1798. May 7. Winthrop Sargent, former Secretary of the North- 
vv'est Territory, is appuintttd by President Adams the hrst Governor oi 
the Mississippi Territory. 

1798. May 7. John Steele, of Virginia, is appointed by President 
Adams the first Secretary of the Mississippi Territory. 

1798. May 7; June 28. William McGuire, Peter Bryan Bruin and 
Daniel Tilton are appointed the first judges of the Mississippi Terri- 
tory. 

1798. Governor Sargent leaves Cincinnati in June for Natchez, and 
arrives at the latter place by boat August 6. 

1798. August 8. Governor Sargent moves to Concord, the old home 
of the Spanish Governors, two days after his arrival at Natchez. 



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1798. August 16. The Governor issues an address to the citizens of J 

the Territory. i 

1798. August 18. The first official act of Governor Sargent was an i 

order to Captain Commandant Isaac Guion for the arrest and impris- .j 

onment of Zachariah Cox. i 

1798. September 3. One of the first official acts of the Gsverr.or i 

provide! for the organization of the militia, with the following namei ^ 

officiers: Upper or Northern District: Cato West, Lieutenant-Col- 
onel; Xarseworthy Hunter. Major of Horse; John Girault, Major o:^ i 
Foot; Thomas Green, Richard Harrison and Thomas Calvit. Captains \ 
of Horse; James Truly, Jesse Harper and George W. Humrhieys, :' 
Lieutenants of Horse; George Sulzer, Lacey Ranasey and James Spane, j 
Comets; Roger Dixon, Tobias Brashears and Arthur Carney, Captains 
of Foot; James Brooks, James :\lclntyre and Gibson Clark, Liiuten- ^ 
ants; William Smith, James Davenport and Eden Brashears, Ensigns; I 
James Mclntyre, Adjutant. l 
Lower or Southern District: Major of Horse, Benajah Osniun, Major ; 
of Foot, Sutton Banks; Captains of Horse, Benjamin Farrah. William ;■ 
Moore and David Ferguson; Lieutenants, William Mcintosh. Georg? 
Cochran and John Minor; Cornets, John Lintot, Hampton White ani 
Charles Surgett; Captains of Foot, John Ellis, Adam Bingaman and ; 
Joseph Calvit; Lieutenants, Abraham Ellis, David Grafton and Piiii- , 
ander Smith; Ensigns, John Wall, Samuel Hutchins and William Dun- I 
bar, Jr. j 

1798. September 8. The Governor appointed the following civil offi- 1 
cers 'Conservators of the Peace: Daniel Clark, William Dunbar, Isaa2 j 
Gailliard, John Ellis, James Mcintosh, Philander Smith, Thomas -Wil- 1 
kins, Joshua Howard and Joseph Calvit; Sheriff, Lewis Evans, for a ~ 

district of the Mississippi Territory from the southern or lower boun- 
dary thereof, to and including all the country between ths same and a 
due east line, from the mouth of Fairchild's Creek to the River Chata- 
houchee, which is the eastern boundary of said Territory. 

Cato West, Samuel Gibson and Tobias Brashears, Conservators of 
the Peace, and uiiiiam Ftiigusoii for the district of the Territory, 
which is bounded upon the south by the district before d^-scribed. by 
the Territorial boundary upon the east, upon the north by a due east 
line from the mouth of the Yasous, to the Territorial boundary, and by 
the River Mississippi upon the west. 

1799. Sir William Dunbar suggests cotton-seed oil as a valuable arti- 
cle of commerce in a letter to his partner, James Ross, of Philadelphia. J 

1799. First newspaper published in :Mississippi Territory by Benja- J 

min F. Stokes, called Mississippi Gazette. ^ ^=j 

1799. Feb. 28. The first law made and promulgated by the Tern- ] 

torial authorities was signed by Winihrop Sargent, Governor; Peter ; 

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AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSTSSIPPT. 1540-1917 357 

Bryan Bruin and Daniel Tilton, Judges. Februarj' 28. 1799, and relates 
to the organization of the militia. 

1800. May 10. Congress passes an act, which becomes a law, pro- 
viding for a legislative body for the Mississippi Territory, to consist of 
a House of Representatives and a Legislative Council. 

1800- June 24. Governor Sargent issues his proclamation for tne j 

election of members of the House of Representatives, to be held on the j 

fourth Monday of Ju'.y, 1800. } 

1800. September 22. The first Legislature of the Mississippi Terrr- I 
tory meets in Natchez, September 22, 1800, with the following Repre- _ I 
sentatives present: Pickering County, Cato West, Thomas M. Greene. | 
John Burnet, Thomas Calvit; Adams County, Henry Hunter, James ■ 
Hoggett, Anthony Hutchins, Sutton Banks. There was no election m 

the Tensaw and Tombigbee settlements, which were given one Repre- 
sentative. 

1801. April. Governor Sargent leaves the Territory for Boston, and 
his successor is appointed before his return. 

Sargent's administration, 1798—1801. Important events: Establisn- 
ment of the Territorial Government; organization of the executive, 
legislative and judicial systems; passage of first laws; division of the 
Territory into counties: successful adjustment of Indian affairs; estao- 
lishment of Legislature elected by the people, 

1801. December 17. Treaty of Fort Adams, between the United 
States and the Choctaw Nation, giving permission to open highway. 

1801. December. Narseworthy Hunter takes his seat in the Na- i 

tional House of Representatives as the first Delegate from Mississippi I 

Territory. ' 

1801. May 25. William Charles Cole Claiborne is appointed by 
President Jefferson Governor of ^Mississippi Territory. 

1801. October 8. Governor Claiborne leaves his home in Nashville, 
and arrives at Natchez November 23, 1801. 

1801. October 24. Treaty of Chickasav\^ Bluffs, between the United 
States and the Chickasaw Nation, giving road from Nero Settlement to 
Natchez. 

1801. December 2. Governor Claiborne delivers his first address to 
the Territorial Legislature. 

1802. January 12. Abner Green is appointed by Governor Claiborne 
Treasurer-General of the Mississippi Territory. 

1802. February 1. The seat of government is removed from Natchez 
to the town of Washington. 

1802. April 24. The State of Georgia cedes to the United States all 
its right, title and interest in and to lands described as follows: "Sit- 
uated within the boundaries of the United States, south of the State of 
Tennessee, and west of a line beginning on the western bank of the 
Chatahouchee River, where the same crosses the boundary line be- 



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358 AX OL^TLIXE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI, 1.140-1917 

tween the United States and Spain; running thence up the said River 
Chatahouchee and along the western bank thereof to the great bend 
thereof, next above the place where a certain creek or river called 
"Uchee" (being the first considerable stream on the western side, 
above the Cussetos and Coweta towns), empties into the said Chata- 
houchee River; thence in a direct line to Xickajack, on the Tennessee 
River; thence crossing the said last mentioned river; and thence run- 
ning up the said Tennessee River, and along the western bank thereof, 
to the southern boundary line of State of Tennessee." 

1802. May 13. Jefferson College is established in the following 
words: "Section 1. Be it enacted by the Legislative Council and 
House of Representatives of the Mississippi Territory, in General As- 
sembly convened, That there shall be established in this Territory a 
College, which shall bear the name of Jefferson College, in honor of 
Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States, and President of the 
American Philosophical Society." 

1802. October 17. Treaty of Fort Confederation, between the United 
States and the Choctaw Nation, for settlement of boundary. 

1802. Great excitement in the Territory over the suspension of the 
right of deposit for American products in New Orleans. 

1803. May. Land offices are opened at Washington for the district 
west of Pearl River, and at Fort Stoddart for the district east of Pearl 
River. Thomas Rodney, of Delaware, and Robert 'vVilliams, of North 
Carolina, appointed Land Commissioners for the district vrest of Pearl 
River, and Robert C. Nicholas and Ephraim Kirby for the district easi 
of Pearl River. 

1803. August 31. Treaty of Ho-buckin-too-pa, between the United 
States and the Choctaw Nation, establishing a line of demarkation. 

1803. Noveciber 8. The Mississippi Society for the Diffusion oi 
Useful Knowledge incorporated. 

Claiborne's administration, 1801—1805. Important events: Failure 
of opposition to law creating the General Assembly; removal of Terri- 
torial Capitol from. Natchez to Washington; the bcglr.niTi of p. s^ystein 
for higher tducation; settlement of land titles; effective organization 
of the militia; establishment of post and military roads; organization 
of American Government in the Louisiana Purchase. 

1803. December 2. Having been appointed one of the Commission- 
ers to receive for the United States the Louisiana Purchase, Governor 
Claiborne leaves Natchez by land for Fort Adams, to meet General 
James Wilkinson, the other Commissioner. The Governor is escorted 
by the Natchez Artillery, the Natchez Rifles, and a company of militia. 

1803. December 20. Louisiana transferred by Tvl. Laus-it, the Frenc.'i 
Commissioner to the United States through Governor Claiborne and 
General Wilkinson, its Commissioners. , 






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Ax OUTLINE IITSTOTVr OF MISSISSIPPI. 1510-1917 359' 

Governor Claiborne continued to exercise the functions of Governor 
of Mississippi Territory, in connection with his duties as Governor of 
Louisiana Territory, and administered both positions till October i, 
1804, when Cato West, by virtue of his olhce as Secretary, became Act- 
ing Governor of Mississippi Territory. 

1804. March 27. Act of Congress passed which extends the Missis- 
sippi Territory to include the tract of country lying north of the Mis- 
sissippi Territory and south of the State of Tennessee, and bounded ou 
the east by the State of Georgia and on the west by Louisiana. 

1805. March 1. Robert Williams, of North Carolina, appointed by 
President Jefferson Governor of Mississippi Territory. . 

1805. May 9. Governor Williams convenes the Legislature by proc- 
lamation, which provides for meeting the first Monday in July, 1805. 

1805. July 1. Thomas H. Williams appointed Secretary of Missis- 
sippi Territory. 

1805. Treaties negotiated by the Federal Goverment with the Cher- 
okee, Creek and Choctaw Indians, by which they conceded the privi- 
lege of opening roads through their districts. 

1806. January 21. Cowles Mead appointed Secretary of Mississippi 
Territory. 

1806. Troubles with the Spaniards, which culminated in the Sabine 
Expedition, in which 250 dragoons and mounted infantry, under com- 
mand of Major F. L. Claiborne, took part. 

1806. April 21. Governor Williams leaves the Territory for a visit 
to North Carolina, leaving Secretary Mead as Acting Governor. 

1806. December 16. Governor Mead sends a confidential message to 
the Legislature relative to the reported expedition of Aaron Burr, in 
which he advises the organization of a battalion of minute men for the ' 
purpose of protecting the interests of the National Government, ana 
of the Mississippi Territory. 

1806. December 23. Governor Mead issues his proclamation calling 
upon all good citizens to be vigilant in their eriorts to suppress all 
movements for the violent separation of Mississippi Territory from the 
United States. 

1807. January 12. Governor Mead prorogues the Legiaialure in 
order "to convert the pen of legislation into the weapon of war, and 
suspend the eloquence of debate for the clangor of military array." 

1807. January 12. Col. Aaron Burr arrives at the mouth of Bayou 
Pierre with nine boats, and has an interview with George Poindexter, 
William B. Shields and Col. Fitzpatrick, as the representa\ives of Gov- 
ernor Mead, when arrangements are made for Governor Mead to meet 
Col, Burr at the residence of Thomas Calvit, near the mouth of Cole's 
Creek. The interview bef.veen Governor Mead and Col. Burr took 
place as arranged, and resulted in Burr's unconditional surrender to 
the authorities of Mississippi Territory. 



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360 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI, 1540-1917 ' I 

V. 

1807. January 18. Col. Burr arrives at Washington, the Territorial ' \ 

Capital, goes before Judge Thomas Rodney, and makes a bond for 
$5,000, with Benajah Osmun and Lyman Harding as securities, for his ' 

appearance at a called meeting of the Supreme Court, to be held Febru- [ 

ry 2. No formal action was taken by the court, and on February 4 the 
grand jury was discharged. Col. Burr then demanded a release from 
his recognizance, which was refused by the court. 

On February 5, Col. Burr broke his bond and left Washington for 
the eastern part of the Territory. 

1807. February 6. Governor Robert Williams issues a proclama- 
tion announcing the flight of Col. Burr, and offers a reward of $2,000 
for his arrest, which results in his being taken into custody by Lieu- 
tenant Edmund P. Gaines, near Fort Stoddart. 

On the arrest being reported to Gov. Williams, he appoints Silas 
Dinsmore to act as the agent of the United States, for the purpose of 
conducting Col. Burr to the President, at Washington. 

1807. February 10. The first digest of the laws of the Mississippi 
Territory, by Judge Harry Toulmin, one of the Territorial Judges, is 
adopted by the Legislature. 

1807. Eleazer Carver begins the manufacture of cotton gins near the ' 

town of Washington. 

1808. January 9. Congress extends the right of suffrage in Missis- i 
sippi Territory by granting the people the right to elect the Territorial 

Delegate to Congress. 1 

1809. December 23. The Bank of Mississippi is established at 
Natchez, with the following directors: Francis X. Martin, Ferdinand 
L. Claiborne, John Steele, Abner Green, Abijah Hunt, Samuel Postieth- 
waite, Ebenezer Reese, Cowles Mead, Joseph Sessions, William B. 
Shields, Winthrop Sargent, Alexander Montgomery and Lyman Hard- 
ing. 

1809. March 3. Governor Williams resigns the ofiBce of Governor 
of Mississippi Territory. | 

Williams' administration, 1805-1S09. Important events: The Kem- 
per outbreak; friction between the Spaniards of West Florida and citi- 
zens of Mississippi Territory; arrest of Aaron Burr; Wilkinson In- ^ 
trignes with the Spaniards; quarrel between Williams and Mead; con- 
flict of the executive with the legislature; removal of territorial offi- 
cials; organization of new counties; quieting of land titles. - 

J 809. March 7. David Holmes, of Virginia, is appointed Governor | 

of Mississippi* Territory. I 

1809. The Indians began to give trouble early in the administration "\ 
of Governor Holmes, and some of his first official acts relate to them. ' 

1810. The census of 18uu gave the Mississippi Territory a popula- 
tion of 8,850 for the counties of Adams, Pickering and Washington. j 



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The census of 1810 gave a population of 40,352 for the counties of 
Washington, Pickering, Adams, Baldwin. Amite, Claiborne, Franklin. 
Madison, Jefferson, Warren. Wayne and Wilkinson. 

1812. May 14. The District of Mobile, lying east of Pearl River, 
west of the Perdido and south of the thirty-first degree of latitude Is 
annexed to the Mississippi Territory. 

1812. July 16. A brigade of :Mississippi troops is furnished the 
United States on the requisition of Gen. James Wilkinson, under me 
command of General F. L. Claiborne. 

1813. August 13. Fort Minis is attacked by 1,000 Creeks, under 
Weatherford, McQueen and Francis, and 260 of the garrison are mas- 
sacred. 

1813. December 23. An eipedition of Mississippi troops, under 
command of Gen. C'.aiborne, attacks and destroys Escanachalia, the 
holy city of the Creek Indians. 

1815. January 8. Mississippi troops take part in the battle of New 
Orleans, and are praised for their gallantry by General Jackson and 
Governor Claiborne. 

1816. September 20. By treaty between the United States and the 
Chicasaw Indians, at their Council House, 408,000 acres of land are 
ceded, being the territory out of which Monroe County was afterwards 
formed. 

1816. October 24. Treaty of cession between the Choctaw Nation 
and the United States conveying th^ following described lands: Begin- 
ning at the mounth of Ooktibbuha. the Chickasaw boundary, and run- 
ning from thence down the Tombigbee Ptiver, until it intersects the 
-northern boundary of a cession made to the United States by the Choc- 
taws at Mount Dexter, November 16, 1805. 

Holmes administration, 1809—1817. Important events: Internal im- 
provements; organization of a banking system; creation of new coun- 
ties; extension of Mississippi Territory to the Gulf of Mexico; agita- 
tion for statehood; Indian wars; War of 1812; assistance to the Amer- 
ican cause at the Battle of New Orleans; first Constitutional Conven- 
tion; first election of State officials; codification of laws. 



- A STATE OF THE UNION, 1817-1861. 

1817. March 1. Congress passes an act to enable the people of the 
Western part of the Mississippi Territory to form a Constitution and 
State Government, and for the admission of such State into the Union^ 
on an equal footing with the original States, with the following boun- 
daries: Beginning on the River Mississippi, at the point where the 
southern boundary line of the State of Tennessee strikes the same, 



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thence east along the said boundary line to the Tennessee River; 
thence up the same to the mouth of Bear Creek, thence by a direct line 
to the northwest corner of the County of Washinsiion. thence due south 
to the Gulf of ?>Iexico, thence westwardly including all the islands 
within six leagues of the shore, to the most eastern junction of Pearl 
River with Lake Borgne. thence up said river to the thirty-first degree 
of north latitude, thence west along the said degree of latitude to the 
Mississippi River, thence up the same to the beginning. 

The same act provides for a Constitutional Convention, to meet at 
the town of Washington, on the first Monday of July, 1817. 

1817. June 1-2. Election held for Delegates to the Constitutional 
Convention. 

1817. July 7. Constitutional Convention meets in the town of Wash- 
ington, in the Methodist Church, with forty-seven Delegates present, 
representing fourteen counties: David Holmes is elected President, 
and Louis Winston, Secretary. 

1817. August 15. The Constitutional Convention adopts a Consti- 
tution and adjourns after having been in session thirty-eight days. 

1817. August 16. Governor Holmes, as President of the Constitu- 
tional Convention, notifies the President of the United States of the 
adoption of the Constitution. 

1817. September 1-2. Election held for Governor and Lieutenant- 
Governor, which results in the election of David Holmes and Duncan 
Stewart. 

1817. September 30. Governor Holmes issues his proclamation for 
the Legislature to meet in the town of Washington, the first Monday 
of October, 1817, on account of an epidemic in the city of Natchez, the 
place appointed by law. 

1817. October 6. The first Legislature of the State of Mississippi 
meets in the town of Washington and organizes by the election of 
Tliomas Barnes, Speaker, and Peter A. Van Dorn, Clerk. 
- . 1817. October 6. Governor Holmes sends the first message to the 
State Legislature. 

1817. October 9. Thomas H. Williams and Walter Leake elected as 
the first Uiiited States Stnators oT the State of I>Iis5issippi. The i-eg- 
islature adjourns to meet in Natchez, December 6, 1817. 

1817. December 11. Daniel Williams is elected by the Legislature 
the first Secretary of State of Mississippi. 

1817. December 18. Andrew Marschalk is elected by the Legisla- 
ture the first public printer of the State of Mississippi. 

1817. December 19. Sanuel Brooks is elected by the Legislature 
'the first Treasurer of the State of Mississippi; John R. Girault is 
elected the first Auditor of Public Accounts of the State of Mississippi. 

1818. January 21. The Legislature organizes the first Supreme 
Court and elects the following as the first Circuit and Supreme Judges 



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AN OTJTI.TNK HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI. 1540-1917 363 

Of the State: First District, William B. Shields; Second District, John 
Taylor; Third District, John P. Hampton; Fourth District, Powhatan 
Ellis. 

On the same day Lyman Harding was elected Attorney-General of 
the State. 

1819. February 17. The Legislature passes an act establishing 
Elizabeth Female Academy at the town of Washington, which is named 
in honor of Mrs. Elizabeth R. Roach, its founder, and placed under the 
Methodist Annual Conference of the State of Mississippi. 

Holmes' administration, State, 1817—1820, Important events: Or- 
ganization of the State government; election by the Legislature of ex- 
ecutive and judicial officers; legislative enactments to meet new con- 
ditions; rapid development of the State. 

1820. January 3. George Poindexter is inaugurated Governor of the 
State of Mississippi at Natchez. 

1S20. October 18. Treaty of Doak's Stand between the United 
States and the Choctaw Nation making an exchange of territory. 

1821. February 12. An act passed providing for the codification of 
the laws of the State by Governor Poindexter. 

1821. February- 12. The Legislature appoints a commission to lo- 
cate a seat of government for the State, with Thomas Hinds, James 
Patton and. William Latimore as Commissioners. 

1821. November 28. The Legislature passes an act amending the 
Act of February 12 as follows: 

Thomas Hinds and William Latimore, Commissioners appointed by 
the act to which this is a supplement, and Peter A. Van Dom are 
hereby authorized and empowered to locate the east halves of section 
three and ten, and the west halves of section ten and eleven in town- 
ship five, range one, east of the basis meridian, as a permanent seat of 
government of the State. 

The said Commissioners are hereby authorized and empowered to lay 
off a town on such part of the location so made, and on such a plan as 
said Commissioners may deem most advisable. The town shall be 
called and known by the name of Jackson, in honor of Major-General 
Andrew Jackson. 

Poindexter's administration, 1820-1822. Important events: First 
Code of the State by Governor Poindexter; purchase of land from the 
Choctaws; improvement in educational advantages; survey of the Mis- 
sissippi-Alabama line: appointment of a commission to locate a seat 
of government; selection of a site for the State Capitol. 

1822. January 7. Wa'.ter Leake is inaugurated Governor of the 
State of Mississippi at Columbia. 

' 1S22. January 2o. The sixth session of the Legislature of the State 
of Mississippi meets for the first time in Jackson, the new Capital.^™ 



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364 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPI^. 15 40-1917 

1824. January 6. Governor Leake is inaugurated for a second term 
at Jackson. 

1824. January 23. Imprisonment for debt is abolished in Missis 
sippi. 

1825. November 17. Governor Leake dies at Mount Salus (Clinton), 
Hinds County, and is succeeded by Gerard C. Brandon, the Lieutenant- 
Gov^ernor. 

Leake's administration, 1822-1825. Important events: Removal of 
the State government to Jackson; meeting of the Legislature in the 
new State House: the purchase of two half sections of land adjoining 
the plot of Jackson by the State for $1.25 an acre; visit of Lafayette; 
removal of the Choctaws; death of Governor Leake. 

1826. January 7. David Holmes inaugurated Governor. 

1826. July 25. David Holmes resigns the office of Governor and is 
succeeded by Lieutenant-Governor Gerard C. Brandon. 

Holmes' administration, 1826-1827. Important events: Internal im- 
provements, roads and rivers: changes in revenue laws; resignation 
of Governor Holmes. 

1828. January 7. Gerard C. Brandon is inaugurated Governor. 

1830. February 10. The Planters Bank is established. 

1830. September 15. The treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, between 
the United States and the Choctaw Nation, ceding the residue of their 
lands in ^lississippi. 

1830. December 15. The Legislature passes an act providing for an 
expression of the will of the people relative ta a Constitutional Con- 
vention. 

1831. The first Mississippi charter for a railroad is granted to run 
from Woodville to St. Francisville. 

1831. August. The people declare for a Constitutional Convention. 

1831. December 16. An act is passed calling a Constitutional Con- 
vention and apportioning representatives. 

Brandon's administration, 1826-1832. Efforts to borrow money for 
internal improvements; visit of General Jackson; creation of new 
counties; suggestions for a State Penitentiary; opposition to the tariff 
law of 1828; appointment of a commission to devise a system of edu- 
cation; incorporation of the Planters Bank; agitation for a Constitu- 
tional Convention. 

1832. January 9. Abram M. Scott is inaugurated Governor. 
1832. September 10. A Constitutional Convention meets in the city 

of Jackson, organizes by the election of P. Rutilius R. Pray, President, 
and John H. Mallory, Secretary. 

1832. October 26. The Constitutional Convention crmpletes its 
labors and adjourns, after being in session one month and sixteen' 
days. 



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AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI. 1540-1917 365 

1832. October 26. Mississippi, under the Constitution of 1832, was 
the first State in the Union to provide for an elective judiciary. 

1833. February 26. An act is passed providing for the erection of a 
Capitol and Executive Mansion. 

1833. February 27. An act is passed for the establishment and or- 
ganization of the High Court of Errors and Appeals. 

1833. June 12. Governor Scott dies of Asiatic cholera at Jackson 
and is succeeded by Charles Lynch, President of the Senate. 

Scott's administration, 1832-1833. Important events: Constitutional 
Convention of 1S32; adoption of a new Constitution providing for the 
election of Judges by the people; State bonds sold at a premium of 13 
per cent; epidemic of cholera; passage of an act for the erection of a 
new State House; death of Governor Scott. 

1834. January 6. Hiram G. Runnels inaugurated Governor. 

During the administration of Governor Runnels the people of Mis- 
sissippi send men and money to the Texans, who are fighting for free- 
dom. 

Runnels' administration, 1833—1835. Important events: Creation of 
sixteen new counties out of the Choctaw purchase; contest over admis- 
sion of representatives from new counties; agitation against the 
United States Bank; election of the Whig candidate for Governor. 

1836. January 7. Charles Lynch is inaugurated Governor. 

1836. February 26. An act is passed for the establishment of a 
State Penitentiary. 

1837. January 21. The Union Bank Bill is passed by the Legisla- 
ture and signed by the Governor. 

The great financial panic of 1837 occurs during the administration 
of Governor Lynch. 

Lynch's administration, 1836-1838. Important events: Great fic- 
titious prosperity; creation of ten new counties from Chickasaw pur- 
chase; panic of 1837. 

1838. January 8. Alexander G. McNutt is inaugurated Governor. 

1839. February 15. An act is passed providing for the issuance of 
$5,000,000 State stock in the Union Bank. 

1839. The new Capitol is occupied by Governor McNutt and the 
other State officials, the building being in an unfinished condition. 

1840. January 6. Governor McNutt is inaugurated for a second 
term. 

1840. The State Penitentiary is completed and opened. 

1840. May 7. The city of Natchez is almost destroyed by a tornado. 

1841. February 5. Purchase of land for State University by Thomas 
H. Williams and Jacob A. Vanhoeson, Commissioners, in Lafayette 
County confirmed by the Legislature. 

McNutt's administration, 1838-1842. Important events: Agitation 
against the Planters and Union Banks; excess of State expenditures 



366 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI, 1540-1917 

over receipts; large defalcations among tax collectors; agitation for 
repudiation of State bonds. 

1842. January 10. Tilghman M. Tucker is inaugurated Governor. 

1842. February 18. The L'nion Bank bonds are repudiated by a res- 
olution of the Legislature, the vote being 16 to 10 in the Senate and 
54 to 37 in the House, the indebtedness being .>.5,000,000 with interest. 

The Executive Mansion was completed and occupied during the ad- 
ministration of Governor Tucker. 

Tucker's administration, 1S42-1S44. Important events: Repudia- 
tion of Union Bank bonds; defalcation of State Treasurer Graves; the 
Governor declares for the payment of the Planters Bank bonds. 

1844. January 10. Albert G. Brown is inaugurated Governor. 

1844. February 24. The University of Mississippi is incorporated 
with the following Board of Trustees: J. Alexander Ventress, John A. 
Quitman, William L. Sharkey, Alexander M. Clayton, William Y. Ghol- 
son, Jacob Thompson, Pryor Lea, Edward C. Wilkinson, James M. 
Howry, John J. McCaughan, Rev. Francis Hawkes, J. N. Waddel and a. 
H. Pegues. 

1846. January 5. Albert G. Brown is inaugurated Governor for a 
second term. 

1846. March 4, The State is divided for the first time into Congres- 
sional Districts. A law is passed providing for the establishment of 
public schools. 

1846. May 30. The Secretary of War calls on the State of Missis- 
sippi for one regiment of infantry or riflemen for service in the war 
with Mexico. 

1846. June. Jefferson Davis is elected Colonel of the First Regi- 
ment of Mississippi Volunteers enlisted for the war with Mexico, and 
joins the regiment at New Orleans July 21. 

1847. February 23. The Mississippi Volunteers, under command of 
Colonel Davis, save the American Army from defeat at Buena Vista. 

John A. Quitman, Alexander K. McClung, Earl Van Dorn and A. B. 
Bradford gain special dioiiacticn in the ^lexican War. 

Brown's administration, 1»44— 1848. Important events: The Gover- 
nor stands for the payment of the Planters Bank bonds and repudia- 
tion of bonds of the Union Bank; return of prosperity; passage of a 
public school law; establishment of a State University at Oxford; war 
with Mexico; State receipts exceed expenditures $65,000. 

1848. January 10. Joseph W. Matthews is inaugurated Governor. 
1848. March 2. Provision is made for the establishment of an in- 
stitution for the instruction of the blind. 

1848. February 7. xVn act is pab.sed authorizing the iL-asing of the 
Chickasaw School lands for ninety-nine years. 



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AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI. 1540-1917 367 

1848. November 6. The University of Mississippi begins its first ses- 
sion, the inauguration exercises being held in the chemical lecture- 
room of the Lyceum. 

Matthews' administration, 1848-1850. Important events: A period 
of prosperity; building of the Jackson and Brandon Railroad; the ad- 
vent of the telegraph; law for sale of internal improvement bonds to 
pay the Planters Bank bonds; Convention of 1849. 

1850. January 10. John A. Quitman is inaugurated Governor. 

1850. June 3. The Nashville convention meets for the purpose of 
considering measures for the protection of Southern rights, and elects 
William L. Sharkey, of Mississippi, Chairman. 

1851. February 3. Governor Quitman resigns on being charged 
with aiding the expedition of Lopez against Cuba. 

The Governor is acquitted; the Democratic party gives him a second 
nomination. 

1851. February' 3. John I. Guion, as President of the Senate, be- 
comes Governor on the resignation of Governor Quitman. 

1851. November 24. The term of John I. Guion as Senator having 
expired, the Senate in called session elects James Whitfield President, 
who becomes Governor from November 24, 1851, to January 10, 1852. 

1853. The Planters Bank bonds are repudiated by a vote of the peo 
pie, the indebtedness being $2,000,000 with interest. 

Quitman's administration, 1850—1851. Agitation of sectional ques- 
tions growing out of the admission of California as a State; the Gov- 
ernor becomes the leader of the extreme States Rights men in Missis- 
sippi and opposes the compromise of 1850; organization of the Union 
party under the leadership of Henry S. Foote; convention of 1851. 

1852,. January 10. Henry S. Foote is inaugurated Governor. 

1853. March 3. President Pierce appoints Jefferson Davis. Secre- 
tary of War. 

1854. January 5. Governor Foote resigns the office of Governor and 
is succeeded by John J. Pettus, the President of the Senate, who serves 
five days. 

Foote's administration. 1852-1854. Important events: The entire 
administration of Governor Foote was occupied with fierce political 
struggles between the States Rights and Union factions in the State; 
incorporation of a company to build a railroad from Grenada to Mem- 
phis; the Southern Rights Democrats regain control of the State gov- 
ernment. 

1854. January 10. John J. McRae is inaugurated Governor. 

1854. March 1. An act is passed providing for the establishment of 
an institution for the instruction of the deaf and dumb. 

1854. August. The institution for the deaf and dumb is opened for 
the reception of students. 



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An act is passed providing for the establishment of an. asylum ror 
the insane. 

1855. January 8. The asylum for the insane is opened for the re- 
ception of patients. 

1856. January 10. Governor McRae is inaugurated Governor for a 
second term. 

1857. March 6. Jacob Thompson is appointed Secretary of the In- 
terior in the Cabinet of President Buchanan. 

McRae's administration, 1854-1857. Important events: Legislatioa 
on the sale of whiskey; the State makes large appropriations for build- 
ing railroads; two amendments to the Constitution adopted; panic of 
1857. 

1857. November 16. WiLiam McWillie is inaugurated Governor. 

During the administration of Governor McWillie there was great 
excitement in Mississippi over the Kansas struggle and over Jotin 
Brown's raid and execution. 

McWillie's administration, 1857-1859. Important events: The es- 
tablishment of a levee district from Vicksburg to the Tennessee line 
is recommended by the Governor; this was a period of great prosper- 
ity; the Governor urges payment of the Planters Bank bonds. 

1859. November 21. John J. Pettus is inaugurated Governor. 

1860. November 26. A special session of the Legislature meets in 
Jackson at the call of the Governor. In his message Governor Pettus 
urges the Legislature to call a convention for the purpose of withdraw- 
ing Mississippi from the Union. 

In response to the advice of the Governor the Legislature calls a 
State convention to meet in Jackson, January 7, 1861, "to consider tlie 
existing relations between the Government of the United States and 
the government of the people of Mississippi, and to adopt such meas- 
ures for vindicating the government of the State and the protection of 
its institutions as shall appear to be demanded." 

1860. November. Governor Pettus is inaugurated Governor for a 
second term. 

1861. January 7. The convention assembles and organizes by the 
election of William S. Barry, President, and F. A. Pope, Secretary. 



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AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI. 1540-1917 369 

ONE OF THE CONFEDERATE STATES. 
1861-1885. 

1861. January 9. The convention passes an ordinance of secession 
by a vote of eighty-four to fifteen. 

1861. January I'l. Jefferson Davis announces the withdrawal of 
Mississippi from the Union to the United States Senate and delivers 
his farewell address to that body. 

1861. January 23. The convention elects the following delegates to 
the Montgomery convention: Wiley P. Harris, W. S. Wilson, Walker 
Brooke, A. M. Clayton, W. S. Barry, Jas. T. Harrison, and J. A. P. 
Campbell. 

1861. January 23. The convention elects Jefferson Davis Major- 
General, and Earl Van Dorn, Charles Clark, J. L. Alcorn and C. H. 
Mott Brigadier-Generals of the Army of Mississippi. 

1861. January 26. The secession convention of the State of Mis- 
sissippi adjourns. 

1861. February 9. Jefferson Davfs is elected by the Montgomery 
convention President of the Confederate States of America. 

1861.- March 25. The convention, in obedience to the proclamation 
of its President, assembles in Jackson for the purpose of ratifying the 
Constitution of the Confederate States, and to place the Staie on a war 
footing. It adjourns ]March 30th. 

1861. April. President Davis asks for 1.500 Mississippi troops for 
the defense of Pensacola. The Ninth and Tenth Regiments, under com- 
mand of Col. Jas. R. Chalmers and Col. S. M. Phillips, are sent in 
response to the call. 

1861. The following Mississippi Regiments take part in the Vir- 
ginia campaign of 1S61: The Second, Col. W. C. Falkner; Eleventh, 
Col. William H. Moore; Thirteenth, Col. AVilliam Barksdale; Seven- 
teenth, Col. W. S. Featherston; Eighteenth, Col. E. R. Burt. 

1862. Military operations in Mississippi: May 29, General Beaure- 
gard evacuates Corinth; September 10. Naichez is taken by the Fed- 
eral forces; Septcn:ber 19-20, Battle of luka; October 3-4, General 
Van Dorn attacks Corinth; December 2, General Hovey occupies Gren- 
ada; December 5, Battle of Coffee vilie,"^ December 20, Holly Springs 
taken by the Confederates; December 27, Federals attack Vicksburg. 

1863. Military operations in Mississippi: April 17 to May 5, Grier- 
son's Cavalry raid; April 29, naval battle at Grand Gulf; May 1, 
Battle of Port Gibson; May 12, Federals occupy Raymond; IVIay 
14, Jackson occupied by Federals; May 16, Battle of Champion 
Hills; May 17, Battle of Big Bla*k; Ma.y 17, Vicki^burg invested 
by Federal Army under General Grant; July 4, Vicksburg surrenders; 

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370 AN 0UTLIN13 HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI. 1540-191? | 

July 16, Jackson evacuated by General Johnston; October 26, Battle of I 

Vincent's Cross Roads: December 17 to 25, battles of Rodney and Port ? 

Gibson. 1 

Pettus' administration, 1859-1863. Withdrawal of thv; State from j 

the Union; organization of the Army of Mississippi; military opera- : 

tions; invasion of the State by the Union forces; capture and burning . 

of Jackson; removal of seat of government; financial and industrial 'i 

depression. j 

1863. November 16. Charles Clark is inaugurated Governor at Co- | 
lumbus. 

1864. Military operations in Mississippi: February 1, Yazoo River 
expedition; February 27-28, battle near Canton; May 24, Battle of 
Holly Springs; June 10, Battle of Brice's Cross Roads; August 7-14, 
battles of Abbeville, Oxford and Hurricane Creek. 

1865. January 2. Battle of Franklin (Mississippi). l 
1865. May 6. General Richard Taylor surrenders to General Canby, 

and issues a general order at Meridian reciting the surrender of Gen- '. 

eral Lee and stating that the war was over. 1 

By the census of 1860 the number of w^hite males in Mississippi be- 
tween the ages of eighteen and forty-five was 70,295; the total enlist- ^ 
ments during the war in the Confederate Army in round numbers were '] 
100,000. I 

The State furnished the Union Army 545 whites and 79,000 negroes. -| 

The State furnished five Major-Generals and twenty-nine Brigadier- | 

Generals to the armies of the Confederacy. J 

1865. May 6. Governor Clark issues a proclamation calling a spe- ^ 

cial session of the Legislature to meet In Jackson May 18. 1 

1865. May 22. Governor Clark is arrested by General Osband of the J 

Union Army and imprisoned in Fort Pulaski, Savanah. Judge T. J. :, 

Wharton in describing the arrest says: "The old soldier when in- : 

formed of the purpose of the officer, straightened his mangled limbs as : 
best he could and with great difficulty mounted his crutches with a 

look of defiance, said: 'General Osband, I denounce before high heaven | 
and the civilized world this unparalleled act of tyranny and usurpa- 
tion! I am the duly and constitutionally elected Governor of the State 

of Mississippi and would resist, if in my power, to the last extremity /| 

the enforcement of your order. I only yield obedience, as I have no ^ 

power to resist.' " | 



RECONSTRUCTION. 

1865. June 13. William L. Sharkey is appointed Provisional Gov- 
ernor by President Johnson. 

Clark's administration, 1863-1885. Important events: Efforts for 
local defense; fall of the Confederate cause. 



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AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI. 1540-1917 371 

1865. July 1. Governor Sharkey issues a proclamation ordering an 
election to be held for delegates to a State Convention to be held at 
Jackson, August 14. 

1865. August 14. The first convention under the proclamation of 
President Johnson meets in Jackson. 

18G5. August 2G. The convention adjourns after making certain 
amendments to the Constitution of 1S32, adopting ordinances dealing 
with changed conditions, and ordering a general election for the first 
Monday in October, 1865. 

1865. October 2. Benjamin G. Humphreys is elected Governor and 
inaugurated October 16. 

1867. ]\Iarch 2. By Reconstruction Act passed by Congress, Missis-' 
sippi is placed in the Fourth Military District under command of 
Major-General E. O. C. Ord. 

1867. December 28. General Ord is succeeded by General Alven C. 
Giliem, who assumes command January 9, 1868. 

1868. January 6. The "Black and Tan" Convention meets in Jack- 
son for the purpose of forming a Constitution, and adjourns May 18. 

1868. June 4. General Irvtn McDowell succeeds General Giliem. 

1868. June 15. Adalbert Ames is appointed Military Governor. 

1868. June 15. Governor Humphreys and the State officers are 
removed by order of General McDowell, the order being enforced by 
the soldiers under his command. 

Humphreys' administration, 1865-1868. Important events: Re-ad- 
justment of State affairs to meet changed conditions; bad effect or 
military rule, sustained by negro soldiers; preliminaries to negro suf- 
frage; suppression of the civil by the military authority. 

1868. June 22-30. The Constitution adopted by the "Black and 
Tan" Convention is rejected by the people by a vote of 55,231 for, and 
63,860 against it. 

1869. November 30, December 1. Constitution is adopted by the 
people with objectionable features removed. 

1870. February 24. Mississippi is represented in the National Con- 
gress lor the iii'&t tiiae sinct; IS CI. 

i87u. March 10. James L. Aicorn is inaugurated Governor. 

1870. The Legislature establishes a system of public schools, organ- 
izes a State Board of Education, and provides for a Superintendent, 

1871. November 30. Governor iVlcom resigns the office of Governor 
to take his seat in the United States Senate, and is succeeded by Ridg- 
ley C. Powers, the Lieutenant-Governor. 

Alcorn's administration 1870-1871. Important events: The begin- 
ning of negro rule; great increase of expenditures; common schools 
for both races; large increase in the floating debt; resignation of Gov- 
ernor Alcorn. 



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572 AN- OUTLINE HISTORY OF .MISSISSIPPI, 1340-1917 

Powers' administration, 1871-1874. Important events: Growth of 
official corruption; rapid increase of taxes; enormous growth of State, ■ 

county and municipal debts; panic of 1873. 

1874. January 22. Adelbert Ames is inaugurated Governor. i 

From 1870 to 1875 the expenditures of the State Government were 1 

greatly increased, as will be seen from the following taoie: 



1869. (White rule) -. $ 463,219 71 

1870. (Negro rule) 1,061,249 90 

1871. (Negro rule) 1,729,046 34 

1872. (Negro rule) 1,596,828 64 \ 

1873. (Negro rule) 1,450,632 80 j 

1874. (Negro rule) 1,319,28160 i 

1875. (Negro rule) 1,430,102 00 J 

1876. (White rule) 591,709 00 i 



1875. August 3. A State Convention of the Democratic party is ' 
held at Jackson for the purpose of organizing for the November elec- 
tion, and selects Gen. J. Z. George as Chairman of the Campaign Com- ■ 
mittee. ! 

1875. November 3. A general election is held and results in a vie- ; 
tory for the Democrats by 30,000 majority; they elect all the members i 
of Congress with two exceptions, a State Treasurer and the majority j 
of both Houses of the Legislature, they also carry sixty-two of the sev- f 
enty-four counties in the State. 1 

1876. January 4. The Legislature elected in November meets in ] 
Jackson and organizes by the selection of H. M. Street, Speaker, and j 
George M. Govan, Clerk. ^ 

1876. January 6. Gen. W. S. Featherston, a Representative from ;: 

Marshall County, offers in the House the followilig resolution: Re- '. 
solved. That a committee of five be appointed by the Speaker of the 

House to inquire into the official conduct of Adelbert Ames, Acting l 
Governor of the State of Mississippi, and to report to this House at as 
early a date as practicable whether there are good grounds for his im- 
peachemnt of high crimes and misdemeanors, and that said committee 

have_power to send for persons and papers. J 

After the adoption of the resolution the Speaker, on January 8, ap- ^ 

pointed the following committee; W. S. Featherston, W. F. Tucker, > 

W. A. Percy, H. L. Muldrow and Fred Parsons. ] 

' 1876. February 16, T. W. Cardozo, the Negro Superintendent of | 

Education, is impeached and allowed to resign February 22. i 

1876. February 22. The investigating committee reports a resolu- i 
tion favoring the impeachment of Governor Ames, and his removal 
from office on eleven specified charges. 

1876. March 13. A. K. Davis, the Negro Lieutenant-Governor, is " J 



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AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI, 1540'-1917 373 

convicted by the Senate acting as a court of impeachment, of high 
^crimes and misdemeanors and removed from office. 

1876. March 16. The impeachment trial of Governor Ames begins 
before tlie Senate sitting as a court of impeachment, with Chief Just- 
ice Simrall presiding. 

A continuance to :\Iarch 28 is granted the Governor. 

1876. March -9. Governor Ames resigns his office. 

Ames' administration, 1S74-1876. Important events: Rapid growth 
of negro control; corruption among officials; a negro acting Governor;' 
election of a Democratic Legislature in 1875; impeachment and resig- 
nation of Governor Ames. 

1876. March 29. John M. Stone by reason of his office as president 
of the Senate, on the resignation of Adelbert Ames, becomes Governor 
of the State. 

1877. During the administration of Governor Ames the w^arrants of 
the State were worth seventy-five cents on the dollar; by the end of the 
first year of Governor Stone's administration they had risen to their 
par valiie. 

1878. January 10. Governor Stone is inaugurated for a second term. 
1878. February 28. An act is passed providing for the establish- 
ment of the Agricultural and Mechanical College. 

1878. August-November. Yellow fever becomes epidemic through- 
out the State. 

1880. October. The Agricultural and Mechanical College is opened 
for students. 

1880. The census gives Mississippi a population of 1,131,597, which 
gives to the State another member in tne Lower House of Congress. 

Stone's administration, 1876-1882. Important events: Economy in 
public expenditures; sweeping reform of the administration and finan- 
ciii systems; taxes reduced from fourteen mills on the dollar in 1874 
to five mills in 1877; recommendation of a State-supported college for 
the higher education of young women. 

1882. January 9. Robert Lowry is inaugurated Governor. 

1882. March 9. The Legislature passes an act exempting factories 
from taxation for a period of ten years. Bills were also passed pro- 
hibiting the sale of vinous and spirituous liquors at certain places; for 
the encouragement of immigration and for dividing the State Into 
seven Congressional districts. 

'l882. A disastrous overflow "of the Mississippi River does great 
damage to the "Delta." 

1883, At the end of 1882 there were fourteen cotton and woolen fac- 
tories in the State. The Wesson Mills at Wesson; Rosalie Mills, 
Natchez; Stonewall Mills. Enterprise; Juanita Mills, Enterprise; Ull- 
man Mills, Bay St. Louis; Yacona Mills, Water Valley; Stanburg Mills. 



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374 AN OUTLIXE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI, 1540-1917 

Carrollton; Canton IMills, Canton; two cotton mills at Corinth; Bay 
St. Louis Mills, Tishomingo Mills, and Port Gibson Mills. , 

1882. June. The Board of Trustees opens the State University to 
young women. 

1884. March 11. An act is passed providing for a Railroad Com- 
mission. 

1884. March 12. An act is passed providing for the establishment 
of the Industrial Institute and College for the education of the young 

women of Mississippi. ' ^ 

1885. October 22. The Industrial Institute and College is opened _ I 
for students. | 

1886. January 14. Robert Lowry is inaugurated for a second term l 
of four years. ■ ^ 

1886. March 11. An act is passed for preventing the evils of intern- j 

perance by local option in any county in the State by submitting the | 

question of prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors to the qualified | 

voters of each county; to provide penalties for its violation and for I 

other purposes. f^ 

1888. May 23. The corner-stone of the monument to the Cdnfeder- ' f 
ate dead is laid on the Capitol grounds at Jackson. | 

1889. December 6. Jefferson Davis dies at New Orleans. .1 
Lowry's administration, 1S82-1890. Important events: Increased - 

appropriations for the support of schools; exemption of railroads and I 

factories from taxation for ten years; establishment of a State College ;| 

for young women; continued improvement in State finances. I 

1890. January 16. John M. Stone is inaugurated Governor. J 
1890. February 5. An act is passed providing for a Constitutional | 

Convention to meet in Jackson, August 12, 1890. i 

1890. July 29. An election for delegates to the Constitutional Con- j 

vention is held. I 

1890. August 12. The Constitutional Convention of 1S90, composed = 

of 134 delegates, meets and organizes by the election of S. S. Calhoon, | 

President, and R. E. Wilson, Secretary. :| 

1890. November 1. The Constitutional Convention promulgates a 1 
new Constitution and adjourns. j 

1891. June 3. The monument to the Conferedate dead is unveiled 
at Jackson, the address being made by Gen. E. C. Walthall. 

1892. September 29. Millsaps College is opened for the reception 
of students. 

Stone's administration, 1890-1896. Important events: Constitil- 

tiona'l Convention of 1890, and a new organic law; deficit in the ac- | 

counts of the State Treasurer; an executive service of six years in one ■ | 

term; the Constitution of 1890 prolonged the term of all State officials | 

two years. /^ 

1896, January 21. A. J. McLAurin is inaugurated Governor, ^^ 



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AX OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI. 1540-1917 375 

1897. In response to the call of President McKinley. Mississippi 
raises three regiments for the Spanish-American War. 

1897. August 14. Senator J. Z. George dies at Mississippi City. < 

1898. April 21. Seantor E. C. Walthall dies at Washington, D. C. 

1898. The State suffers from a yellow fever epidemic. 

McLaurin's administration. 1896-1900. Important events: Agita- 
tion for a new State House; yellow fever 1S97, '98. '99; suits against 
railroads for back taxes; improved financial condition. 

1900. January 16. A. H. Longino is inaugurated Governor. 

1900. February 21. An act is passed for the erection of a new State 
Capitol on the site of the old penitentiary, for which $1,000,000 is ap- 
propriated. 

1900. March 26. Ex-Governor J. M. Stone dies at Holly Springs, 
Miss. 

1902. February 26. An act is passed establishing the Department 
of Archives and History. 

1902. March 5. An act is passed establishing a Department of In- 
surance. 

1903. June 3. The corner-stone of the new Capitol is laid, and the 
addresses are made by Bishop Charles B. Galloway and Chief Justice 
A. H. W^hitfield. 

Longino's administration, 1900-1904. Important events: Increased 
appropriations for schools, colleges and other State institutions; erec- 
tion of a new State House on a cask basis by means of §500,000 from 
sales of school lands and back taxes collected from railroads; passage 
of a primary election law. 

1904. January 19. .James Kimble Vardaman is inaugurated Gover- 
nor, taking the oath of office in the House of Representatives of the 
new Capitol before Chief Justice Albert Hall W^hitfleld. 

1904. Laws are passed, creating a Text-book Commission to select 
a uniform series of school books; requiring equal but separate accom- 
modations for whites and blacks on street cars: authorizing a new 
Code of laws; creating Lamar County; providing for additional branch 
agricultural experiment stations, and a new institution for the deaf 
and dumb. 

1906. Laws are passed, changing the management of the peniten- 
tiary from the Governor, Attorney-General and Railroad Commission- 
ers to three trustees appointed by the Governor to serve until 1908, 
their successors to be elected by the people in 1907; creating a Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and Commerce; adopting the Code of 1906; pro- 
viding for Jefferson Davis and Forrest Counties, and for a memorial 
to Mississippi Confederate soldiers at the Vicksburg Military Park; 
providing for a geological, economic and topographical survey of the 
State, 



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376 AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPI. 1540-1917 • J 

I 
1907. August 1. John Sharp Williams is nominated, by a Demo- 
cratic primary, for United States Senator ro succeed Hernando DeSoto 
MAney, his opponent being James K. Vardaman. In the same primary 
Edmond F. Noel, Earl L. Brewer, Charles Scott, T. U. Sisson, Jeff Truly 
and E. N. Thomas were candidates for Governor. E. F. Noel received 
the highest vote, E. L. Brewer stood second. 

1907. August 22. Edniond F. Noel is nominated for Governor, his 
opponent being Earl L. Brewer, Noel's majority being 2.002. 

1908. January 21. Edmond F. Noel is inaugurated Governor of 
Mississippi. • 
, 1908-1912. Important events and legislation: Establishment of the 

State Normal College at Hattiesburg; establishment of State Charity 
Hospital at Jackson: creation of office of County Attorney; creating 
the Supreme Court Commission: remodeling the executive residence; 
creating George County; extensive improvements at the State Univers- 
ity, the Agricultural and Mechanical College and the Industrial Insti- 
tute and College; death of Senator McLaurin in December, 1909; ap- 
pointment of Col. James Gordon to succeed him; election of LeRoy 
Percy by the Legislature as United States Senator; providing for de- 
positories for State moneys: providing for cattle tick eradication; pub- 
lication of valuable historical works relative to the State of Missis- 
sippi; increase in Confederate pensions; increase in appropriations for 
public schools; spread of the cotton boll weevil; increas3 of stock ra:s- ; 

ing and diversified farming; establishment of the packing and cold 
storage plant at Natchez: increase of all manufacturing enterprises: 
beginning of cotporation cotton growing by English spinners; election ' 

of Gov. Earl LeRoy Brewer, Nov. 7, 1911. . . i 

1911. August 1. James K. Vardaman is nominated in the Demo- , 
cratic primary for United States Senator over LeR.oy Percy and C. H. j 
Alexander, 

1912. January 16. Inauguration of Earl LeRoy Brewer as Governor 

of the State of Mississippi; inaugural address delivered in the House I 

of Representatives. | 

Important events. January to June, 1912: James K. Vardaman is 1 
elected United States Senator trom Mississippi to succetd LeRoy 

Percy, March 4, 1913; repeal of law creating the Supreme Court Com- .^ 

mission; increase of Confederate pensions; improvements at Soldiers' | 

Home; appointment of judges, officials and boards; overflow of the Mis- ;j 

sissippi River; death of C. H. Alexander: delegates to Democratic Na- | 

tional Convention at Baltimore instructed for Hon, Oscar Underwood, i 

of A'abama, as required by the people in tha first presidential prefer- i 

ence primary held in Missi.^sippi. -i 

Events 1912-10. Great progress in internal improvements good i 
roads, drainage, levying, etc.; buildings of better grade provided for 

universities and colleges; consolidation of rural schools; increased a 



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AN OUTLINE HISTORY OF :\rTSSISSTPFI. 1340-1917 377 --^7^ 

ravages of the boll weevil; Januarj' IS. 1916. T. G. Bi'.bo inaugurated 
governor. 

A record of the important legislation of 1916 is as follows: An 
amendment adopted by the people in 1914, increasing th? number of 
Supreme Judges to six, requiring them to be elected by the people, ana 
fixing their terms at eight years, was inserted in the State Constitu- 
tion. There was also inserted in the Constitution an amendment 
adopted by the people in 1914, permitting the Legislature to provide 
that in all civil cases, circuit and chancery courts, nine or more juror:? 
may agree on the return of verdict. A State Board of Law Examiners 
was created, and measures were passed admitting women to the prac- 
tice of law. Public hangings were prohibited. Lobbying before the 
Legislature was regulated. Measures were passed regulating the pur- 
chase of text-books. It was made a misdemeanor to mutilate or other- 
wise misuse the United States Flag. The law applies to the State and 
Confederate flags, as well as to the United States Flag. The laws re- 
lating to fire and life insurance were overhauled. 

Provisions were made for the preservation of the Old Capitol, April 
8, 1916, through the efforts of the women's patriotic organizations or 
the State. In the course of construction, the Commission became in- 
volved in a controversy as to the intent of the Legislature concerning 
the removal of the Department of Archives and History to the Old Cap- 
itol. The Department referred the question to every member of tlie 
Legislature and one hundred and twenty-eight voted*" for removal. 
Many prominent women of the state took the deepest interest in the 
matter. Notably among them Daisy McLaurin Stevins, Mrs. William 
R. Wright and Mrs. W. H. Waddell. 

Provision was made for the celebration of the State's one-hundredth 
anniversary by an Exposition beginning December 10, 1917, at Gulf- 
port. The Centennial Commission is composed of T. G. Bilbo, Lee M. 
Russell, S. M. Conner, Frank H. Lewis, Isham Reeves, H. S. Weston, 
Walter Hunt, G. M. Foote and Mayor Saucier, Hanun Gardner repre- 
senting the Gulfport Park Board, A. C. Anderson, Floyd Loper, R. L. 
Simpson, S. J. Taylor and H. C. Yawn. The Commission selected H. 
E. Blakes'.ee, Director-General: J. T. Connell, Executive Secretary; 
William Mehi, Landscape Architect; Clyde H. Osborn, Director of Ex- 
hibits and Concessions: H. S. Williams. Director of Publicity; L. A. 
Scott, Auditor; Miss Henrietta Mitchell, Directress Woman's Depart- 
ment; N. H. Overstreet. P. J. Krause and W. A. Nolan, Architects. At 
this writing the Exposition has been postponed. 

A stringent prohibition law was passed. 









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PART IV 



History of Mississippi's Old Capitol. 

The Movement for the Preservation of Mississippi's Old Capitol. 

The New Capitol. 

United States Senators from Mississippi. 

Mississippi Congressmen. 

Confederate States Congressmen from Mississippi. 

Mississippi's State Flag and Coat of Arms. I 

Federal Officers in Mississippi. i 

Congressional Districts of Mississippi. ! 

Counties of Mississippi. 

Popular Vote for Governor. 

Indian Names of Mississippi Counties. 

Election Returns. ^ 

Executive Departments, Officers and Boards. 

Senators and Representatives in Congress. 



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HISTOEY OF MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL. 

By Mrs. Duxbab Ro\vl.\nd. 



AN APPEAL. 
1912 



To the Legislature of the State of Mississippi for the Preservation 
of the Old Capitol. . - 

To the Honorable Menibers of the Senate and the House of Representa- 
tives : 
Gentlemex: 

One of the important bills to come before the Legislature is that 
which has for its object the preservation and restoration of Missis- 
sippi's Old State House. In discussing the measure these questions 
naturally arise: Is it wise to preserve the building? Is it a general 
custom to preserve historic buildings? Does the preservation of such 
buildings serve a useful purpose? Can the building be preserved? Is 
there a useful purpose to which it may be (dedicated? If these ques- 
tions can be answered satisfactorily there should be no hesitancy upon 
the part of the Representatives of the people in securing to the State 
this valued record cf its past. 

It is the purpose of this appeal to endeavor to show that it is both 
practical and wise to preserve this historic building. If there is one 
passion which has in the past more than all others controlled the 
American people it irf iove of couiury. This is ihown on tvery page 
of recorded history since the settlement -of Jamestown. It is, also, 
shown in concrete form in the preservation of historic sites and build- 
ings throughout the country. Nothing encourages patriotism more 
than the conservation of the records of the achievements of a people, 
and that legislation which has for its object the fostering and en- 
couragement of patriotism and devotion to country should be ap- 
proved by every good citizen. That it is wise then to preserve the 
records connected with the life and institutions of the State which 
strengthen patriotism is readily admitted, and answers the first ques- 
tion. 



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382 MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAnTOL 

The second question, "Is it a general custom to preserve historic 

buildings?" admits of no argument, f^ven the casual stucient of his- *. 

tory finds that this custom has prevailed among all civilized nations. | 

In order, however, to bring the truth home, to those whose present ] 

duty is to create wise and helpful legislation for the State, a few ex- J 

amples are cited from the Southern States: The sacred shrines of , 
Virginia have been preserved for posterity with jealous care. :Mount 

Vernon, the home of Washington; Monticello, the home of Jefferson: \ 

Arlington, the home of Robert E. Lee; the Capitol of the Confederate | 

States at Richmond; St. John's Church, where Patrick Henry de- \ 

livered his famous utterance, "'Give me liberty or give me c't^ath;" the - j 

White House of the Confederacy, and many others too numerous to . | 

mention. Other States as well as Virginia are engaged in the patriotic ; 
work of preserving their historic buildings. Alabama has preserved 
the first Capitol of the Confederacy; Tennessee, the Hermitage, and 

Louisiana, the Cabildo. Is ^Mississippi not controlled by the same high '■ 

aspiration? Will its people sit supinely by and see the only historic \ 

building within its borders doomed to oestruction? | 

The third question is, "Does the preservation of historic buildings 
serve a useful purpose?" The educational value of historic buildings 

can be traced through the history of the world. From, the remote ^ 

time when David was stirred by Divine aspiration to erect a temple I 

in Jerusalem to represent not only the religious life and ideals of j 

Israel but the national life of the people, as well, the value of any | 

structure, with which has been associated* the history of a people, has | 

been recognized by all enlightened nations, and the preservation of | 

such structures has always been regarded as a duty of the people. | 

Every land, whether enlightened or not. has shrines to which its peo- ^■ 

pie point with pride. The primitive peoples and pagan nations fash- ; 

ioned temples as exponents of their civilization. The parthenon of \ 

the Greeks and the Pantheon of the Romans tell a story that recorded ^ 

history has scarcely been able to translate. More than one-half of j 

England's granc^eur and greatness lies in that which has been pre- ^ 

served of its past. Independence Hall in Philadelphia means more 1 
and is worth more to the Ar/.erican people than all the skysrrapprs of 

New York and Chicago. Why iz this true? It is be^ai'^*^ it reprpsents '\ 

the highest ideals of the American nation, and stands as a perpetual | 

reminder of the trials and triumphs, of a nation of free men. The ^ 

preservation of historic buildings and records is the truest evidence '% 

of the love of the present generation for those who have made its j 

history, and the sentiment which prompts it honors and exalts a | 

people. - - J 

The fourth question is, "Can the building be preserved?" It is com- | 

mon knowledge among the archirects and builders of this anO ot'aer • 

States that the Old State House of Mississippi is one of the most per- i 



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MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL 383 

feet buildings from an architectural standpoint in the entire South; 
that its foundiations are good, its walls strong and durable; and that 
its condition is far superior to that of most historic buildings which 
have been preserved. These facts have been attested in official re- 
ports made to the Legislature, and are matters of record. It would 
require an appropriation, it is true, to restore the building, but the ex- 
penditure could be distributed over the period of several years, if the 
con(5ition of the State's finances makes it unwise to appropriate all 
necessary funds at once. 

This brings us to our last question, which asks, "Can the building 
be devoted to useful purpose?" The bill to be introduced in the Legis- 
lature provides that the Old Capitol be used for an historical building. 
Could any purpose be more fitting? Is there any enlightened land, 
state or city where there is not some building devoted to the preserva- 
tion and keeping of its historical treasures? As they increase year 
by year should there not be some provision made for preserving them? 
Should there not be some place where a State's cultural history can 
be traced by the student and traveler? Would not such a step for- 
ward fix the attention of the outside world? 

With those who in connection with the subject have placed stress 
upon helping the living, we agree, that it is well to help the living. 
That should be the principal purpose for which we live, and is the 
principal reason for which we preserve history, art and letters. Every 
state and community should provide all possible means for the moral 
and mental improvement of the youth of the land; but it is very illogi- 
cal to think that the appropriation of large sums of money educates 
the people. The only way to educate people is to provide them with 
proper mental food, and surround them with such influence and legisla- 
tion as will be conducive to good citizenship. We might appropriate 
every dollar in the State Treasury for the advancement of the cause 
of education, but if we do not at the same time instill into the minds 
of the children of the State a true appreciation of their own history as 
a people, we have failed miserably in our guardianship of them. If 
we have taught them by actual example to treat with indifference 
their past achievement, to neglect and let the record of it fall into a 
state of ruin and decay, we shall in the end have little to show for 
the large sums appropriated for their e(5ucatIon, since if the right 
aspirations and ideals are not fostered in an individual or a race 
character becomes artificial and will not stand the test of the touch- 
stone. 

Many errors of judgment arise from illogical methods of reasoning. 
For instance, we are very anxious to educate the children of the State 
to that degree where they will inevitably appreciate history. Would 
it not be illogical to at thp same time remove from their own locality 
and State the records of their own history? In other words, we 



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384 MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOn 

would make it possible for them to acquire that education which makes 
them appreciate Westminister Abbey, but would at the same time doom 
them to the unhappy belief that their own State had nothing worthy 
of preservation thereby lessening their self-respect, which is the most 
important part of all education. You can readily see that when you 
have educated a child to appreciate the great historical sources of 
other lands, he will not appreciate the fact that you have removed and 
destroyed the like sources of his own state. 

In making this appeal to our Representatives we present thB wishes 
of the women of Mississippi. It does not come from any particular 
town or section,' but from all over the great commonwealth, where our 
lawmakers live. This voice, emanates from the fireside, from which 
atmosphere you will agree that the safest counsel comes. Today, it 
is pleading against the longer neglect of our sacred past, for well we 
know that in the loss of the only historic public building in the State, 
Mississippi would receive a wound in her best life and aspiration which 
would be slow to heal. 



HISTORY OF MISSISSIPPrS OLD CAPITOL.* 

After all its years of great historic action and interest, silently await- 
ing the decision of the Legislature. Mississippi's old ante-heUiim State 
House stands, an eloquent witness of the State's progress and prowess, 
since young statehood to the present day, covering a period that is 
fast rounding out a century of marvellous history. So much has been 
written about the architecture and construction of the splendid new 
capitol, so recently erected in the State, that a brief history of the 
historic old building, where such scenes were enacted as make possible 
the achievements of today, will be interesting to Mississippians. and 
as a subject for thought as to the fate of old buildings generally, to 
others as well. 

The story of the Old Capitol of Mississippi, which has been gathered 
from the public archives, covering as it Ooes an evolutionary period 
of the State, and to a large extent, that of our entire nation, is one full 
of interesting details, which will be briefly sketched here. 

The first State House erected in Mississippi, which was also the 
first official building erected in the city of Jackson, was a small brick 
house which stood on the northeast comer of what are now Capitol 
and President Streets. It w-as erected in 1822, under the supervision 
of William Lattimore and Peter A. Vandorn, the commissioners who 
were elected by the Legislature to locate a permanent s.eat of govem- 



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MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL 385 

ment for tlie State. There was a great deal of sharp controversy oyer 
the selection of a site for the permanent capltol of the State, the 
Natchez country claiming— and with good reasons — that since Mlssla- 
sippi originated within her territory, its seat of government should re- 
main somewhere in her midst. But the northern part of the State, 
after the removal of the Indians, began filling up very rapidly, with a 
splendid tide of emigration from the older Southern States, and It was 
thought to be the best policy to locate the capitol as near the geo- 
graphical center of the State, as possible. 



CLINTON LOST THE FIGHT. 

The historic little city of Clinton — then Mt. Salus — well located and 
possessing an intellectual atmosphere, a few years later sharply ques- 
tioned the location, and looked with lofty disdain upon the Pearl 
River site; but the latter prevailed in the controversy and continued 
to be the capitol, bearing the name of Jackson, in honor of Andrew 
Jackson, in all of whose brilliant exploits in the Lower South, Missls- 
sippians had taken such a prominent part. 

The little brick capitol cost the state about three thousand dollars 
and was used for legislative purposes until 1839. It was a two-story 
affair of small (iimensions, but sufficient, perhaps, for the small bodies 
which convened beneath Its roof, its most far-reaching and historic 
event perhaps, being the nomination of Robert J. Walker to the United 
States Senate, a Mississippian who was destined to leave his Impress 
upon national history. One constitutional convention was held within 
its chambers, and many of the scenes enacted there were, no doubt, 
full of interest, not least among them being the visit that Andrew Jack- 
son paid it when a presidential candidate in 1828. However, Its serv- 
ice to the State was brief, and the most substantial proof of Its exist- 
nce is found in the short legislative and descriptive record which pro- 
vided for it, from which has been painted a picture for the Mississippi 
Historical Department. The painting is, without doubt, a very cor- 
rect one, and the artist displays much genius in the out-door life with 
which he surrounds the building, not forgetting to present the ladies 
who were passing that way in full ante-helium costume. His gentle- 
men, too, have the stately distinguished air that characterized the 
upper classes of that day. Withal, the artist has done his work well, 
and the first capitol of Mississippi now shadows forth its brief life, 
alone, in artistic interpretation. 

At the January session of the Legislature of 1833, It was decided 

that a new capitol building was necessary for the growing interests 

of the State, and a bill was passed for the erection of the building 

which now stands on State Street at the head of X^apitol, the main 

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386 MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL 

business street of the city. It is still, for all the ravages of time and 

cruel neglect, a handsome and imposing edifice that would attract at- j 

tention in any city of the United States, for its stately proportions and j 

highly classical outlines. 1 



APPROPRIATED $95,000.00. 



The Legislature at the same session appropriated $95,000.00 for the \ 
erection of the building, $75,000.00 to be used for the cost of the ma- 
terial and the remainder for the payment of the architect and for all ■ 
the other expenses accruing (during the cost of erection. The act j 
also provided that the cost of the building should be defrayed, as far \ 
as possible, with the proceeds from the sale of town lots in the city of ^ 
Jackson. ■ j 
Under the provisions of the State House Act, Governor Abram M. | 
Scott, who was at that time chief executive of the State, was given the .. 
authority to appoint a State Architect, who should have supervision of i 
the building of the new capitol. Tn the correspondence of Governor 4 
Scott, which is on file in the State archives, there is a letter from the i 
Governor to David Morrison, an architect and builder of Nashville, .j 
Tennessee, which is repro(5uced from the original: I 
**SrR! At the last session of the Legislature of this State a law was | 
passed providing for the erection of a certain public building In this | 
place, and making it the duty of the executive to appoint an architect 1 
to contract for and superintend the building of the same. "Being de- ] 
slrous. If practicable, to secure an architect of suitable skill and ex- ! 
perience within the limits of our own State. I have delayed m^aklng : 
the appointment until now. A sense of duty compels me to delay no 4 
longer, and I have determined to tender you the appointment, pro- * 
vided you will come Immediately dovv-n and enter Into bond and take 1 
the oath in conformltv with the provisions of the law. Should you, .^ 
however, prefer executing the bond in Nashville, you will please do It 4 
in strict conformity with the Taw, a copy of which is herewith en- | 
closed. You will also be pleased to have the execution of the bond I 
properly authenticated, so as to give it effect In this State. I 
"J would be glad to have written testimonials In regard to the i 
validity of the securities from Governor Carroll, Judge Catron, Jno. P.. 1 
Erwin, "Esqr., and John M. Bass. Esqr., or any two of them. 5} 

i 

*'l have asked the favor of you to come down without delay In thi5 
event of your agreeing to accept the appointment and to notify me 



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MISSISSIPPI'S OI^D CAPITOL 387 

forthwith in the event of your refusal. The draft you were so good 
as to send me by Mr. Harrison is an excellent one, and is veiy much 
admired here. With much respect, 
"I remain your obedient servant, 

A. M. Scott. 
"D. Morrison, Esqr., Nashville, Tennessee." 

To Governor Scott's letter Mr. Morrison replies as follows: 
"To His Excellency, A. M. Scott: 

"Dear Sir: I received your kind favor of the 20th of May, and not- 
withstanding the small salary attached to the responsible office of 
State Architect, T would most srladlv accept the appointment if my 
engagements here would permit me to visit your State as soon as you 
request. I could remove with my family to Mississippi the 1st of 
November next, at which time I could take with me workmen of the 
best order, which would be out of my power to do at this time, as 
Northern men will not remove to the South at this season. 

"I am at present building a State Hospital for the Insane, for which 
I am engaged for five months. 

"I could give you a bond as requested in this place with the best of 
securities. 

**My health is very bad. and has been since I received your com- 
munication, which is the cause of the delay. I am with great respect, 
sir, 

"Tours obedient, 

"D. MORBISOIT." 

Mr. Morrison adds a postscript, in which he says: "The cholera 
has been raging here for ten days, and making awful havoc among all 
classes of citizens.** 



ACTIVE WORK BEGUN. 

After an extensive correspondence on the subject of the proposed 
building, all of which has been classified in the State Historical De- 
partment, making an interesting chapter for lovers of detail. Governor 
Scott, on recommendation of Governor Carroll, of Tennessee, appointed 
John Lawrence, of Nashville, Tennessee, State Architect. Governor 
Scott died in 1833 with cholera, which spread all over the country 
that year, Charles Lynch. President of the State Senate, filled the un- 
expired term, and was succeeded by Hiram G. Runnels, and it was 
under the latter's administration that active work on the building be- 
gan. 

In 1835, Governor Runnels became dissatisfied with Mr. Lawrence's 
plan and appointed William Nichols State Architect, an action which 



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388 MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL 

the Legislature of the next year approved, having on investigation 
found the late Architect's accounts in a state of confusion. The com- 
mittee appointed to take the matter in hand recommended an entire 
change of plan, and the adoption of one submitted by Architect Nichols. 
The Lawrence plan was not entirely rejected, but the work was found 
defective and the foundation was relaid. 

The corner-stone, an eye-witness says, was laid about this time, a 
tremendous throng witnessing the occasion, composed principally of 
the landed gentry. These came with their families in carriages 'from 
the great plantations lying from two to three days' journey from the 
capital city, and many were the merry jests made at the expense of 
the little town, some of the most irreverent of the merrymakers going 
so far as to say it did not compare in size with the "negro quarters 
at home." But the small inland town, nevertheless, continued to grow, 
slowly it is true, for it was a day of plantation life, and none but the 
larger cities, such as New Orleans and Mobile, held' fascinations for 
these representatives of a social system, bearing in many respects a 
similarity to that of the feudal days of their English ancestors. 

During the sessions of the Legislature of 1S38, interest in the new 
capltol continued to be the paramount one, and an act was passed 
creating a position of Commissioner of Public Buildings, and giving 
him control over the work of the capltol building. At the same ses- 
sion of the Legislature, an additional appropriation of $120,000.00 was 
voted and work on the building was continued. Some of the material 
used In its construction was brought from New Orleans. The stone 
composing the lower corridors, porticos, and facings was taken from a 
quarry in Hinds County, and the large timbers and beams, and much 
of the other woodwork came from the Mississippi forest. The brick, 
too, was made In the city of Jackson, thus making it what might be 
termed a home product. 

In 1839, the Legislature moved Into the new building, which was 
still unfinished. A. G. McNutt had been elected Governor, and a rigid 
investigation, which he instigated, showed some extravagance In the 
handling of the funds appropriated for the building. During the 
next few years the Legislature made other appropriations for its com- 
pletion making the entire cost somewhere near the sum of $400,000. 



HISTORIC SCENES IN OLD CAPITOL. 

A story of the Old Capitol that did not portray some of '^he historic 
incidents which transpired within its timeworn walls, wjuld be cold 
and colorless, as life without spirit-glow and warmth. Could many of 
the great political and social dramas enacted within its stately cham- 



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JdJSSlSSIFPI'S OlaD CAPITOL. 389 

bers have been transferred to canvass, a rich heritage, indeed, of art 
and history would have been preserved to posterity. 

Beside the laying of the corner-stone during the course of erection, 
and the executive inaugurals and legislative assemblages which marked 
the first years of the life of the great building, many other notable 
events occurred there which endear it to all true-hearted Mississippians. 
Andrew Jackson was received within its portals when he paid a sec- 
ond visit to the city in 1840. What an outburst of patriotic enthusi- 
asm must have marked the occasion, coming as it did from a people 
who had much in common with the hero of New Orleans. During the 
same day, tradition records, that he was given a great dinner at the 
Eagle Hotel and tradition also records that the Eagle was not a St. 
Regis. Many of the duels of that day, doubtless, had their origin in 
fierce controversies held in that famous hostelry. But of the Eagle 
some other time. 

In 1844, Henry Clay, the man who more than any other of that 
period of the country's history, represented the spirit of conciliation 
and adjustment, was a guest of the State of Mississippi, his presence 
in the Old Capitol adding another imperishable recollection to the 
many which cluster around it. His splendid manhood, both physical 
and mental, never appeared to a better advantage than at that period 
of his life, his marvelous powers never more transcendant. But 
though gifted with a superb leadership and far in advance of the day 
in the spirit of adjustment in the administration of the affairs of gov- 
ernment, he was destined to share in the defeat of a party not as vi- 
brant with life and power as its leader. He was welcomed in a 
scholarly address to Mississippi's Capitol, by Judge David Shelton, who 
was one of the prominent leaders of the Whig party in Mississippi. 
And though not in accord with the stanch Democracy of the State, and 
diametrically opposed to it upon the subject of the tariff, no man was 
ever received in the capitol building of Mississippi with more courtesy 
and respect. It was within its walls that, a few years later, the gifted 
McClung, scholar, poet, and orator, pronounced upon him one of the 
most beautiful orations of that day. 

Another inspiring scene presented in Mississippi's Old Capitol flashes 
out from the past as if photographed from the days of chivalry. It 
was when the State was welcoming home Col. Jefferson Davis and his 
gallant Mississippi Rifles, from the fields of Mexico. Tall, spare, hand- 
some, with a seriousness of face and manner suggestive of sadness, the 
young commander moved amid the admiring throng upon crutches, 
which could not conceal the soldierly grace of his bearing. Wholly im- 
conscious of the laurels won at Buena Vista, with an indescribable 
charm of manner and person, a singleness of purpose and devotion to 



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390 MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPiTOL 

country, he lield mea's hearts in a grip that day; and it is evidence of 
Ms great power that ihroughout liie, in triumph and unsuccess alike, 
he retained his hold upon the people of his tstate and section. 

It was from the portico of the Old Capitol that the famous regiment 
vas welcomed home amid strain of martial music, and it is said by 
one present that the scene took on the air of a great out-door fete. A 
shading of the brilliant picture was the fact that of the Jackson Com- 
pany who marched with Davis to Mexico, only three returned, — one 
on a litter, one on crutches, — the latter a brother of Brigadier General 
Wirt Adams, of Confederate fame. 



CIVIL WAR CLOUDS. 

But the Old Capitol was to witness scenes of even a more heroic 
day, — scenes that concerned the peace of a people personally, for while 
there still lingered in the ears of men the tramp of soldiery girded for 
defense of country on the plains of Mexico, still other gleams from the 
lightning glance of Mars shot athwart the sky. 

The colonial States of South Carolina and Virginia never felt that 
they were forced by any obligation, but that it was a voluntary act, 
when they became a part of the United States, and felt that certain 
rights and privileges had been reserved to the States in the national 
compact. In this last conviction the other Southern States, more or 
less, shared. As early as 1849, even earlier, an uneasiness in the 
minds of the people throughout *^lie South regarding the question of 
States' Rights' was visible. Slavery, which had fixed itself upon the 
South, not only as a natural process in the evolution of a weaker race, 
which had been an old-w^orld custom, but as an economic condition as 
well, was involved in the question of States Rights. While it had 
little to do with the old contention of special rights and privileges of 
the States, which had been agitating the minds of the people both at 
the North and the South since liie days of 1789, it served admirably 
for the occasion of the present trouble, being the fuse that ignited and 
burned to a char the long cherished theory of secession, the conflict 
over it furthermore preserving, in the fiery crucible by which it was 
tested, the principles of State sovereignty. 

While the political caldron seethed, many conflicting personal in- 
terests arose, all to be finally overshadowed in the South by the 
patriotic one of State welfare. In Mississippi the feeling grew daily 
receiving, howevm-, a slight check in the Convention of 1850. This 
Convention though instigated by Gen. John A. Quitman, an ardent and 
unbending States Rights leader, fell into the hands of the Unionist 
party, through the selection of delegates, and dominated by such bril- 



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kiSSISSIFPI'S OLD CAFITOL SSi 

liant leaders as Amos R. Johnston, William L. Sharkey, and William 
Barksdale, adopted resolutions which said in substance that the people 
of Mississippi, while they did not entirely approve of it, would abide 
by the congressional legislation affecting slavery as a permanent ad- 
justment of the sectional controversy, "so long as the same shall be 
enforced, and faithfully adhered to." 

Secession in Mississippi was postponed for a time, but neither could 
the compromise measure, nor the Unionist victory in the Convention 
referred to, stem the tide that had set in against centralized power 
in the National Government. Above all other ideals of popular gov- 
ernment in the Western Republic, the Mississippians, ardent followers 
of Jefferson, Calhoun, and now Jefferson Davis, had enthroned the doc- 
trine of States' Rights. Its emblem adorned the lapel of nearly every 
Mississippi gentleman, and fair-handed women fashioned the little 
blue rosettes and presented them to their sweethearts, declaring with 
a proud lift of the head, that no man should claim their heart and hand 
who did not wear the "Blue Cockade." 



ACT OF SECESSION. 

In the new State Capitol of Mississippi is preserved, in the Stat© 
Historical Department, the original Ordinance of Secession, now hand- 
somely framed and locked in a mahogany case. Standing before this 
treasured record of the past, we, of this generation, are apt to feel a 
sensation of doubt and disapproval creep into our minds when we 
read the lines: 

"An ordinance to dissolve the union between the State of Mississippi 
and other States united with her under the compact entitled the Con- 
stitution of the United Stales of America." 

But when we scrutinize the record closely and see in the long list of 
names signed to that instrument those of L. Q. C. Lamar, J. Z. George, 
and Wiley P. Harris, we feel that no slight provocation stirred this 
intelligent bouy to such a course. 

But, be the provocation suiiicient or not, the hour for supreme action 
had arrived, and the history of the world furnished no more remark- 
able occasion than it presented, nor groups upon its pages no more 
unusual body than that which gathered in the Representatives' Hall of 
the Old State Capitol of Mississippi on the morning of January 7, 1861. 
In the grave and tense manner of each participant could be seen and 
felt the strength of purpose that gathers in men's souls when girding 
themselves for the performance of some great deed which involves not 
only their own fate, but that of an entire people. They had been en- 
trusted with the honor and interests of a great State which must be 
preserved, let the consequence be what it may. Jefferson Davis, their 



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392 illSSlSSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL 

honored and trusted representative in the higher branch of the National 
Congress, had with imperial and peerless powers, continually held be- 
fore their eyes Jefferson and Calhoun's interpretation of the doctrine 
of States Rights. There could be no other interpretation of it for the 
South, in which section it has always been revered with a feeling 
almost fanatical. If there remained an explanation the golden oppor- 
tunity for adjustment had passed. It was no longer a question for 
even the able leaders to determine — this final and supreme one of 
secession — but had been referred to the people. Even Jefferson Davis 
would now have been powerless to modify the term.s of the edict, 
that — lacking, as we know it did. his prudent counsel and calm judg- 
ment — would forever be the one by which the people of Mississippi 
must abide. 

The Convention moved forward in the usual manner, and a commit- 
tee to draft the ordinance was appointed from the ablest leaders. 
Their deliberations lasted into three days, when finally on the third 
the ordinance was reported by L. Q. C. Lamar, the brilliant young 
chairman, — the man "who," in the language of one of Mississippi's 
gifted sons, "was to reach out in later years across the chasm that 
divided the North and South." 

A strained and eager audience received the instrument amid a 
silence so intense as to be oppressive. As slowly and with suppressed 
emotion, the passages, one by one, were read, a number of hearts in 
the solemn assembly seemed well nigh bursting as their deep signifi- 
cance dawned upon the mind. But nothing could stem the tide that 
had set in against the encroachment of power in the national govern- 
ment, and the only means with which this usurpation could be met 
was resistance. That discipline of mind that marked men's actions at 
a later period, was not theirs. They knew no way to parry the blow, 
to match the power of wrong thinking with the power of right think- 
ing, but true to the ideals of chivalry and knighthood, accepted the 
challenge instantly. 



A MOMENTOUS HOUR. 

And now there remained nothing to complete the great drama but 
the final act. Would it take place? The hearts of men stood still. 
The hour was big with destiny; not only the destiny of one people, 
but that of much of the human race hung in the balance. The Muse 
of History held her pen aloft, breathlessly, expectantly, yet withal ad- 
miringly, for the flower of a great race surrounded her, and not the 
Parthenon of the Greeks, nor the Pantheon of the Romans were more 
suggestive of historical import than the stately edifice to which this 
grave goddess had wended her way that day. 



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MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL 393 

The picture was complete, and, in addition to its superb historical 
setting held an indescribable charm, for without the voices of chil- 
dren were heard in the street, the odor of early violets and hyacinths 
crept in through open casements, the dark green of the live oak and 
magnolia glistened beneath the soft, mild beams of a Southern sun, 
filling with light and beauty the winter sky, and but for the anxious 
groups gathered in the porticos and open courts of the great building 
the domestic life of the people seemed undisturbed. Within, all was 
seriousness, gravity, deep concern, with here and there a still white 
face, upon whose tense lineaments seemed to be gathering the shadow 
of some impending sorrow. But while over the scene hung a solem- 
ity, as if were taking place some solemn confirmation of souls, some 
sacred sacrament of the bread and wine, far flung from other years 
their eyes had caught the radiant light that lit the pathway of Swit- 
zerland's Confederates resisting the oppression of Austria, of Crom- 
well leading his Ironsides against the proud cavaliers of Charles; of 
Kossuth defending with deathless devotion his sweet" Hungary; of 
Kosciusko dying for the liberty he could not give his beloved Poland; 
of Washington leading their own ancestors against the tyranny of the 
Crown. Throughout the ages it -had lit men's faces wherever Liberty 
unfurled her flag, and finding here a native atmosphere burst into a 
living flame. 

The hour would rank with any in the history of the world, when 
the solemn vote was taken and the announcement made that Missis- 
sippi had severed her connection with the American Union — had sacri- 
ficed all in defence of State sovereignty. A great wave of excitement 
swept the audience, and grave and dignified men, swayed by a common 
impulse, joined in the deafening applause. In an instant the hall was 
a scene of wild tumult, and as the continuous cheering was borne 
through the corridors and down the stairways of the stately edifice, 
reaching the anxious throng without, a great shout rent the air — 
exultant, defiant and thrilling with a fierce note as if borne of some 
sudden memory of the jungle. Again and again it swept out over the 
city and along the river, mingling with the boom of cannon. 



. . THE FIRST FLAG OF DIXIE. 

Each moment the scene grew more dramatic, gathering in color and 
intensity, as through the throng was borne a magnificent silk banner 
upon whose beautiful blue folds glittered a single white star. As the 
emblem was carried into the hall and presented to Col. W. S. Barry, 
the President of the Convention, who reverently held it aloft, the audi- 
ence thrilled with its beauty and significance, sprung to their feet, 
and. amid wiVl applause, saluted the first flag of the young Republic 



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394 MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL 

Fluttering in the soft light, as if uncertain of itself, it seemed to possess 
the shy, seductive charm of youth, and as they beheld it with ad- 
miring eyes, they felt it no sacrifice to pledge their lives in defense of \ 
its honor. Among the ensigns of the world it trembled and floated ^ 
like nebula loosed from some dissolving planet, but withal of a quality | 
so rare and vibrant that it would forever typify a living substance ^1 
Dear to their hearts in the first hour of its history, dearer still it gre^r \ 
when its beautiful folds were baptized in the life-bood of its defenders, \ 
to henceforth become one of the historic flags of the world. \ 

The emblem had been made, evidently for the present occasion, by 1 

Mrs. Homer Smythe, of Jackson, Mississippi, and represented in its _] 

sudden inspiration and beautiful fashioning the impulsive love and I 

devotion to country which characterized the women of the Confederacy. - 

The Irish comedian, McCarthy, filling an engagement at the Jackson - 
theatre, found his profession tame and uninteresting after witnessing 
the thrilling scene in the Mississippi State Capitol; and stirred, no 
doubt, by pathetic memories of his own dear land, abandoned for the 
moment the "lighter vein," and with imagination fired, contributed to _• 
the new Republic its first battle song — the famous "Bonnie Blue ^., 
Flag" — in honor of the beautiful silk banner which had won his ad- 
miration that day. The verses were printed in the city paper the next 4 
day by Col. J. L. Power. They were immediately set to music and suns: 3 
for the first time in the Jackson Theatre. A week later they were j 
heard on the streets of many Southern and some Northern cities, to | 
finally become one of the most popular songs of the Confederacy. I 

Preparations for war were made in the same Convention that dis- f 

solved Mississippi from the Union, for its members felt that a conflict .| 

would follow the declaration of the State's independence. Jefferson . 

Davis, that heroic figure destined by Clio to become the protagonist of ;; 

the great national tragedy, was placed in command of the Army of ' ] 

Mississippi, and other officers were elected and delegates named for j 

the Convention of Southern States at Montgomery, Alabama. In con- \ 

nection with this, it will be of much interest to readers throughout j 

the Southern States to know that Mississippi enjoys the unique dis- 1 

tinction of claiming the only tvro living survivors of the Confederate ^ 

Congress in the persons of Judge J. A. P. Campbell* of Jackson, and Z 

Judge John A. Orr of Columbus, the former being the only living ; | 

signer of the original Constitution of the Confederate States. j 

Secession accomplished in Mississippi, its Old Capitol was to wit- 4 

ness a still more tropic scene. Its majestic chambers that had echoed ^j 

the magic voice of Prentiss, were soon to reverberate with the tramp ' 

of armed soldiery, eager for the hour to display their prowess in bat- ^ 

tie, a prowess that was destined to excite the admiration of the world. \ 

Later, when the fierce conflict raged in the lower South, victorious • 



♦The death of Jud^e Campbell, who was one of Mississippi's greatest 
^statesmen, and lawgivers, occurred Jan. 10, 19J.7. 






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1 — CHURCH, COLUMBUS 2— CALHOUX INSTITUTE. MACON 

3— COURTHOUSE. COLUMBUS 



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MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL. 395 

foes invaded its sacred chambers, plundered its treasurers and scat- 
tered its records. 

The State Government was forced to seek other quarters. While the 
Federal Army moved in and out the capital city, burning and pillaging 
private homes, stores, churches and other property at its pleasure, it 
was impossible for the State officers to perform their official duties, 
consequently it was deemed advisable to remove the government to 
the northern party of the State, vrhich the Federals had abandoned 
for closer concentration around Vicksburg. The city of Columbus was 
chosen in the autumn of 1863 as the seat of government and during 
the month of November the Legislature assembled in that city, occupy- 
ing the old court house and Christian Church. It was on the portico 
of the court house that Governor Charles Clark was inaugurated and 
old residents of the town still relate many stirring incidents of the 
day. In all the legislation enacted by that unsettled and storm-tossed 
government one thought prevailed and was paramount to all others — 
that of keeping the wasted and depleted arm^y supplied with fresh 
troops; old age and tender youth alike were called into the service. 
and every trade and profession, even ministers of the gospel, were 
appealed to to take up arms in defense of the country. Grant's army, 
witli the assistance of practically the entire Federal fleet, had con- 
verted the central portion of the State into a solid battleground; had 
besieged and conquered the city of Vicksburg — the apple of the Con- 
federacy's eye in the lower South — but still the dream of freedom 
lured the Confederates, and tottering age and beardless youth answered 
the roll call during these last expiring hours of the fated Confederacy. 
During the first invasion of the State in 1862, the Confederates had de- 
feated and overwhelmed the Federal forces at nearly every point, and 
the names of Van Dorn, and Forrest, lingered like a binding spell upon 
every lip. Their defense of the State was both brilliant and effective. 
and Sherman was glad to withdraw after his unsuccessful attack on 
Vicksburg, from the North. However, it had, for some time, been the 
policy and cherished dream of the Union Government to capture the 
lower South, gain control of the Mississippi River, devastate the 
home State of Jefferson Davis, and attack the army in Virginia from 
that direction; and during the second invasion, which culminated in 
the seige and surrender of Vicksburg, the Federal forces, composed of 
a powerful army and supported by naval forces on the Mississippi, the 
former under General Ulysses S. Grant, after nearly a year's desperate 
fighting, conquered and overrun the entire country. It was then, ac- 
cording to chimney-corner legend, that the beautiful white magnolia 
blooms, starring the deep wood everywhere, turned the color of blood. 
The strange phenomena referred to in this legend, may be explained 
in the fact that one sppclpq of the tree bears a bloom of a deep red 
color. However, it is a well-known fact that hundreds of these snowy 






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i 



396 MISSISSIPPI'S OI.D CAPITOL 

blooms, in the spring and summer of 1863, were trampled in human 
blood in the forest leading to and around Vicksburg, beneath whose 
friendly shade repose numberless forms of both the conquered and the 
conqueror, the knowledge o^ whose resting place Heaven only keeps 
the secret. But the grim war god, not satisfied with its toll of human 
life, attacks all treasures of civilization. During this troublesome 
period the old State Capitol of :Mississippi was the rendezvous of the 
rowdy military, and its records lay like soiled heaps of snow in its 
corridors and rotundas. It is true that the official government, which 
throughout the Confederacy had been tossed from pillar to post, in 
something of the manner of the English court of the time of Edward 
I, carried a portion of its archives in its train, and during these years 
the records were removed from the State House by Governors Pettus 
and Clark in turn, and stored in no less than half a dozen places, in- 
cluding Columbus, Enterprise. Meridian, and Macon. 

In 1864, the government met in the town of Macon, in the old Cal- 
houn Institute, a private female college, which, like so many others, 
was maintained during the Civil War. Between Macon and Columbus 
it took turn about until the close of the war, the writer's father. Major 
Benjamin B. Moore, having become a member of the assembly after 
the surrender of Vicksburg. 

The final overthrow of the Confederacy found Governor Clark in 
the town of Macon, but soon after the news of Appomattox was made 
oflSicial, with heavy heart but indomitable courage, he returned to Jack- 
son, the despoiled state capitol. It was then that the eye beheld a 
wasted and desolated land. All the pomp and circumstance of battle 
had passed away, and this Andalusia of the western hemisphere, in a few 
brief years, had become a wreck of its former self. The keys of its 
fortress, like those of Alhambra, had passed into the hands of the 
enemy, and. like ancient Granada, it lay prostrate at the feet of its 
conqueror. 

- But a darker scene awaited Mississippi's Old Capitol still, for the 
somberest that ever flung its shadow athwart the portals of a State 
building was the one of the reconstruction of the Southern States 
which followed closply upon thf^ war. and was felt in full force in 
Mississippi. The history of no oth^r land furni.=;hes a parallel to this 
one when the ignorant, helpless slave of the day before was placed in 
the legislative hall and council chamber to direct the destinies of the 
people, and an intelligent citizenry, by birth and training the social 
equals of Washington, Jefferson, and Madison, ejected by armed forces. 
It was then that the conquest of the South was a thing complete, 
and its people at times knew not where the Erebus Valley through 
which they were passing would lead. 

The historian has never yet clearly presented this chapter of Ameri- 
can history. The Northern historian has failed because he has written 



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MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL 397 

in somewhat of a prejudiced mood and largely in ignorance of his 
subject; the Southern historian, because he, perhaps, is too closely 
associated with the bitter experience. But the records are fast being 
compiled from which this chapter may be written by some master 
spirit who marks no boundary of race nor of creed in recording truth, 
but who. like Gibbon, has himself become a citizen of the world. 

But to return to the story of the Old State Capitol which hourly 
took on the color of the days of the coming of the Huns to the rich 
cities and valleys of Italy. For, from everywhere. Mississippi had sud- 
denly injected into her population a rapacious, ruthless hoard whose 
sole object was the spoliation of the beautiful country and the humilia- 
tion of its people. After peace had been declared between the two 
sections the most captious and critical historian, upon a close review 
of the records, will have to admit that Mississippi accepted in good 
faitji the results of the war, and set about with sincere purpose to re- 
sume her former place in the Union. Even amidst constant rumors 
that the military had orders to arrest any body of men seeking to exer- 
cise legislative ftmctions, Governor Charles Clark, the brave old War 
Governor, with serious and orderly effort, attempted to reorganize his 
government by calling an extra session of the Legislature. In re- 
sponse to his call, the body met in the Old Capitol, for the first time 
in several years; but the threat of armed power hourly grew more 
menacing and the baffled and discouraged assembly soon found that it 
would have to be granted more authority from the general govern- 
ment at Washington before setting up a State Government in the face 
of armed intervention. However, during its brief session of an hour, 
one sacred duty weighed upon the minds of its members so impera- 
tively that they refused to adjourn until they had performed it. With 
a faith still unshaken in the best virtues of their civilization, they pre- 
pared a petition asking for the release of Jefferson Davis from unjust 
and unlawful imprisonment at Fortress ^Monroe. Even amid the 
tumult and threat of personal harm they could not forget his melan- 
choly fate, and there in the old State House, with glittering bayonets 
drawn without and terrible suspense within, they spread upon the 
minutes and records of the State's history, in orderly legislative pro- 
cedure, a resolution appointing a committee to confer with President 
Johnson for securing the release of the defeated but still revered 
leader of the fallen Confederacy. In a short time the military, with 
heartless purpose and flamboyant manner, ejected Governor Clark from 
the executive office; and after one of the most dramatic collisions 
between a solitary figure and an armed power, in which civil authority 
was dethroned and degraded, the Governor of the State of Mississippi 
was arrestee^ with others and set as a prisoner to Fort Pulaski. The 
scorn with which the feeble old man, broken in health and body, ac- 
cepted the edict of physical force, makes a patch of brilliancy on Miss- 



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398 MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL 

issippi history unequalled in the glowing pages of fiction, and second 
only to the one of the ejection, a few years la:er, of Governor Hum- 
phreys from the same State chamber, by the ever jealous military 
which the National Government had unwisely thrown about the sub- 
jected State. 

Such despotic measures, for a few^ months, put an end to any at- 
tempt on the part of the people to set in motion the activities of State 
Government. But they w^ere, nevertheless, vigilant and watchful, and 
as were their ancient sires in the days of Hampden, ever ready to 
seize their opportunity. Forces were set in motion to thwart the 
military in its deadly purpose to override and reduce the country to a 
state of subjection. During the brief interval before the adoption of 
the congressional plan of reconstructing the Southern States, there 
sprung up a helpful co-operation between the State and National Capi- 
tols, and, under President Johnson's plan of re-organizing the State 
Governments in the South, w^hich largely resembled the w^ise and 
kindly one of Abraham Lincoln, Mississippi began another heroic at- 
tempt to establish civil government within her territory. Following 
Osterhaus' interference in civil affairs and ejection of Governor 
Clark, William L. Sharkey was appoinied provisional Governor of the 
State by President Johnson, and an orderly convention with serious 
ptirpose and intelligent conception of the situation was held in the Old 
State Capitol August 14, 1865. Admirable measures were adopted for 
adjusting affairs in Mississippi to new conditions arising out of the 
war. The Convention declared secession nuU and void, slavery abol- 
ishedj and the State ready and willr'ng to resume its former place in 
the Union. At a regular election, Benjamin G. Humphreys was selected 
Governor of the State, and his inaugural address, especially those pas- 
sages dealing with the future care of the negro race, is an utterance 
worthy of the brain of William E. Gladstone, who was himself in the 
circumstance of things, at one time, a part of the system of slavery. 
This utterance by the Governor of the Commonwealth gives uncontro- 
vertible proof of the people's willingness to adjust their affairs to new 
conditions, and of their capacity for the supervision of an inferior race 
for whom they were, notwithstanding the fulsome protestations of the 
political fortune hunters flooding the country, keepers still, and would 
always be until that infant race could stand alone. 

For nearly three years Governor Humphreys labored faithfully and 
intelligently — though constantly under the eye of a jealous military — 
to re-estabish the State Government; until he too, like Governor Clark, 
was summarily ejected from office by armed force. A proud repre- 
sentative of a proud race, the personal Insult was made subordinate 
to the one to his State, for whose honor and safety he could but feel a 
sponsorship. With suppressed indignation, he contended that his eject- 
ment was unconstitutional, and though they cowered before his in- 



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MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL * 399 

tellectual force and moral courage, with flagrant abuse of power, they 
pressed their point to the uttermost, and with drawn sabres took pos- 
session of the old State Capitol. Then folloAved in full force and 
ruinous effect the plan of reconstruction which had been adopted by 
Congress, July 19, 1S67, which is known in hisiory as the Congressional 
plan. It began with the Convention of 1868, which of itself cost the 
State — then staggering under the burden of financial ruin causedi by 
the war — nearly a quarter million of dollars. Controlled and dic- 
tated by an element far more corrupt than the newly emancipated 
slaves, who became as plastic clay in the hands of their leaders, and 
shadowed by ignorance, incapacity and untitness, it stan(is out farcical 
in the history of legislative procedure, mingling with its sombreness 
and gloom a grotesqueness weird and unnatural in the story of the 
world's civilization. It was during this Convention that franchise pro- 
visions were made, depriving a large portion of the white people of 
the State of the right to vote, and a resolution was adopted appoint- 
ing a committee to rnemoralize Congress to ueclare all civil offices 
vacant and vesting the appointments in the power of the Convention. 

Thus began the long drawn out "Walpurgis Night," which, despite 
the restraining influence of a few participants, continued its mad 
revel till the morning, ending after nearly eight years of fraud and 
corruption wath the impeachment of Adelbert Ames. Though the star 
actor in all that hideous drama, he was more blameable, it was be- 
lieved by many, for having suffered himself lo be drawn into the 
vortex of political corruption by which he was surrouncied, than for 
any personal inclination for wrong doing. 

The State Historical Department has, within the last few years, con- 
ducted an interesting and courteous correspondence with him and has 
received from him a valuable contribution to its files. 

During this unsettled period of Mississippi's history the people, for 
the most part, sat apart silent, sullen, with suppressed indignation, 
though with an occasional outburst of denunciation for some unhear(i- 
of extravagance or new degrac>ation to which their beloved State had 
been subjected. But the situation, at present almost unbearable, fore- 
boded a darker day. The government wrested from those who should 
have constituted its natural source of power, a new and graver danger 
presented itself. Everywhere it was becoming dangerous for white 
women and young girls to move about on the streets without a pro- 
tector, even ciuring the daylight hours. These were frequently being 
accosted familiarly and jocularly, a manner that reserve and resent- 
ment on their part only increased. But one had only to study the 
stern Anglo-Saxon faces of the people throughout the South, to know 
that just as they had borne themselves in establishing their civiliza- 
tion, they would defend its social customs and traditiors. 



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400 MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL 

The intelligent mind foresaw what would follow this aspiration and 
desire for social equality on the part of the lawless element in control, • 

if there was not a peremptory check placed upon the evil tendencies :| 

of the day. After much mental perturbation and unrest, spirited 
leaders throughout the South took the initiative and carefully formu- 
lated their plans; and suddenly, like some mystic and supernatural 
phenomenon it seemed, there appeared in the shadow of Mississippi's j 

Old Capitol a dozen white-robed figures mounted and armed, with ] 

whispered orders to organize. And there were others, still others, " i 

, until like a mighty avalanche it moved — the famous Ku Klux Klan, 
that silent btit potent army which, like a net-work, sprung up all over 
the South, for the protection of society. Its organization was com- ^ 

plete, its purpose as sacred as that which thrilled the deed of Tancred. 
The ignorant and prejudiced historian may attempt to defame it, may 
decry its purpose because of mistakes and irregularities that no less 
in its instance than in others attend all determined movements to 
break tyrannical conditions. In the study of this epoch, more and 
more it becomes apparent to the calm, logical mind that the South 1 

today is indebted to this "mysterious white-robed order" for the preser- j 

vation of its social system, which would have been dethroned along 
with its civil rights, and in as ruthless a manner as that which charac- ; 

terized the barbarians' conquest of the Roman states, had not its | 

dread menace deterred the lawless element then ravaging the country. ; 

Pledged not to take up arms against the National Government, with a i 

self control and discipline that must ever claim the admiration of all 4 

intelligent people, the former rulers of the cotmtry patiently bore 5 

with the pretended government that had destroyed their political struc- \ 

ture. But they held the protection of their social fabric an inviolable \ 

right that none might dispute, and it is a well known fact that the < 

position of the white women of the South was made safe after the or- \ 

ganization of the Ku Klux Klan, A Northern historian, writing some- ^ 

what illogically of this subject, since he was taking aim at nearly every | 

other thing in the South, attributed the safety of its social fabric to 
Providence by affirming that "Providence somehow watched over the I 

white women of the South." While we commend his faith in Provi- • * | 
dence, even though in the present instance there is some suspicion of j 

its having been made a convenience of, we must record our belief in I 

the fact that the Ku Klux Klan throughout the South was the agency 1 

that Providence employed to carry out its wise provision. There re- ■ 

mains yet, as a grateful act, for all lovers of the purity of the white I 

race in America, to erect to this modern and last general revival of f 

knighthood, a stone in thankful commemoration. 

It is not the purpose of this paper to give the full details of those . 

years of political misrule during the reconstruction of the State of | 

Mississippi; but as a background to that memorable legislative body I 



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MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL. 401 

assembled in the old State Capitol in 1876, which was one of the most 
historic of that period of the South's history, we quote the calm dis- 
passionate language of the author of the Mississippi volume in "The 
South in the Building of the Nation," who says: 

"The reconstruction Act was passed, possibly without a full knowl- 
edge of its terrible results, as the debates seem to indicate that the 
effect of negro rule, which was the inevitable outcome of such legisla- 
tion, was not the subject of discussion. The members of Congress 
knew nothing of the real situation of the South, and; made no effort 
to gather reliable information. It was the opinion of some of the best 
men of the North that there was nothing in the situation of affairs 
which justified even military rule. Governor Andrew of Massachusetts, 
advised that the burden of responsibility be placed on the Southern 
people. 'They have,' he said, 'the brains and experience and the 
education to enable them to understand the exigencies of the present 
situation.' Louis Agassiz, the great scientist, looked with loathing 
upon the enfranchisement of an ignorant, servile and alien race. In 
their frenzied zeal for the elevation of the negro, who was incapable 
of self-government, such men as Sumner and Stevens forgot the 
rights of a race that had been self-governing for centuries." 

But it was not to be supposed that a people who had established a 
civilization, in its characteristics markedly like that of England's, 
and who had proved their mettle upon the battle field in defense of it, 
would not regain their native vigor. The land had not more than 
grown green where the battle had raged, before their minds, strained to 
the highest tension as a consequence of the situation, began to formu- 
late plans for the preservation of their civilization and the restoration 
of their rights and liberties. In the revolution that followed, the State 
was stirred to its farthest boundaries, and the spirit manifested was 
one more of just indignation than that of anger. In the truth of 
this last assertion, the future historian will bear me out. 



THE LEGISLATURE OF 1876. 

In. the Democratic victory of 1877, the State passed again under the 
control of the native whites. The carpet-bag government forever at an 
end and the tragedy of reconstruction acted and over, the Democrats 
proceeded to put their political house in order. The old Capitol, now 
grown venerable with the cares of both peace and war, was to witness 
a new order of things. Order was to prevail where political corrup- 
tion had reigned and rioted. But a return to the right principles or" 
government after the disorder and misrule of reconstruction was no 
ordinary task and required statesmanship of the highest order. 
?^ — m 



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402 MISSISSIPPI'S OI.D CAFITOL 

In the supreme hour of lier trial, Mississippi gave proof of belonging 
to one of the most advanced civilizations of the world. The sole ques- 
tion of the hour was the rehabilitation of the fair commonwealth, 
iseli-interest \\ as lost sight of and every mind cjeomed to act in unison 
iKJL- the weiiare of the State. Conspicuous among cue names composing 
tne memorauie legislative body whicn came into power with the over- 
throw of •carpet-bag" rule, are those of Sione, x'eatherston, Percy, 
Lowry, Keynolds, and, among the younger members, Tnompson 'and 
(jatcnmgs, tne long roil constituting one of juissisbiyi s lairesi pos- 
sessions. j.n session out a iittie over tnree montns, tae boay appiiea 
itself sooeny, earnestly ana inueiligentiy to the worK oi restoration, 
ana when it aujournea history wen worthy oi preservation had been 
made. Tne estates nnanciai nonor had been restorea, taxation re- 
uuceu to an economic Oasis, tne judiciary naa oeen reconstructea, 
nisner eaucation promotea, ana every interest oi tne btate itu'tnerea. 
xue nopes oi tne people rt;vivea, ana orignt anticipation was visioie 
upon every countenance, ao nobler picture stanos out in the history 
of tne uia uapitoi than the one of tne intelligent, conscientious body 
of statesmen which composed the Legislature oi 16/6, ana we could 
maKe no better wisn for Aiississippi's xNew Uapitoi than that its rec- 
ora may oe as ciean and nonorauie, and its nistory as great ana 
woria-wiae as that rehected in this epocn of the State's history. 
. ±Jut tne latners, not content with their own saiety, with far-reachmg 
vision Duiit lor tneir cmlaren, and the Constitutional Convention of 
1690 uxed forever the ascenaency of mind over matter, preserving to 
tnis gooaiy land the itindly rule of intelligence. One of Aiississippi's 
ablest writers has said, in substance, that were there no other reason 
for preserving the Old Capitol, this one great deed performed beneath 
its roof is quite enough to place it among the most treasured posses- 
sions of the State. 

In this memorable convention w^hlch reflated the franchise in 
Mississippi by establishing an intelligence qualification for its exer- 
cise — destined in time to De accepted by ail Democratic communities — 
many able leaders arose, but it is genearily conceded that the most 
dominant spirit of the convention was that of J. Z. George, whose clear 
and powerful intellect and imalterable sense of justice fitted him 
especially for such a task. Another keen and subtle intellect was 
active in shaping and moulding the proceedings of that notable body, 
and of the many brilliant and gifted minds that composed it, perhaps 
the most purely intellectual was that of WUey P. Harris, who with 
the great Yergers had made the Mississippi bar one of the most bril- 
liant in the lower South. 









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MISSISSIPPI'S Oi^D CUPITOL. 403 

SCENES OF PEACE. 

During tliis period of its history the State advanced rapidly along 
all lines; but though progressing and evincing signs of the materialistic 
tendencies of the age, its people were not without veneration for the 
past, and among the most celebrated occasions that marked the history 
of the Old Capitol during the happier days that followeci the restora- 
tion of the State to its place in the Union, was the one when the aged^ 
President of the Confederacy was invited from Beauvoir — his quiet, 
sea-side home — to address the Legislature of 1884. When he appeared 
in the Representatives' Hall surrounded by a company of distinguished 
attendants, a tremendous shout went up from every throat, gentle 
women, with flushed faces and eyes bedimmed with tears, vieing with 
men in the welcoming applause. 

The history of the world furnishes no greater expression of admira- 
tion of a defeated; leader than that which was that day accorded this 
aged representative of a lost cause. As in the days of his young 
manhood, when flushed with victories won for his country, upon the 
field of battle, they had held him in their hearts, and as in the days 
of his national fame, they had followed him with implicit faith, so in 
the hour of his failure they gave him the homage that the people 
usually pay to the victorious. Every heart in the vast audience 
thrilled with love and veneration as he stood before them, calm and 
serene, with no self-pity upon his noble countenance, no bitterness in 
Ms heart, no complaint upon his lips, a conqueror still, since in the 
possession of a personality unchanged save for an added touch of 
faith in things unseen. His message to his people was full of loving 
counsel, and as it seemed always to do during these years, held for 
them the sweet comfort of a benediction. 

It was in the old State House, too, that his young daughter, "SYinnie, 
better known as the "Daughter of the Confederacy," some years 
later, received an ovation that might have been accorded the off- 
spring of some beloved ruler; and no princess of the Anglo-Saxon 
-races was more worthly of homage than she of the tribute paid her 
that day, her wealth of modest womanhood being not the least of her 
rare attractions. 



OTHER STIRRING MEMORIES. 

Though largely reflecting the ante-iellum life of the South, which 
socially could not be thrown off, as it were, in a day, it cannot be said 
that the Old Capitol did not assist in setting in motion activities that 
have brought about what is termed "woman's day," for it was in its 
time to witness the law that provided for the first state-supported In- 



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404 MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL 

dustrial Institute and College for women. But for all their liberal op- 
portunity, the women of today will have to admit that their ante- 
bellum mothers discussed politics, history and literature in their draw- 
ing-rooms with a relish, insight and rare charm unequalled in this 
day. This was especially true of the Mississippi woman of ante- 
helium days whose pioneer training made her very responsive to pub- 
lic affairs andi transplantation from the best families of the older States 
insured her culture. Perhaps, too, she felt the influence of legislation— 
the first upon record that had bestowed upon her sex equal property 
rights with men, and chartered an institution for their higher educa- 
tion. In these two particulars Mississippi claims the distinction of 
being the first State in the Union to advance the position of women. 



VISIT OF DAVID B. HILL. 

In the record of a people's history we are apt sometimes to over- 
look the humorous, but this rich vein is there for those who know 
how to find it. In Missisisppi's population, though practically of the 
stolid English stock, bloomed here and there, like rare exotics, the 
vivacity of the French, the wit of the Irish, and the humor of the 
Scotchman, which gave its people a capacity for pleasure. In addition 
to their love of amusement, they were famous entertainers, and were 
fond of inviting celebrities to their Capital, not seeming to think for 
a moment that it was of less importance than New York or Boston. 
And so it was that a spread-eagle invitation brought to the capital 
city the Hon. David B. Hill, presidential candidate in 1892. 

Mr. Hill was a silent man, much to the Mississippians' disappoint- 
ment, who were fond of people like themselves. Noting the disap- 
proval gathering in their faces as they discovered his indisposition 
for speech-making. Col. Charles E. Hooker, who accompanied him from 
Washington, whispered encouragingly, "Talk, Mr, Hill; when Missis- 
sippians cheer a man they want him to talk." 

"But we are cheering you, Colonel," remarked a good-humored by- 
stander. It need not be recorded that the brilliant and popular Con- 
gressman from the Capital District rewarded his admirers with a silver 
flow of oratory, for which he had won fame in the halls of Congress. 

And now from grave to gay, through storm and sunshine, briefly 
runs the history of the Old Capitol. Abandoned by the State Govern- 
ment in 1903 — at which date the writer then helping to conserve the 
historical records of the state, within its crumbling walls determined 
upon its preservation — it siands alone, pathetic in its aloofness, but 
appealing to all hearts with its proud contribution to the State's his- 
tory. Near it lies the small but beautiful Confederate Park, in which 



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MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL 405 

is erected one of the handsomest monuments to the private soldier of 
the South. The park is owneci by the United Confederate Veterans of 
Mississippi; the capitol grounds belong to the state, and taken alto- 
gether, the plot of the ground would make a situation worthy the his- 
toric old building. Representing as it does so much of Mississippi's 
historic past, no structure preserved within its borders would add 
more to its dignity and interest, nor inspire the minds of its people 
with nobler desires. To its historic precincts passing generations 
would come to drink of a higher inspiration. Within its walls, th.e 
traveler and sojourner would linger to hear the story of Jackson's 
rough democracy, of the presence of Kossuth, the Hungarian patriot, 
as he poured out his song of freedom, of the pacification and idealism 
of the great Clay, of the sublime patriotism of Jefferson Davis, and 
of the impassioned eloquence of Sargent S. Prentiss. Andi as the 
graceful statues and temples of the Greeks and Romans tell the story 
of past civilizations, so would this venerable pile teach in thrilling 
tones the history of Mississippi. 

Note — The preservation of Mississippi's Old Capitol by the Legisla- 
ture of 1916-20 was cause for much rejoicing by the women of Missis- 
sippi. 



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THE move:\iext eoe the peeservation 

OF MISSISSIPPI'S OLD CAPITOL. 



1903-1916. 



Tlie Second Annual Report of the Director of the Mississippi De- | 

partment of Archives and History submitted October 1, 1903, page 58, -| 

recommends a movement for the preservation of the Old Capitol. i 

Mrs. iDunbar Rowland took up the work of organizing the move- * 

ment in the fall of 1903, and secured the cooperation of the patriotic ! 

organizations of the State— U. D. C's, U. C. V's, U. S. C. V's, D. A. 4 

R's, Daughters of the War of 1812, Daughters of Veterans, Federa- | 

tion of Women's Clubs, and Woman's Christian Temperance Union. * 

Hon. W. W. Stone, Senator from the 29th District, on January 13, | 

1904, introduced S. C. R. No. 15 entitled, "A Concurrent Resolution | 

appointing a committee to es^amine and make report on the Old Cap- i 

itol building and grounds" (page 82, S. J. 1904). To committee on - 

public works. Reported January 20, 1904, as follows: "A Concur- I 

rent Resolution appointing Director of Archives a temporary keeper * 

of the Old Capitol. Do pass" (page 129, S. J. 1904). * 

. • . -I 

SESSION OF 1906. I 

Senate Journal 1906, page 152, S. C. R. No. 12: "A Concurrent I 
Resolution directing the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds 

to have reports made touching the condition of the Old Capitol and A 

grounds, and an estimate made of the probable cost of putting same .| 

into substantial and serviceable condition for certain purposes. 
Adopted January 29, 1906. To be used for historical purposes." 

SESSION OF 1908. 



Petition to Legislature from patriotic societies to preserve Old 

Capitol for Hall of Historical Records, Confederate Memorial, and ] 

State Museum. S. B. No. 195: "An act to provide for the restora- J 

tion, preservation and care of the Old State House for use as a Hall | 






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MOVEMENT FOR PRESERVATION OF OT.D CAPITOL 407 

Of Historical Records, State Museum and Confederate Memorial, and 
for the appointment of a commission to carry out the purposes of 
this act." Prepared and introduced by Spnator George J. Leftwich 
on the request of Mrs. Rowland. To Judiciary Committee. Report: 
That the Senate go on record as favoring the preservation and use 
of the Old Capitol, which Is the most historic building In Mississippi. 
That S. R. No. 61, which provides for the appointment of a commis- 
sion to devise and report to the 1910 session of the Legislature a plan 
for the preservation and use of the Old Capitol. - 

snEssioiT OF 1912. 

Petition from patriotic organizations to Legislature to preserve 
Old Capitol for an historical building, prepared by Mrs. Rowland and 
presented by Mrs. C. M. TVilllamson. 

S. B. No. 217: "To be entitled. An Act to preserve the Old State 
Capitol building at the head of Capitol Street, In the City of Jackson, 
Mississippi, as an historical building for the State of Mississippi, and 
to provide for the preservation of the same for historical and other 
purposes." Passed February 26, 1912. S. J. 1912, page 674. 



SESSION OF 1916. 

The patriotic organizations were very active in 1915 and 1916 for 
the preservation of the Old Capitol. Committees appeared before 
committees of the House and Senate, urging the preservation of the 
Old Capitol for historical purposes, and a history of the old building 
for use in the campaign was prepared. 

In all the preliminaries to the Introduction of S. B. No. 525, the 
Director of the Departm^ent of Archives and History was consulted 
as to the needs of the department for more suitable and larger quar- 
ters In the Old Capitol, and its needs were specially stressed in pre- 
senting the bill to members of the Legislature individually and in 
speeches on the fioor of both houses. The Director met frequently 
Avith a joint committee of the Senate and House on the Old Capitol, 
by request, and it was generally understood that in the event of the 
preservation of the building the historical department would be re- 
moved to it. 

The movement for the preservation of the Old Capitol had its ori- 
gin in the State Historical Department. The splendid v,omen of Mis- 
sissippi got behind it in 1903 and worked unceasingly until the pas- 
sage of the bill for the preservation of the building, April 8, 1916. 
It was their intention and the intention of the Legislature to have 
the Historical Department moved to it. 



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THE XEW CAPITOL. 



Silhouetted against the Southern sky on the eminence of a hill, to 
the north of the old Capitol site at Jackson, is located the new Capitol 
building of Mississippi, representing the unusual results of the com- 
bined efforts and methods of a commission, an architect and con- 
tractors. All may carry their heads in pleasant dignity, for, without 
smirch, wire-pulling or jobbery of any kind, the construction of this 
beautiful building was carried to a successful completion, finished 
within contract time without extras and within the estimated sum of 
the contract; and hence it stands in its massive dignity an example 
of conscientious business methods that might well be followed by 
many who have public improvements in their charge. 

The Capitol building at Jackson. Mississippi, emphasizes the advent 
of prosperity and modern progress in the South, and its educational 
mission will be far-reaching in its salutary effects upon future public 
buildings throughout the Southern States. 

The laying of the foundation of this building presented unusual 
difficulties on account of the soil, but a suitable remedy was finally 
devised after many tests and calculations; it was decided to remove 
the "marl" and replace it with Pearl River sand; the results have 
been very satisfactory and the initial settlement has been uniform 
and is much less than was expected under the circumstances. The 
foundations are of cement concrete, on the concrete rests the base 
stones of Georgia granite, and up from the granite base rise the grace- 
ful porticoes* colonnades and domes to a height of 135 feet, carried out 
in Renaissance style with bright gray Bedford stone from the noted 
old Hoosier quarry, from the competitive desism of Mr. Theodore C. 
Link, architect, St. Louis, Missouri, whose plans were selected from 
among fourteen competing architects and approved of unanimously 
by the State Capitol Commissioners, consisting of A. H. Longino, Gov- 
ernor, Chairman; Monroe McClurg, Attorney-General; R. H. Thomp- 
son; W. G. Stovall; R. A. Dean; L. T. Fitzhugh, Jr., Secretary; Mr. 
Bernard R. Green, of Washington, D. C, acting as Advisory Committee 
to the State Commissioners. 

Governor Longino deserves credit for the preparation of the bill 
authorizing the erection of this building. The Legislature passed the 
bill in 1900, and authorized the issuance of $1,000,000 of bonds to de- 
fray the eost, but under the careful business regime of Govemcr 



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THE NEW CAPITOL, 409 

Longino the Treasury of the State was put in such a condition as to 
be able to defray the expenses of the building without the issue of the 
authorized bonds. 

The members of the Commission were all men of the highest standing, 
and are of unquestioned integrity of character. They, in turn, were 
exceedingly fortunate in the selection of the architect and the general 
contractor and sub-contractors. 

The cost of the building, including steam-heating plant, power 
plant, furniture, electric and gas light fixtures, architect's fees and 
other expenses, was $1,093,641. Wells Brothers Company, of Chicago, 
were the general contractors. 

The design and arrangement of this Capitol building was carried 
out by the architect to furnish accommodations of due dignity and 
convenience for the legislative, executive and judicial branches of the 
State Government. The building was designed to give architectural 
prominence d.nd expression to this trinity of objects and functions. To 
provide a building that would meet these requirements and be well 
lighted and aired from the exterior, the plan must be on the order of 
wings and pavilions. 

The simpler and more direct design is always the better, so long as 
dignity and elegance of proportion are preserved. A Capitol, of all 
buildings, should be strikingly massive, grand, noble — typifying the 
power, honor, stability and superiority of the Government over all 
individuals, corporate or other institutions, whatsoever in the State. 

"In this design the Legislative halls are admirably placed on the 
same floor, well separated, and at the same time in easy communica- 
tion with each other when necessary. The principal committee rooms 
of the two Houses are also convenient to each other. 

"The Chief Executive or Governor's offices are located in the center 
pavilion just off the rotunda, while the Supreme Court is on the floor 
below, occupying the pavilion beneath the Senate chamber, well and 
quietly separated from the Legislative neighborhood. 

"The Library, which is very large and needs ample accommodations, 
is symmetrically located at the opposite end of the same floor. All 
the rooms throughout the building are lighted by outside windows, and 
very little skylight or floor light will be needed otner than the proper 
dome illumination of the Legislative halls. 

"The rotunda is simple, broad and effective, and is distinctly the 
natural center of departure for all parts of the building, connecting 
therewith by direct and handsome corridors which give fine vistas 
through the building. Private corridors to committee rooms have been 
provided. 

"On the whole the design presents the true triple scheme for a 
Capitol building, with the Senate and House at either end and the 



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410 THE NEW CAPITOL. 

Bxiecutive in the center. The seating of the Legislative halls places 
the backs of the members towards the windows, although the latter 
are not very large and dome light will be chiefly depended on. Thus 
outside windows are secured without being too evident or objection- 
able." 

The general scheme of decorations and finish of the interior has 
been worked out in keeping with the quiet dignity of the exterior. Of 
fireproof construction, steel skeleton type, with cement concrete arches 
sprung between the steel beams, on which rests and hides all that 
which is so necessary to the safety of a building, are the rich marbles, 
mosaics and ornamentations. 

The main vestibule is built entirely of blue Vermont marble on a 
base of black Belgian. The main rotunda is of Italian marble with 
trimmings of jet black marble and friezes and columns of scagliola, 
leading the eye to the lofty dome of pure white in ornamental stucco 
work. This dome is supported at four points on massive piers with 
rich marble niches designed as receptacles for statuary, developing 
into massive free columns in the second story to the frieze line of 
dome. The treatment of main corridors on this floor leading to the 
east and west wings is a continuation of the Italian m.arble walls of 
main rotunda with bronze trimmed pillaster terminating in monu- 
mental marble entrances to the Supreme Court and Library with 
columns supporting rich pediments. The Supreme Court has the 
walls lined with scagliola and all woodwork and furniture is of black 
walnut. 

The two legislative chambers, which are located in the two extreme 
points of the second story, are built up of marble and scagliola, both 
with rich domed ceilings of oxidized copper, stucco and stained glass. 

One of the richest rooms in the building is the Governor's reception 
room in the central part of the second story, under the main portico. 
It is in pure French Renaissance and lacks but color to make it one 
of the most beautiful and successful interior decorations. 

The ground story has a marble floor and a wainscoting of cream 
tiles and contains a handsome circular room at the east end, used 
for a "Hall of Fame," a beautiful educational feature of thp Depart- 
ment of Archives and History. In close proximity we find a very pret- 
tily decorated room set aside for a permanent home for the Daughters 
of the Confederacy. At a corresponding point in the west end is found 
a semi-circular room, the "Hall of History," in which are preserved 
and arranged the priceless historical archives of the State. 

'a large space of the ground floor is taken up with record-rooms for 
the Treasurer, Auditor and Secretary of State. 

The business offices are comparatively plain but substantial, and 
they are fitted with metallic furniture for the filing of papers. 

The exterior walls of the building have good thickness and deep 






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THE NEW CAPITOL 411 

window reveals, giving shade and apparent strength, and the porticoes 
and angles are deep, giving shadows; the domes of terra cotta are 
full, well rounded, with quiet outlines and not too high. The rich 
massing and dignity of the whole exterior immediately impresses one, 
without a possibility of legitimately mistaking it for any other build- 
ing except for what it was intended — The Capitol of a great Common- 
wealth. 

The rear of the Capitol has been carried out in harmony with the 
facade, and presents an interesting study. The stone, "gray Bedford," 
of which the whole building is constructed, is taken from the Bedford 
Quarries Company's "Old Hoosier Quarry." The uniformity of color 
of this noted quarry and the management's careful attention to details 
of selection result in the accomplishment of a facade of monochrome 
effect, as it should be; and without the usual defects of a spotted face. 

The tympanum over the front entrance portico was executed from 
a model of Professor Bringhurst, of the School of Fine Arts in St. 
Louis, and typifies in symbolical figures the history of the State. Orna- 
mentation of the exterior is sparingly applied, anJ in such places only 
where striking contrasts with the prevailing plain. ieis of its wall sur- 
faces were intended, the whole scheme depending rather on its correct 
and pleasing proportions and monochrome color than upon forced 
architectural effects. 

The general contractors, the Wells Brothers Cor/ioany, agreed to 
complete the building in thirty-one months. The actual work was coia- 
menced on the building in :,Iarch, 1901, and completed by tne contract 
ors in July, 1903, w^ell within the contract time. The thorough business 
methods employed by the general contractors to complete the structure 
in contracted time, with the difficulties attendant in shipping all ma- 
terials from points hundreds of miles away, at a time when rail carry- 
ing facilities were nationally and without exception locally inadequate, 
may easily be appreciated by the architectural profession, and cer- 
tainly great credit is due the general contractors in placing them- 
selves in harmony with all the sub-contractors and impressing them 
with importance of the T/ork to be accomplished, sh&v.ing diplomacy 
and a keen business insight to the troubles and squabbles usually 
attending the erection of a building of this public character. 

The value of terra cotta is increasingly being appreciated in all 
of its varied uses and applications to archtiecture. Probably the latest 
use of this material is in the domes of this Capitol building, of which 
there are three. The lightness of the material lessens the work of 
supporting girders and piers in the carrying of weight of stone. The 
Northwestern Terra Cotta Company produces the gray color of the 
Bedford stone to perfection, thus acconiolishing the desire of the 
architect in carrying out the monochrome effect of color, though ma- 
terials of widely different primary character were used. 



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412 TtiE NEW CAPITOL 

The great mass of steel construction and the 160,000 cubic feet of 
Bedford stone used in the building were put in place in twelve months 
by Mr. George Dugan, contractor, of Bedford, Indiana. The manner of 
accomplishing this great piece of work was the masterful way in which 
Mr. Dugan went about preparing the preliminaries. He had erected 
eight electric tower derricks at different points of vantage for the 
handling of the steel and stone, getting his power from the local 
electric plant, thus showing a progressive and an advanced idea of 
clean handling over the dirty donkey engine. All the st6ne passed 
through Mr. Dugan's yard at Bedford, Indiana, where all the hand- 
work, cutting of capitals, etc., were perfected before shipping. 

Mr. Theodore C. Link, the Supervising Architect, was ably assisted 
by his son, Karl E. Link, who acted as Superintendent on the grounds. 

In this Capitol building there is much that is worthy of critical study 
and deserving of profound admiration. 






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MISSISSIPPI 

STATE SONG 



Words by 
Mrs. DUNBAR ROWLAND 
Alia Marcia 



Music by 
CLARA MALLORY LEBARON 



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UNITED STATES SENATORS FROM 
MISSISSIPPI. 



1817-1917. 



The first senators were elected by the Legislature, October 9, 1817 — 
Walter Leake and Thomas H. Williams, who took their seats Decem- 
ber 11. 

Leake drew the short term, fcur years from March 4, 1817. He re- 
signed in 1820, and in January 1821, David Holmes was unanimously 
elected to the vacancy, also to serve six years from March 4, 1821. He 
resigned in 1825, and Governor Leake appointed Powhatan Ellis, Sep- 
tember 28, 1825, ad interim. Ellis was a candidate before the Legisla- 
ture in January, 1826, and received 21 votes, but Thomas B. Reed re- 
ceived 23 and was elected for the unexpired term of Holmes. In the 
next Legislature, January, 1827, the verdict was reversed (Ellis 27, 
Reed 16), and Powhatan Ellis was elected for six years from March 
4, 1827. 

All this time, and until March 4, 1829, Thomas H. Williams was the 
other senator, having been elected to a second term of six years. In 
January, 1829, the Legislature voted for a successor to Williams — 
Thomas B. Reed, 34; Charles Lynch, 13; Thomas Hinds, 3. Reed's 
term was six years from March 4, 1829. But he died within the year, 
and the Legislature In January, 1830, elected Robert H. Adams to fill 
out his term, the vote being, Adams 24, Joshua J. Child 3, George Poin- 
dexter 16, R. J. Walker 2. Adams died in the same year, and the gov- 
ernor appointed George Polndexter, October 14; and he was elected In 
November, receiving 41 votes to 6 for Judge Child. Consequently Poln- 
dexter was the effective successor of Williams, to March 4, 1835. 

Powhatan Ellis resigned 1832. The governor appointed James C. 
Wilklns, who declined, and John Black was appointed. The appoint- 
ment was unanimously confirmed by the Legislature January 31, 1833, 
and eleven ballots taken for the term following. John Black, James 
C. Wilklns and P. Rutillus H. Pray were the candidates. Pray was 
gaining when the senate withdrew, and the house resolved that snch 



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414 UNITED STATES SENATORS FROM MISSISSIPPI 

action was "unparliamentary and out of order." Black was subse- 
quently elected. In 1S35 tlie Legislature asked him to resign because 
lie had opposed President Jackson. He resigned in 1838. 

The fight of Poindexter for re-election raged through 1834 and 1835. 
In January, 1835, a special session of the legislature was called to 
elect, but the attempt to count in 16 new representatives from the 
Choctaw counties caused the senate to refuse to recognize the house, 
and the session was adjourned by the governor to prevent trouble. 
The vote for senator in January, 1836. was — on the first ballot — Rob- 
ert J. "^'alker, 36: Franklin E. Plummer, 18: George Poindexter, 23. 
Plummer gained, Poindexter lost, and James C. "Wilkins received as 
high as twelve votes. On the fifth ballot Walker received 44, a major- 
ity of two. and was elected for six years from March 4, 1835. He took 
his seat February 22. 1836. In 1840 he was re-elected. S. S. Prentiss 
was put in nomination, but his name was Immediately withdrawn by 
Mr. Guion. The vote was Walker 70, Prentiss 37, Smith 3, Black 2, 
Williams 1, Foote 1, Poindexter 1. The resignation of Senator Walker 
was received February 21, 1845; Joseph W. Chalmers, of Marshall 
county, was then appointed, and this was confirmed by legislative elec- 
tion In January, 1846, for the remainder of the term, Chalmers re- 
ceiving 86 votes to 33 for George Winchester. At the same session, 
for six years from March 4, 1847, Henry S. Foote was elected, 93 to 
35, over Winchester. 

At the election of senator, vice Black resigned, In January, 1838, 
the vote was: James F. Trotter 62, W. S. Bodley 32, John Henderson 
25. Trotter was a Democrat or *^oco-foco.'* the others both Whigs. 
Trotter took his seat February 19, 1838, and resigned In the same year. 
In January, 1839, to fill the unexpired term, Thomas H. Williams re- 
ceived 60 votes; John Henderson, 52. For the six years from March 
4, 1839, John Henderson, Whig, was elected, receiving 59 votes; C, 
Pinckney Smith, SO: Thomas H. Williams, 19. 

At • the senatorial election In 1844 Jesse Speight, of Lowndes, re- 
ceived 78 votes; Roger Barton, of Marshall, 43; C. P. Smith, 6; Joseph 
A; Marshall, 2. Jesse Speight died at his home In Lowndes county. 
May 1, 1847, and on August 10 Coi. Jefferson Davis was appointed to 
fill the vacancy, by the governor. January 11, 1848, the legislature 
elected Davis by acclamation to fill out the term of Senator Speight. 
At the election (to succeed Speight-Davis) February 11, 1850, Roger 
Barton received 8 votes, Jefferson Davis 64, A. G. Brown 3, William 
A. Lake 4, John I. Guion 15, William L. Sharkey 8, Jacob Thompson 
1, necessary to choice 65. On the second ballot Davis received 73, Bar- 
ton 37, scattering 19, and Mr. Davis was declared elected for six years 
from March 4, 1«51. 

Senator Foote became a candidate for governor in 1851, the issue 
bein^ one of national Importance, and he had been censured by the 



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UNITED STATES SEN-ATORS FROM \nSSISSIPPT 415 

legislature as misrepresenting his State. He became a candidate 
without resigning his seat In the senate. Senator Davis after the 
withdrawal of Quitman, became the opposing candidate for gorernor, 
and at once resigned his seat, September 23. Thereupon the acting 
governor of the State appointed John J. McRae to fill his place until 
the legislature should convene. Foote was elected governor. McRae 
took his seat in December. Foote also served in the senate until Just 
before his inauguration. 

February 7, 1852, Gov. Foote formally reported that there was a- va- 
cancy on account of his resignation to be filled: that "Mississippi has 
only one senatorial representative now in Washington, and he, hold- 
ing his authority by executive appointment alone, is unfortunately a 
gentleman who, whatever qualifications his friends may attribute to 
him, Is well known to entertain sentiments and opinions highly dan- 
gerous In their character and tendency, and which have been twice 
openly repudiated by the sovereism peon^e of the State, in two suc- 
cessive popular elections." He urged the legislature to elect two sen- 
ators who would supnort the corapromlsp of 1850. He noted that the 
two houses were in disagreement about the form of procedure in the 
election to fill the two vacancies, and the election for the regular term 
to begin March 4, 1853, and urged that an asreement be reached. The 
message was laid on the table and ordered printed by a vote of 40 to 
38. An agreement was reached so that a joint ballot was taken for a 
snccessor to Foote, February 18. Twenty-five candidates were voted 
for, Walker Brooke receiving 42 votes, A. G. "Brown 12, A. B. Bradford 
9, necessary to a choice 61. On the second and third ballots N. S. 
Brown had 20 votes, and on the third Brooke was elected, receiving 61 
votes. He was a Whig. On the following day the ballot was for the 
unexpired term of Jefferson Davis. Stephen Adams, Union Democrat, 
received 66 votes, John J. McRae 47, scattering 4. It was also the 
agreement that there should be a ballot on the 23rd for a senator for 
the full term beginning March 4, 1853, but the house adjourned that 
day In memory of Jehu Wall, deceased. Brooke took his seat March 
11: Adams, March 17. 1852. The State senate with a Democratic ma- 
jority of holdovers, refused to take part In the election required by the 
State and National law. The majority of the committee on the sub- 
ject, of which O. R. Singleton, was chairman, reported that there was 
a precedent in 1835 to sustain such action, and that the malls brought 
word that the legislatures of Alabama and Tennessee were likewise re- 
fusing to elect. The reason was frankly stated: "The present legis- 
lature was confessedly elected, under the pretended issue of Union or 
dIs-Unlon — all other considerations were merged in it. . . Your 
committee are clearly of the opinion that the legislature may elect or 



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416 UNITED STATES SENATORS FROM MISSISSIPPI 

not, to fill the term commendng March 4, 1853, as a sound discretion 
may dictate." The le^slature adjourned without an election for the 
approaching full term. 

The next legislature, elected In 1853, was strongly Demorcatlc. Gov. i 

Foote resigned three days after dellrering his message. Two days i 

later, January 7, 1854, the hallot was taken with this result: Albert \ 

(St. Brown, 76: Henry S. Foote, 22: William L. Sharkey, 7: William A. 
Lake, 3; A. K. McCInug, 2: F. M. Rogers, 2; J. A. Quitman. 1: J. B. 
Freeman, 1. Brown had 18 votes to spare. Gov. Foote had made no 
appointment to fill the vacancy in the senate, and Stephen Adams was \ 

the only senator during the session from December 5, 1853, until 
Brown took his seat, January 26, 1854. His term was six years from 
March 4, 1853. 

The contest for the senatorship In the legislature of 1856, for the 
term beginning March 4, 1857, was between Jefferson Davis, then a 
member of the cabinet of President Pierce, and Jacob Thompson, for 
some years prominent as a congressman. Both were of the same po- 
litical sentiment, and the Democratic majority In the legislature was 
overwhelming. The northern counties were generally for Thompson, 
but Reuben Davis, Barry of Columbus, and Green of Holly Springs, 
supported Davis. At the caucus the latter had a majority of two, and 
next day he received 90 votes out of 123 cast. - 

At the legislative session of November, 1857, Albert G. Brown was 
elected almost unanimously (receiving 111 rotes out of 115 cast) to \ 

succeed himself for the term beginning March 4, 1859. This appar- j 

ently premature election was because the time of session had been 
changed, and the legislature would not meet again regularly until No- | 

vember, 1859. ' I 

Davis and Brown were senators January 9, 1861, when the Missis- | 

sippi convention adopted the ordinance of secession. This was in the ^ 

midst of the second session of the 38th congress. Senator Brown with- 4 

drew January 12 and Senator Davis January 21. Their seats were de- | 

Glared vacant March 14, 1861. ^ 

During the Confederate period, the State held that it had withdrawn -| 

from the Federal compact and did not seek representation In the j 

United States congress until after the close of the war. Tlie first sub- ^ 

sequent elections of senators were for the terms succeeding those to I 

which Davis and Brown were elected. .| 

The first legislature after the close of the Confederate States period, J 

meeting in October, 1865, on the 19th elected William L. Sharkey for | 

the term beginning March 5, 1863 (to succeed Jefferson Davis). He ^ 

received 102 votes, to 26 for Fulton Anderson. For the term begin- [^ 

ning March 5, 1865 (to succeed Brown), the first ballot was William 1 

Yerger, 26; J, W. C. Watson, 19; W. S. Featherston, 6; James L. Al- •: 

com, 40; S. J. Gholson, 21; E. C. Walthall, 10; Lock E. Houston (not >4 



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UNITED STATES SENATORS FROM MISSISSIPPI 417 

nominated) 2. On the fourth day, on the following day, after the 
names of Walthall, Watson and Featherston had been withdrawn, Al- 
corn was elected, receiving 74 votes to 33 for Gholson and 19 for Yer- 
ger. When Congress met in December, 1865, Sharkey and Alcorn were 
refused recognition until an investigation had been made, and in the 
following year they were excluded until further "reconstruction" 
had been brought about. They had some recognition as "delegates," 
however, pending the final exclusion. 

The next election of senators was by the provisional session of the 
legislature in 1870, January 19. For the term of six years beginning 
March 4, 1871, succeeding the vacant term to which Alcorn had been 
elected in 1865, Gen. Alcorn was elected by a vote of 120 to 1 for Judge 
Sharkey. For the full term beginning March 4, 1869, to succeed the 
vacant term to which Sharkey had been elected in 1865, Gen. Adelbert 
Ames was elected, receiving 94 votes, Gen. Robert Lowry 24, Horace 
Greeley 1, J. L. Alcorn 1. 

To fill out what remained of the vacant term, 1865 to 1871, five bal- 
lots were taken. On the first the leaders were R. W. Flournoy 27, J. 
W. Vance 19, A. Alderson 21, B. B. Eggleston 19, J. W. C. Watson 18. 
Flournoy and Watson were "home" candidates. Watson was with- 
drawn, and on the third ballot Hiram G. Revels, a negro army chap- 
lain, received a considerable vote. The opposition endeavored to unite 
on Vance, who came within ten votes of election. Next day. Revels 
was elected by a vote of 81 to 38. He was not, as has been frequently 
been stated by historians, "chosen to fill the unexpired term of Jeffer- 
son Davis." He was in the succession to Brown but not to fill out 
even his term. No one filled out the term of Mr. Davis. Judge Sharkey 
was elected to the following term, 1863-69, and his successor, for 1869- 
75, as stated above, was Gen. Adelbert Ames. 

Senator Ames resigned In January 1874, to become governor, and 
February 4, Henry R. Pease was elected to fill out his term, receiving 
95 votes, the opposition voting mainly for H. M. Street. At the same 
time, Blanche K. Bruce, a mulatto, was elected for the term 1875-81 
to succeed Pease. Bruce was succeeded by George. The first election 
of J. Z. George was in January. 1880. The Democratic members were 
In overwhelming majority, but there were 15 Greenbackers, whose 
choice for senator was Ethelbert Barksdale. The Democrats took 49 
ballots on nine successive evenings in caucus, the candidates at first 
being Barksdale, O. R. Singleton, and E. C. WalthaU. Later the name 
of Gen. George was proposed. The houses met in joint convention to 
ballot, but Voting separately. The first ballot, January 21st, was: J. 
Z. George 35; Ethelbert Barksdale 49, O. R. Singleton 52, A. M. West 
13, B. K. Bruce 2, Harris 1. Next day the Barksdale and Singleton 
vote was given to George and he received 131 votes. Senator George 
was re-elected In 1886, one vote being cast in opposition, for Mr. 41' 
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418 UNITED STATES SENATORS FROM MISSISSIPPI 

com. He was again re-elected In 1892. At the re^lar session of the 
legislature in 1896, H. D. Money was elected to succeed Senator George 
at the expiration of his term in 1899. Senator George died August 14, 
1897, and Mr. Money was appointed by the governor. October 11th, for 
the remainder of the term. He continued in the ofSce, the last elec- 
tion being in January, 1904. for the term beginning March 4. 1905. 

Senator x\lcorn was succeeded by L. Q. C. Lamar, elected January 
19, 1876, for the term 1877-83, the two houses voting separately and 
meeting in joint sessions to compare results. The aggregate was La- 
mar 114, blank 24. Lamar was re-elected ^vIthout opposition for the 
term 1883-89, but resigned March 5, 1885, to enter Mr. Cleveland's cab- 
inet. In his place Gen. E. C. Walthall was appointed March 7, 1885, 
by Gov. Lowry, and when the legislature met In 1886, he was elected 
for the remainder of the term, and afterward for the term 1889-95. 
One of the provisions of the Constitution of 1890 Is that elections for 
full terms of six years can take place only at regular sessions, which 
are held once in four years, though elections to fill vacancies can be 
made at special sessions. As Senator George's term would expire In 
1893, and Senator Walthall's in 1895, both senators were re-elected at 
the regular session in 1892, Walthall for the term, 1895-1901. Janu- 
ary 18, 1894, Senator Walthall, on account of 111 health, resigned the 
remainder of the term ending ]March 4, 1895, and the legislature be- 
ing In special session, elected A. J. McLaurln for the unexpired period. 
General Walthall resumed his seat, March 4, 1895, and served till his 
death, April 21, 1898. May 28, the governor appointed Will Van Am- 
berg Sullivan for the unexpired term. In January 1900, the two 
houses failed to concur in a joint session to count the vote for sena- 
tor for the terms ending and beginning March 4, 1901. But Mr. Sul- 
livan was elected for the remainder of General Walthall's term; and 
for the full term. Governor McLaurln was elected. Senator McLaurin 
was re-elected in January 1904, for the term beginning March 4, 1907. 

Senator McLaurin was in the Williams-Walker-Foote-Brown-Alcom- 
Lamar line of succession; Senator Money was In the Leake-Black- 
Adams-Davis-Sharkey-Georee line. 

In 1898, Governor McLaurin, in his regular message, recommended a 
memorial to congress asking for an amendment to the constitution re- 
quiring election of senators by the voters of each State. He said: 
"Between plutocracy and democracy there can be no harmony. They 
are In constant conflict In every land until one or the other prevails. 
Every advantage gained and fortified Is an Incentive to further and 
more vigorous aggression on the part of the victor, while It -correspond- 
ingly demoralizes and weakens the loser. Every change which puts, 
the election of th^ir officers more directly in the hands of the people 
gives them greater strength and more power and influence In public 
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UNIT'EJD STATES SE>rATORS FROM ISHSSISSIPPI 419 

Under the primary election law of 1902 senators are nominated at 
the party primary elections, which, so far, have been held only by the 
Democratic party. At the first primary election under this law, in 
1903, Senator McLaurin received 71,650 votes without opposition, and 
the vote for the term 1905-11 was H. D. Money 59,758, A. H. Longlno 
36,121. * 

In 1907, John Sharp Williams and James Kimble Vardaman were 
candidates for the United States Senate in the Democratic primary held 
in August of that year. Williams was nominated by a close vote. In 
January, 1908, he was elected by the Legislature and took his seat 
March 4, 1911. 

Senator McLaurin died December 22, 1909, and James Gordon was 
appointed by Gov. Noel to serve until the Legislature elected a suc-^ 
cessor. 

When the Legislature met in January, 1910, LeRoy Percy of Wash- 
ington, James K. Vardaman of Hinds, C. H. Alexander of Hinds, J. C. 
Kyle of Panola, W. D. Anderson of Lee, Adam Byrd of Neshoba and 
Prank A. Critz of Clay were placed in nomination for United States 
Senator. After a prolonged contest, in a legislative caucus. LeRoy 
Percy was nominated over James K. Vardaman on February 22. 

In the primary election of August, 1911, LeRoy Percy, James K. Var- 
daman and C. H. Alexander were candidates. Vardaman received the 
nomination, was elected by the Legislature in January, 1912, and took 
his seat March 3, 1913. 

John Sharp Williams was re-elected to the Senate by popular vote, 
without opposition in November, 1915. 



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MISSISSIPPI CO^s^GEESSilEX 



1817-1917. 3 

- 1 

When the State was admitted to the Union its population did not ;|' 

entitle It to more than one representative In Congress. I 

The first congressional election vras in 1817, a short time before the ^ 

regular opening of the congress to which the representative was elected. J 

George Poindexter was elected in September, 1817, and took his seat ; 

December 11, in the 15th congress. | 

The Legislature of 1818 enacted that the election of congressmen ' | 

for the 16th congress should be in August, 1819, and for the 17th in 1 

August, 1820, and every two years thereafter, conforming to the re- J 

qulrements of the federal laws. '^^ 

George Poindexter served In 1817-19* Christopher Rankin, of Natchez, '|; 

from December 6, 1819. till his death, March 14. 1826; William Halle, |' 

1826-28: Thomas Hinds. 1828-31; Franklin R Plumer, 1831-33. | 

Under the apportionment of the census of 1830, Mississippi was ,J 

entitled to two representatives. There were five candidates in August, | 

1832, and Plumer, a Jackson m.an, was re-elected, and Harry Cage "i 

elected for the first time. Guion, Walker and Boulden were the oppos- * 

Ing candidates. I 

In 1834, John F. H. Claiborne and Gen. David Dickson were elected J 

for the 24th Congress. 1835 to 1837. Dickson died In 1836, and Samuel f 

J. Gholson was elected to fill out his term. A special session of j 

Congress being called In 1837 before the regular November election, -^..^ 

the governor ordered a special election of congressmen In July, at - 1 

which Claiborne and Gholson were chosen, and S. S. Prentiss and " 
Gen. E, L. Acee defeated, Claiborne receiving 11,000 votes to Prentiss 

7,000. Claiborne and Gholson, with certificates of this election, ap- J 
peared In Congress at the special session In September and were given 
their seats without any question. They also were candidates In No- 
vember, the regular election, for the full term as every one under- 
stood, but the Whig candidates, Prentiss and Word werr^ elected by a 
majority of two to one. Prentiss received 13,304 votes, Claiborne 5,944. 
Put when the re^Iar session of Congress convened and Prentiss and 






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MISSISSIPPI CONGRESSMEN. 1817-1917 421 

Word appeared to take the seats to which they had been elected, they 
found them occupied by Claiborne and Gholson, and the fact was then 
revealed that the committee on credentials, at the special September 
session, had declared Claiborne and Gholson elected for the full term. 
Claiborne and Gholson also made the assertion that nine-tenths of the 
people understood that they were elected for the full term. 

During the session of the Lregislature in January, a meeting was 
called at Jackson to sustain the cause of Claiborne and Gholson, with 
Governor Runnels as president. But as soon as the resolutions were 
presented Henry S. Foote arose and began a speech which did not ena 
until the meeting adjourned without action, and the supporters ot 
Claiborne, withdrew, when resolutions were adopted in support of 
Prentiss. 

In the midst of the discussions in Congress in January, Henry Wise, 
of Virginia, made personal allusions toward Gholson which caused 
an uproar, in the midst of which the house adjourned. Next day, 
Prentiss made his great speech in defense of his election, which is one 
of the masterpieces of American eloquence, and at the time caused 
a prodigious sensation. Claiborne and Gholson were unseated, but ou 
the proposition to seat Prentiss and Word, there was a tie vote, and 
James K. Polk, speaker, voted against them. Hence a special election 
was called for April, 1838, James Davis taking the place of Gholson in 
the canvass. 

A desperate campaign was made in behalf of Claiborne, in which 
the sectional prejudice was appealed to against Prentiss, and he was 
accused of favoring the emancipaton of slaves. Nevertheless, Pren- 
tiss received 12,722 votes, Word 12,677; and Claiborne 11,776; Davis 
11,346. Prentiss and Word then took their seats in Congress, refusing 
to present any certificates but their original ones, and were so sworn 
in. > ,; 

In 1839, Albert J. Brown and Jacob Thompson were elected over 
Adam L. Bingaman and Reuben Davis. Brown's vote was 18,602; 
Bingaman's, 16,215. 

Thompson was re-elected, taking his seat December 9, 1842. William 
M. Gwin was the successor of Brown, taking his seat December 23, 1841. 

The apportionment under the census of 1840 gave the State four 
representatives. They were as follows: 

1843-45 — William H. Hammett, Robert W. Roberts, Jacob Thompson, 
Tilghman M. Tucker. 

1845-47 — Stephen Adams, Jefferson Davis, Robert W. Roberts, Jacob 
Thompson. Davis resigned in 1846, and Henry T. Ellett filled the 
vacancy in 1847. 

Previous to 1846 Representatives in Congress from Mississippi were 
elected from the State at large. 



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422 MlSSISSIPn CONGRESSMEN, 1817-191? 

Immediately after the battle of Beiina Vista, Gen. Taylor, closely as- 
sociated with Mississippi as proprietor of a plantation thirty miles 
north of Natchez, and father of the first wife of Jefferson Davis, was 
proposed as the Whig candidate for president. This greatly encour- 
aged the Whigs of Mississippi, and they elected one Congressman, 
Patrick W. Tomkins, by a small majority, in 1S47. Jacob Thompson 
was elected by the Democrats in the First district, W. S. Featherston 
over McClung, the hero of Monterey, in the second, and Gov. A. G. 
Brown was chosen without opposition in the Fourth. 

1849-51— Albert G. Brown, Winfield S. Featherston, William MctV^illie, 
Jacob Thompson. 

The congressional election of 1851 was more than ordinarily exciting 
on account of the formation of new political lines, under the names 
of States Rights and Union parties, the main issue being the theoreti- 
cal right of secession. One State Rights man, A. G. Brown, was 
elected, and three Unionists — John D. Freeman, Benjamin D. Nabers, 
and John A. Wilcox. The presidential election of 1852 restored the 
old party lines, and none but State Rights Democrats were thereafter 
elected until 1865. 

The delegation was increased to five by the apportionment made 
after 1850: 

1853-55 — William Barksdale, William S. Barry, Wiley P. Harris, 
Otho R. Singleton. 

1855-57 — William Barksdale, Hendley S. Bennett, William A. Lake, 
John A. Quitman, Daniel B. Wright. 

1857-59 — William Barksdale, Reuben Davis, Lucius L. C. Lamar, 
John A. Quitman, Otho R. Singleton. John J. McRae, elected to suc- 
ceed Quitman, deceased, took his seat December 7, 185S. 

1859 to March 3, 1861 — William Barksdale, Reuben Davis, Lucius 
Q, C. Lamar, John J. McRae, Otho R. Singleton. All of whom re- 
tired from the 36th congress of the United States, January 12, 1861, 
immediately upon the adoption by the Mississippi convention of the or- 
dinance of secession. (See Congress, Confederate States.) 

At the election October 2, 1865, under the Presidential policy of re- 
construction, the congressmen chosen were Col. Arthur E. Reynolds, 
CoL Richard A. Pinson, Gen. A. M. West, James T. Harrison, and 
Ephraim G. Peyton, all of the party that opposed secession In 1860. 
They presented themselves in Congress, when it met in December, but 
their names were omitted in the roll call. For some time, how^ever, 
Judge Sharkey and others remained in or near Congress as "delegates." 

The seats of Mississippi in both houses of Congress continued vacani 
through the 39th and 40th congresses, 1865-69. 

The first election of congressmen under the congressional recon- 
struction occurred June 22, 1868, and resulted in the election of four 
Democrats, and one Republican, George C. McKee, an Illinois briga- 









Ml/ 



MISSISSIPPI CONGRESSMEN. 1817-1917 423 

dier-general in the Union army, and a lawyer of ability, who was 
chosen by the Vicksburg district. As a proposed constitution was 
not adopted at this election, it did not serve to restore Missisisppi to 
representation. Another election was ordered, which took place No- 
vember 30 and December 1, 1869, and resulted in the adoption of a 
constitution and the election of the following congressmen: Henry W. 
Barry, of Columbus; George E. Harris, of Hernando; George C. Mc- 
Kee, of Vicksburg; Joseph L. Morphis, of Pontotoc; Legrand W. 
Perce, of Natchez. Harris was a Tennessee Whig, and the others 
were ex-Union soldiers from the North, Barry being a brevet brigadier. 
All but Barry took their seats February 23, 1870; Barry in April fol- 
lowing. 

The same representatives were re-elected in 1871. The delegation 
elected in 1873, for 1873-75, under the census of 1870, had six mem- 
bers. There was one Democrat, L. Q. C. Lamar, Oxford; the others 
being Henry W. Barry, Columbus; Albert R. Howe, Sardis; John R. 
Lynch (negro), Natchez; George C. McKee, Vicksburg; Jason Niles, 
Kosciusko. The congressmen elected 1875 were mainly Democrats, 
but the Republicans elected Lynch in the Natchez district, and Wiley 
G. Wells, Holly Springs, supported by Democrats against Howe, the 
Ames candidate. Lamar was re-elected, and the others were Charles L. 
Hooker, Jackson; H. D. Money, Winona; Otho R. Singleton, Canton. 

By the law of March 18, 1876, the State was divided into the follow- 
ing congressional districts: First: the counties of Alcorn, Chickasaw, 
Colfax (name changed to Clay in 1876), Itaw^amba, Lee, Lowndes, 
Monroe, Oktibbaha, Pontotoc, Prentiss, and Tishomingo. Second: Ben- 
ton, DeSoto, Lafayette, Marshall, Panola, Tallahatchie, Tate, Tippah, 
Union and Yalobusha. Third: Attala, Calhoun, Carroll, Choctaw, 
Grenada, Kemper, Leflore, Montgomery, Neshoba, Noxubee, Sunflower, 
Winston, and Sumner (name changed to Webster in 1882). Fourth: 
Clarke, Holmes, Jasper, Jones, Lauderdale, Leake, Madison, Newton, 
Scott, Smith, Wayne and Yazoo. Fifth: Amite, Copiah, Covington, 
Franklin, Greene, Hancock, Harrison, Hinds, Jackson, Lawrence, Lin- 
coln, Marion, Pearl (act organizing Pearl county was repealpd Feb- 
ruary 28, 1878), Perry, Pike, Rankin and Simpson. Sixth: Adams, 
Bolivar, Claiborne, Coahoma, Issaquena, Jefferson, Tunica, Warren, 
Washington, and Wilkinson, to which Sharkey was added when it was 
organized later in the year, and Quitman on its organization the next 
year. By an act of March 3, 1876, Congress fixed the election for con- 
gressmen for the even years. In the elections of 1876 and 1878, the 
Democrats were entirely successful, and seated all their candidates, 
the State being represented in the 45th and 46th congresses (1877-1881) 
by the following: J. R. Chalmers, C. E, Hooker, V. H. Manning, 
H. D. Money, H. L. Muldrow and O. R. Singleton. 






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424 MISSISSIFFI CONGRESSMEN, 1817-1917 



In 1878 the campaign was brisk in two congressional districts, 

caused by the activity of the National or Greenback party. The vet- ] 

eran Reuben Davis was the candidate of this party in the First districi j 

against Muldrow, and was beaten. 9,632 to 6,602. In the Second dis- i 

trict J. H. Amacker, National, was defeated by Manning, by a closer ^ 

vote. In 1880, the anti-Democratic vote against the same candidates ;j 

was cast mainly for Republican candidates, Morphis, Buchanan, Dren- j 

nan, Deason and John R. Lynch. Buchanan and Harris (Greenback; 1 

together made the contest exciting against Manning. Lynch con-tested | 

the election of Chalmers, who claimed a plurality of 3,777, on the | 

ground that 5,538 Republican ballots were wrongfully thrown out ' 
under the new election law which prohibited distinguishing marks. 

Lynch was seated by the House, April 29, 1882. Otherwise, the delega- ^ 

tion remained the same, 1877-83. 1 

Under the census of 1880, Mississippi was allowed an additional con- 
gressman, and the State was re-districted as follows: First: Alcorn, ■ 
Itawamba, Lee, Lowndes, Monroe, Oktibbeha, Prentiss and Tisho- [ 
mingo. Second: Benton, DeSoto, Lafayette, Marshall, Panola, Talla- j 
hatchie, Tate, Tippah and Union. Third: Bolivar, Coahoma, Issa- 
quena, Leflore, Quitman, Sharkey, Sunflower, Tunica, Warren, and 4 
Washington. Fourth: Calhoun, Carroll, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Clay, | 
Grenada, Kemper, Montgomery, Noxubee, Pontotoc, Webster, Winston ^ 
and Yalobusha. Fifth: Attala, Clark, Holmes, Jasper, Lauderdale, ] 
Leake, Neshoba, Nev/ton, Sco*-t, Smith, Wayne, and Yazoo. Sixth: j 
Adams, Amite, Covington, Greene, Hancock, Harrison, Jackson, Jones, 1 
Lawrence, Marion, Perry, Pike and Wilkinson, to which Pearl River } 
was added on its organization in 1890, Seventh: Claiborne, Copiah, | 
Franklin, Hinds, Jefferson, Lincoln, Madison, Rankin and Simpson. ^ 
In 1882, a troublesome contest arose in the Second district between J 
Manning, Democrat, and Gen. Chalmers, who ran as an independent. ^ 
The tally sheet of Tate county showed a vote for "J. R. Chambless," ] 
though the vote was certified for Chalmers. The secretary of state | 
disregarded the "Chambless" vote and certified the election of Man- | 
ning. As a result of the contest in Congress, Chalmers was seated, ? 
June 25, lb84, in ihe 4aLh Congress. One 01 ihe deiegation in cuih ^ 
congress was a Republican, Elza Jeriords. The remaining five con- .^ 
gressmen were Democrats: Ethelbert Barksdale, H. D. Money, H. L. | 
Muldrow, O. R. Singleton and H. S. Van Eaton. For the 49th Con- | 
gress (1885-87) and continuously thereafter, a solid Democratic dele- | 
gation was elected: John M. Allen, E. Barksdale, F. G. Barry, T. C. j 
Catchings, J. B. Morgan, O. R. Singleton, and H. S. Van Eaton. The i 
representation in the 50th Congress (1887-89) was John M. Allen. H 
C. L. Anderson, F. G. Barry, T. C. Catchings, C. E. Hooker, J. B. Mor- I 
gan and T. R. Stockdale. Thpre were the same representatives in the i 
51st Congress (1889-1891), except that Clarke Lewis took the place 



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MISSISSIPPI CONGRESSMEN. 1817-1917 425 

of F. G. Barry. In the 52nd Congress, (1891-93), J. C. Kyle and J. H. 
Beeman replaced C. L. Anderson and J. B. ^Morgan. The 53rd Congress 
(1893-95) stood: John M. AHen. J. C. Klye, T. C. Catchings, H. D. 
Money, J. S. Williams, T. R. Stockdale and C. E. Hooker. In the 
, 54th Congress (1895-97), W. M. Denny and J. G. Spencer took the 
places of T. R. Stockdale and C. E. Hooker. The 55th Congress 
(1897-99) had as representatives from Mississippi: John M. Allen, 
Thomas Spight (from December 5, 1898, in place of W. V. Sullivan 
appointed to United States Senate), T. C. Catchings, A. F. Fox, J. -S. 
Williams, F. A. McLean, and Patrick Henry; and the same gentlemen 
were elected for the o6th Congress (1899-1901). In the 57th Congress 
(1901-03), E. S. Candler, Jr., and C. E. Hooker replaced John M. Allen 
and T. C. Catchings. By the census of 1900 Mississippi was allowed 
another congressman, and the districts now stand: First: Alcorn, 
Tishomingo, Prentiss, Lee, Itawamba, Monroe, Lowndes, Oktibbeha, 
and Noxubee. Second: Tippah, Union. Benton, Marshall, Lafayette, 
DeSoto, Tate, Panola and Tallahatchie. Third: Tunica, Quitman, 
Coahoma, Bolivar, Sunflower, Washington, Leflore, Holmes, Issaquena 
and Sharkey. Fourth: Pontotoc, Chickasaw, Calhoun, Yalobusha, 
Grenada, Carroll, Montgomery, Clay, Webster, Choctaw and Attala. 
Fifth: Winston, Leake, Neshoba. Kemper, Lauderdale, Newton, Scott, 
Smith, Jasper and Clarke. Sixth: Wayne, Jones, Covington, Simp- 
son, Lawrence, Perry, Jackson, Harrison, Pearl River, Hancock and 
Greene, to which Lamar was added on its organization in 1904. 
Seventh: Claiborne, Copiah, Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Lincoln, Pike, 
Amite and Wilkinson. Eighth: Warren, Yazoo, Hinds, Rankin and 
Madison. The representatives in the 58th Congress (1903-05) were: 
E. S. Candler, Jr., Thomas Spight, B. G. Humphreys, W. S. Hill, 
A. M. Byrd, E. J. Bowers, F. A. McLain and J. S. Williams; the same 
gentlemen were re-elected for the 59th and 60th Congresses. 

Under the primary election law of 1902, congressmen are chosen at 
the primaries of the Democratic party. The only opposition at the 
election in 1904 was in the Seventh or coast district, where 449 votes 
were cast for a socialist candidate. 

Before the amendments to the United States Constitution growing 
out of the War of 1861-65, the representation in the lower house of 
Congress of any State was based partly upon the number of slaves. 
The Constitution provided then, and remains unchanged: "Repre- 
sentatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several 
States which may be included within this Union, according to their 
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the 
whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a 
term of years, and exclndinsr Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other 
persons." The Thirteenth amendment transferred rhe "other persons" 
to the class of "free persons," and consequently enlarged the repre- 



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426 MISSISSIPPI CONGRESSMEN", 1817-1917 

sentation of those States in which the "other persons" were found; 
the Fourteenth amendment provided that where, in any State, the • 

suffrage was denied any race or color of people, the representation 
should be correspondingly reduced; and the Fifteenth amendment ah- j 

solutely required that there should be no such denial of suffrage to any i 

race or color of people. In Congress, from time to time, the project 
has been broached of legislation to reduce the representation of any 
State in which there may be a restriction of suffrage on account of 
race or color, and the possibility of such legislation was canvassed in 
the State constitutional convention of 1890; but the proposed legisla- 
tion has not so far met Tvith encotiragement in any part of the Union. 

In the 61st Congress, W. S. Hill of the 4th District was succeeded 
by T, U. Sisson of Winona; F. A. McLain of the 7th District by W. A. 
Dickson of Centerville. John Sharp Williams was not a candidate 
on account of his candidacy for the Senate and he was succeeded by 
J. W. Collier of Vicksburg. There were no changes in the other dis- 
tricts. - 

In the 62nd Congress, Thomas Spight of the 2nd District was suc- 
ceeded by H. D. Stephens of New Albany; A. M. Byrd of the 5th Dis- 
trict by S. A. Witherspoon of Meridian. E. J. Bowers was not a candi- 
date for re-election and was succeeded by B. P. Harrison of Gulport. | 
No changes in the other districts. 1 

The only change in the 63rd Congress was the election of P. E. Quin ? 

of McComb City to succeed W. A. Dickson of the 7th District. 1 

In the 5th District, there was a change in the 64th Congress. A | 

vacancy was caused by the death of S. A. Witherspoon and he was I 

succeeded by W. W. Venable of Meridian. J 

The Congressmen from Mississippi in the present Congress (6oth) : 

are: 1st District, E. S. Candler; 2nd, H. D, Stephens; 3rd, B. G. | 

Humphreys; 4th, T. U. Sisson; 5th, W. W. Venable; 6th, B. P. Harri- 
son; 7th, P. E. Quin: 8th, J. W. Collier. | 



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COXFEDEEATE STATES COXGRESSMEN 
FROM MISSISSIPPI 



1861-65. 



At the State Convention of January, 1861, it was ordained that the 
delegation of the State in the United States Congress should represent 
the State in any congress that might be organized by the seceding 
State. This delegation was Jefferson Davis and Albert G. Brown, sen- 
ators, and Reuben Davis, L. Q. C. Lamar, William Barksdale, Otho R. 
Singleton and John J. McRae, representatives. They did not serve in 
that capacity, however. The first legislative body formed by the se- 
ceding States was the Southern convention at Montgomery, for the 
framing of a constitution and r>lan of government, and there was no 
session of a regular congress until after senators and representatives 
had been elected under the provisions of the Confederate States con- 
stitution. 

The "Southern Convention." also called the provisional congress, as- 
sembled at Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 4, 1861, adjourned in March, and 
met again April 29. Its subsequent sessions at Richmond began July 
20, 1861, Sept. 3, 1861 (one day), Nov. 18, 1861, final adjournment, Fet). 
17, 1862. Mississippi was represented in this body by Wiley P. Har- 
ris, Walker Brooke, William S. Wilson (resigned April 29, 1861), Wil- 
liam S. Barry, James T. Harrison, Alexander M. Clayton (admitted 
Feb. 8, 1861, resigned May 11), J. A. P. Campbell, Jehu A. Orr (admit- 
ted April 29, 1861), Alexander B. Bradford (admitted Dec. 5, 1861). 
In the committee organization of the provisional congress in February. 
Clayton was chairman of the judiciary committee; Brooke was chair- 
man of patents and member of committee on organization of executive 
department; Barry was on the finance committee; Harris on judiciary 
and public lands; Harrison on postal affairs and printing; Wilson on 
patents; Campbell on territories and accounts. 

The first congress of the Confederate States had four sessions at 
Richmond, beginning Feb. 18, 1862, Aug. 18, lb62, Jan. 12, 1863, Dec. 
7, 1863; adjourned finally Feb. 17, 1864. 



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428 CONFEDERATE STATE CONGRESSMEN FROM MISSISSIPPI 

The senators of Mississippi were Albert G. Brown and James Phelan. 
The representatives were, Ethelbert Barksdale, John J. McRae, J. W. 
Clapp, Israel Welsh, Otho R. Singleton, Reuben Davis, Henry C. Cham- 
bers, William D. Holder (Jan. 21, 1864, vice Davis, resigned). 

The second congress was in session at Richmond May 2 to June 14, 
1864, and from Nov. 7, 1864, to March 18. 1865. 

The senators of Mississippi were Albert G. Brown and John W. C. 
Watson. The representatives were Jehu A. Orr, Israel Welsh, Henry 
C. Chambers', Ethelbert Barksdale, John T. Lamkin, William D. 
Holder, Otho R. Singleton. 

There was a memorable senatorial contest at Columbus, Nov. 12, 
1863, when the legislature balloted for a Confederate States senator to 
succeed James Phelan. The first ballot was Phelan 25, J. W. C. Wat- 
son 22, Fulton Anderson 19, W. S. Featherston 11, W^alker Brooke 19, 
S. J. Gholson 8, C. D. Fontaine 8. After 27 ballots there was no choice. 
Nov. 17 th.e balloting was resumed, with Watson and Anderson in the 
lead. On the 11th ballot, after all names had been withdrawn, except 
Watson, Anderson, and Gholson, Watson received 55 out of 108 and 
was declared elected. 



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MISSISSIPPI'S STATE FLAG AND COAT 
OF AEMS 



From Mississippi Senate Journal of February 5, 1894, Afternoon ses- 
sion. 

Page 239: Mr. Scudder introduced Senate Bill No. 134, an Act to 
adopt the Mississippi State Flag and Coat-of-Arms, and to provide for 
the expense of procuring the same and for the preservation thereof, 
which was read a first and second time, under suspension of the rule. 

By unanimous consent, the bill was read a third time in full, con- 
sidered engrossed, and passed by the following vote: 

Yeas — Senators Bloomfield, Broyles, Byrd, Carmichael, Coffey, Davis, 
Dean, Dockery, East, Hamilton, Harris, Heidelberg, Hicks, Hill, Jones, 
Kearney, Kendrick, Kiger, Love, Martin, McGehee, Moore, Prince, Pur- 
vis, Rush, Scudder, Sherrard, Simonion, Stephens, Sullivan, Teunisson, 
Totten, Watkins, Watts, Wharton, Willing, Winter. — Total, 37. 

Absent and those not voting — Senators Allen, Baker, Caruthers, 
Freeman, Jayne, Roane, Williamson, Critz. — Total 8. 

The title standing as stated. 

Page 238: Report of the Joint Committee on Flag and Coat-of-Arms 
for the State: 

Mr. President — The Joint Committee on the Preparation and Report 
of Designs for a State Flag and Coat-of-Arms has had under consider- 
ation the matters referred to them, and have instructed me to re- 
port back with the following recommendations: 

Accompanying this report the Committee submit designs, as well 
prepared as the time allowed would permit. They recommend for 
the flag one with width two-thirds of its length; with the union 
square, in which two-thirds of the width of the flag; the ground of the 
union to be red and a broad blue saltier thereon, bordered with white 
and emblazoned with thirteen (13) mullets or five-pointed stars, cor- 
responding with the number of the original States of the Union; the 
field to be divided into three bars of equal width, the upper one blue, 
the center one white and the lower one, extending the whole length of 



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430 MISSISSIPPI STATE FT.AG AND COAT OF ARMS 

the flag, red— the national colors; the staff surmonted with a spear 
head and a battle-axe below; the flag to be fringed with gold and the 
staff gilded with gold. 

We recommend for the Coat-of-Arms a shield, in color blue, with an 
eagle upon it with extended pinions, holding in the right talon a palm 
branch and a bundle of arrows in the left, with the word "Mississippi" 
above the eagle; the lettering on the shield and the eagle to be in 
gold; below the shield two branches of the cotton stalk, saltier wise, 
as in submitted design, and a scroll below extending upwards and on 
each side three-fourths of the length of the shield; upon the scroll, 
which is to be red, the motto be printed in gold letters upon white 
spaces, as in design accompanying, the motto to be "Virtute et Armis." 

The committee reports a bill and recommends its passage. Title 
sufficient. 

Respectfully submitted, 
7 Will T. Martix, 

Chairman of Senate Committee* 

Page 253: 

Wednesday, February 7, 1894. 
Message from the House. 
Mr. President: I am directed to inform the Senate that the House 
of Representatives has passed the following entitled bills, which are 
herewith transmitted, to-wit: 

S. B. No. 134, and Act to adopt the Mississippi State flag and coat- 
of-arms and to provide for the expense of procuring the same and for 
the preservation of the same. 

L. Pink Smith, Clerk. 

Page 258: Wednesday, February 7, 1894, Afternoon Session. 

Report of Committee on Enrolled Bills: 
Mr. President: The Committee on Enrolled Bills has examined and 
found correctliv enrolled the foilowing entitled bills, and now present 
them for your signature, to-wit: 

S. B. No. 134, an act to adopt the Mississippi State Flag and Coat 
of-Arms, and to provide for the expense of procuring the same and foi 
the preservation thereof. 

W. J. East, Chairman, 

Page 263: Wednesday, February 7, 1894, Afternoon Session. 

Report of Committee on Enrolled Bills: 
Mr. President: The Committee on Enrolled Bills has this day pre- 
sented to his Excellency the Governor, for his approval, the following 
entitled bills, which were correctly enrolled and each and severally 



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MISSISSIPPI STATE FL.\G AND COAT OF ARMS 431 

signed by the Speaker of the House and President of the Senate in 
manner and form as required by the Constitution, to-wit: 

S. B. No. 134, an Act to adopt the Mississippi State Flag and Coat- 
of-Arms, and to provide for the expense of procuring the same and for 
the preservation thereof. - / 

W. J. East, Chairman, 

Page 269: Thursday, February 8, 1894. 

Message from the Governor. 

Executive Office, 
Jackson, Miss., February 7, 1894. 
Mr. President: I am directed by His Excellency, the Governor, to 
inform the Senate that he has approved the following entitled bills, 
to-wit: 

S. B. No. 134, an Act to adopt the Mississippi State flag and coat-of- 
arms, and to provide for the expense of procuring the same and for 
the preservation thereof. 

Respectfully, 

J. J. CoMAX, Private Secretai-y. 

Page 344: From Mississippi House Journal, 

Monday, February 5, 1894, Afternoon Session. 
Message from the Senate: 
Mr. Speaker: I am directed to inform the House that the Senate 
has passed the following entitled bills, to-wit: 

S. B. No. 134, an Act to adopt the Mississippi State flag and coat-of- 
arms and to provide for the expense of procuring the same, and for 
the preservation thereof. 

William Henby, Secretary. 
Pages 350-51: Tuesday, February 6, 1894. 

S. B. No. 134, an Act to adopt the Mississippi State Flag and coat- 
of-arms, and to provide for the expense of procuring the same, for the 
preservation of the same. 

Was read twice and referred to Special Committee on flag and coat- 
of-arms: 

Report of Joint Committee on Design for State Flag Coat-of-Arms : 
Mr. President: The Joint Committee on the preparation and report 
of designs for a State flag and coat-of-arms, has had under considera- 
tion the matters referred to them, and have instructed me to report 
them back with the following recommendations. 

(Bill continues as in Senate Journal). ^ ^ 

Respectfully submitted, 

Will Map.tix, Chairman Senate Committee. 
C. B. MiTCHEi,L, Chairman House Committee. 






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432 MISSISSIPPI STATE FLAG AND COAT OF ARMS 

The report of the Special Committee was adopted. 

Mr. Thrasher moved to reconsider the vote by which the Special 
Committee's report v^as adopted. 

On motion of Mr. McGuire, the motion to reconsider was laid on the 
table. 

Mr. Street moved the previous question on the passage of the bill, 
which motion prevailed. 

Whereupon S. B. No. 134, an xVct to adopt the Mississippi State flag 
and coat-of-arms and to provide for the expense of procuring the same 
and for the preservation of the same, was read the third time and 
agreeably to the provisions of the Constiution, ihe yeas and nays were 
taken and the bill passed, title standing as stated, by the following 
vote: 

Teas — Messrs. Anderson, Arnold, Arrington, Basham, Bellamy, But- 
ler, Bynum, Caldwell of Monroe, Caldwell of Leake and Winston, 
Campbell, Carr. Caruthers, Champion, Chatham, Gotten, Denton, Dins- 
more, Doss, Du^aney, Enochs, Farr, Fox, Gayles, Gewin, Glover, Goude- 
lock, Graham. Griffin, Guynes, Hannah, Harper, Hart, Henry, Hinton, 
Ivy, Jackson. Johnston, Keirn, Keith, Kelsey, Key, Lancaster, Love, 
Mauffrey, Maybin, McGuire, McKie, McSwine, Medford, Miller of Copiah, 
Mitchell, r^Iorris, Montgomery of Washington, Murry, Nel-son, Newmon, 
Odom, O'Neill, Packwood, Payne, Peatross, Peery, Puckett, Quinn, Red- 
head, Rice, Roberts, Robertson, Rodgers of Tishomingo, Rogers of Yalo- 
busha, Ryan, Simmons, Simpson, Smith of Jones, Smith of Wayne, 
Spencer, Stewart, Stinson of Lowndes, Stowers of Lafayette, Street, 
Talbert, Tate, Taylor of Montgomery, Taylor of Yalobusha, Thomas, 
Turner of Greene, Turner of Madison, Underwood, Ventress, Walton, 
Watson, Williams, Williamson, Wilson, Worthington, Wyatt, Mr. 
Speaker. — Total yeas, 98. 

Nays — Messrs. Bowles, Durrett, Gore, King, Ratliff, Stinson of Lau- 
derdale, Wade. — Total nays,7. 

Absent and those not voting — Messrs. Ballinger, Binford, Blanchard, 
Boggan, Buntin, Burkett, Catchings, Cook Davis, Durham, Eckles, 
Falkner, Fowler, Gardner, Greaves, Harris, Lamb, Marshall, Miller of 
Washington, Montgomery of Quitman, Nix, Perkins, PuLier, Stovvers of 
Jefferson, Stutts, Terral, Thrasher, Touchstone — Total Z6. 

Page 380: Wednesday, February 7, 1894, Afternoon Session. 

Report of Committee on Enrolled Bills: 

Mr. Speaker: Your Committee on Enrolled Bills have examined the 
following entitled bills and find that they are correctly enrolled, and 
we herewith present them to the Speaker for his signature, to-wit: 

S. B. No. 134, an Act to adopt the Mississippi State flag and coat-of- 
arms, and to provide for the expense of procuring the same, and for 
the preservation thereof. 



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MISSISSIPPI STATE FLAG AND COAT OF ARMS 433 

Laws Of the State of Mississippi, 1894. 
Chapter 37; Page 33: 

AN ACT to adopt the Mississippi State Flag and Coat-of-Arms and 
to provide for the expense of procuring the same, and for the preser- 
vation thereof. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Missis- 
sippi, That the report of the committee on the adoption of a State 
Flag and State Coat-of-Arms be adopted; and the Flag and the Coat-of- 
Arms, designs of which accompany said report, and as therein de- 
scribed and recommended, be and the same are accepted as the State 
Flag and the State Coat-of-Arms. 

Section 2. That the Governor of the State be authorized and em- 
powered to procure a Flag of proper dimensions, which shall be pre- 
served in the office of the Adjutant-General of the State, and also to 
procure a steel plate and one metal electrotype plate for printing and 
engraving the Coat-of-Arms, which plates shall be preserved in the 
office of the Secretary of State. 

Section 3. That the sum of one hundred and fifty dollars, or so 
much thereof as may be necessary, be and the same is hereby appro- 
priated out of any money in the treasury to cover the expenses in- 
curred under this act, to be drawn from the treasury upon a warrant 
of the Auditor of Public Accounts upon certificates of the Governor of 
amount expended. 

Section 4. This act to take effect and be in force from its passage. 
' Approved February 7, 1894. 



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FEDERAL OFEICEES IN MISSISSIPPI 



JUDGES OF THE UNITED STATES COURTS IN MISSISSIPPI. 

1818-1917. 

Names. Commissioned. 

William B. Shields April 20, 1818 

Peter Randolph June 25, 1823 

Appointed on confirmation December 9, 1823 

George Adams January 20, 1836 

Samuel J. Gholson February 13, 1839 

Robert A. Hill May 1, 1866 

Henry C. Niles August 11, 1891 

Appointed on confirmation January 11, 1892 



UNITED STATES DISTRICT ATTORNEYS OF MISSISSIPPI. 

1813-19 J8. 

Names. Commissioned. 

Thomas D. Anderson July 29, 1813 

William Crawford December 10, 1814 

Bela Metcalf April 20, 1818 

William B. Griffith March 13, 1822 

Reappointed December 22, 1825 

Felix Houston January 9, 1828 

George Adams March 3, 1830 

Reappointed May 12, 1834 

Richard M. Gaines January 20, 1836 

SOUTHEBX DISTEirCT. 

Names. Commissioned. 

Richard M. Gaines. July 9, 1840 

Reappointed March 13, 1844 

Reappointed March 22, 1848 






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FEDERAL OFFICERS OF MISSISSIPPI 435 

Names. Commissioned. 
Horatio J. Harris August 10, 1850 

Reappointed August 4, 1854 

Reappointed March 7, 1S59 

Garnot Posey November 4, 1859 

Appointed on confirmation Janaruy 30, 1860 

R. Leachman May 14, 1866 

G. Gordon Adam April 14, 1869 

E. Philip Jacobson May 20, 1870 

Felix Branigan June 9, 1873 

Appointed on confirmation December 18, 1873 

William W. Dedrick March 16, 1875 

Luke Lea July 18, 1876 

J. Bowmar Harris December 3, 1885 

Appointed on confirmation June 23, 1886 

A. H. Longino February 6, 1888 

Albert M. Lea October 24, 1889 

Robert Charles Lee October 2, 1893 

Albert M. Lea September 22, 1897 

Robert Charles Lee January 20, 1903 

Reappointed January 20, 1906 

Joseph Warren George July 22, 1915 

Appointed on confirmation January 10, 1916 



NORTHERN DISTRICTS 

Samuel F. Butterworth June 25, 1838 

Woodson L. Ligon August 27, 1850 

Nathaniel S. Price ., April 1, 1853 

Jehu A. Orr May 31, 1854 

Flavins J. Lovejoy March 12, 1857 

J. H. Viser May 14, 1866 

James E. Stewart July 25, 1866 

Edwin Hill August 17, 1869 

G. Wiley Wells July 14, 1870 

Reappointed June 11, 1874 

Henry B. Whitfield January 19, 1876 

Thomas J. Walton May 2, 1876 

Green C. Chandler October 19, 1878 

Reappointed February 12, 1883 

Charles B. Howry *. July 17, 1885 

Henry C. Niles June 5, 1889 

M. A. Montgomery September 19, 1891 

Andrew Fuller Fox , June 8, 1893 



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436 FEDERAL OFFICERS OF MISSISSIPPI 

Names. Commissioned, 

Chapman L. Anderson September 16, 1896 

M. A. Montgomery July 26, 1897 

Reappointed January 21, 1902 

W. D. Frazee December 19, 1905 

Lester G. Fant September 27, 1912 

Wilson Shedric Hill January 26, 19U 



UNITED STATES MARSHALS OF MISSISSIPPI. 

John Hanes July 29, 1813 

►Henry G. Johnson April 20, 1818 

Walter M. Leake March 1, 1820 

Charles M. Norton November 22, 1823 

John H. Norton January 3, 1825 

Reappointed January 2, 1829 

Anthony Campbell May 28, 1830 

Samuel W. Dickson July 18, 1832 

William M. Gwin October 12, 1833 

Reappointed June 26, 1838 



NORTHERN DISTRICT. 

Adolphus G. Weir June 25, 1838 

Alexander K. McClung April 15, 1841 

Andrew A. Kincannon March 12, 1845 

John Rayburn December 18, 1848 

William McQuiston May 16, 1850 

Charles R. Gordon April 6, 1853 

William H. H. Tison April 21, 1857 

Joseph L. Moiphis November Iz, 1577 

Reappointed February 17, 1882 

James M. Liddell .July 1, 1885 

John S. Burton March 20, 1889 

David T. Guyton March 22, 1893 

Alexander J. Cooke April 13, 1897 

John W. Cooke July 31, 1899 

George M. Buchanan September 26, 1899 

J. A. Toler January 19, 1904 

Aaron M. Storer July 23, 1912 

W. S. Vardaman February 24, 1914 



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FEDERAL OFFICERS OF MISSISSIPPI 437 



SOUTHERN DISTRICT. 

Names. . Commissioned. 

Anderson Miller April 15, 1841 

Thomas Fletcher March 24, 1845 

Richard Griffith April 4, 1853 

Reappointed May 15, 1858 

Duff Green June 28. 1866 

R. H. Winter April 6, 1867 

Thomas W. Hunt November 12, 1877 

William C. Raum October 26, 1881 

Lee W. Dinkins October 27, 1885 

S. S. Matthews .October 12, 1889 

P. W. Collins January 27, 1891 

J. S. McNeily May 8, 1893 

F. W. Collins September 20, 1897 

Edgar S. Wilson February 3, 1903 

Reappointed February 6, 1906 

F. W. Collins January 10, 1898 

W. O. Ligon February 26, 1912 

J. G. Cashman February 24, 1914 



:;■<> j..pji:tta^'H 






0-. '.■'■■ ■ 



COA^GEESSIOXAL DISTRICTS OF 
MISSISSIPPI. FROM 1846 TO 1917 



Note — Previous to 1846 Representatives in Congress from Mississippi 
were elected from the State at large. 



APPORTIONMENT UNDER CENSUS OF 1840. 

First District. — Tishomingo, Tippah, Marshall, DeSoto, Tunica, Lafay- 
ette, Pontotoc, Itawamba. 

Second District. — Monroe, Chickasaw, Yalobusha, Tallahatchie, Coa- 
homa, Bolivar, Sunflower, Carroll, Choctaw, Oktibbeha, Lowndes, 
Noxubee. ] 

Third District. — Winston, Attala, Holmes, Washington, Issaquena, 1 

Yazoo, Madison, Leake, Neshoba, Kemper, Lauderdale, Newton, 3 

Scott, Rankin, Hinds, Warren. -') 

Fourth District. — Clarke, Jasper, Smith, Simpson, Copiah, Claiborne, :i 

Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Lawrence, Covington, Jones, Wayne. 
Greene, Perry, Marion, Pike, Amite, Wilkinson, Hancock, Harri- 
son, Jackson. 



APPORTIONMENT UNDER CENSUS OF 1850. | 

First District. — Tishomingo, Tippah. Marshall, DeSoto. Tunica, Coa- 
homa, Panola, Lafayette. - « 

Second District. — Pontotoc, Itawamba, Monroe, Chickasaw, Calhoun, ^ 

Yalobusha, Tallahatchie, Sunflower, Bolivar. ^ 

Third District. — Carroll, Noxubee, Choctaw, Oktibbeha, Lowndes, ' 

Winston, Attala, Leake, Neshoba, Kemper. \ 

Fourth District. — Washington. Holmes, Madison, Yazoo, Issaquena, 
Warren, Hinds, Rankin, Scott, Newton, Clarke, Jasper, Smith, 
Lauderdale. "i 

Fifth District. — Simpson, Copiah. Claiborne, Jefferson, Adams, Frank- 
lin, Lawrence, Covington, Jones, Wayne, Greene, Perry, Marion, 
Pike, Amite, Wilkinson, Hancock, Harrison, Jackson, S 



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CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS OF MISSISSIPPI 439 



APPORTIONMENT UNDER CENSUS OF 1870. 

First District. — Alcorn, Benton, Calhoun, Itawamba, Lafayette, Lee, 
Prentiss, Tippah, Tishomingo, Union, Yalobusha. 

Second District. — Bolivar, Carroll, Coahoma, DeSoto, Grenada, Leflore 
Marshall, Panola, Sunflower, Tallahatchie, Tunica. 

Third District. — Chickasaw. Choctaw, Colfax. Lowndes, Monroe, Mont- 
gomery, Noxubee, Oktibbeha, Winston. 

Fourth District. — Attala, Holmes, Leake, Lauderdale, Kemper, Madi- 
son, Neshoba, Newton, Scott, Washington, Yazoo. 

Fifth District. — Clarke, Covington, Hinds. Issaquena, Jasper, Jones 
Lawrence, Rankin, Simpson, Smith, Warren, Wayne. 

Sixth District. — Adams, Amite, Claiborne, Copiah, Franklin, Greene 
Hancock, Harrison, Jackson, Jefferson, Lincoln, Marion, Pearl 
Perry, Pike, Wilkinson. 



REAPPORTIONMENT UNDER ACT OF MARCH 18, 1876. 

First District. — Alcorn, Chickasaw^ Clay, Itawamba, Lee, Lowndes, 
Monroe, Oktibbeha, Pontotoc, Prentiss, Tishomingo. 

Second District. — Benton. DeSoto, Lafayette, Marshall, Panola, Talla- 
hatchie, Tate, Tippah, Union, Yalobusha. 

Third District. — Attala, Calhoun, Carroll, Choctaw, Grenada, Kemper, 
Leflore, Montgomery, Nestioba, Noxubee, Sunflower, Winston, 
Sumner. 

Fourth District. — Clarke, Holmes, Jasper, Jones, Lauderdale, Leake, 
Madison, Newton, Scott, Smith, Wayne, Yazoo. 

Fifth District. — Amite, Copiah, Covington, Franklin, Greene, Hancock, 
Horrison, Hinds, Jackson, -Lawrence, Lincoln, Marion, Pearl, 
Perry, Pike, Rankin, Simpson. 

Sixth District. — Adams, Bolivar, Claiborne, Coahoma, Issaquena, Jef- 
ferson, Sharkey, Tunica, Warren, Washington, Wilkinson. 



APPORTIONMENT UNDER CENSUS OF 1890. 

First District. — Alcorn, Itawamba, Lee, Lowndes, Monroe, Oktibbeha, 
Prentiss, Tishomingo. 

Second District. — Benton, DeSoto, Lafayette, Marshall, Panola, Talla- 
hatchie, Tate, Tippah, Union, 

Third District. — Bolivar, Coahoma, Issaquena, Leflore, Quitman, Shar- 
key, Sunflower, Tunica, Warren, Washington. 

Fourth District. — Calhoun, Carroll, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Clay, Gre- 
nada, Kemper, Montgomery, Noxubee, Pontotoc, Webster, Winston, 
Yalobusha. 



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440 CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICTS OF MISSISSIPPI 

Fifth District. — Attala, Clarke, Holmes, Jasper, Lauderdale, Leake, 
Neshoba, Newton, Scott, Smith, Wayne, Yazoo. 

Sixth District. — Adams, Amite, Covington, Greene, Hancock, Harri- 
son, Jackson, Jones, Lawrence, Marion, Pearl River, Perry, Pike, 
Wilkinson. 

Seventh District. — Claiborne, Copiah, Franklin, Hinds, Jefferson, Lin- 
coln, Madison, Rankin, Simpson. 



APPORTIONMENT UNDER CENSUS OF 1900. 

First District. — Alcorn, Tishomingo, Prentiss, Lee, Itawamba, Monroe, 
Lowndes, Oktibbeha, Noxubee. 

Second District. — Tippah, Union, Benton, Marshall, Lafayette, DeSoto, 
Tate, Panola, Tallahatchie. 

Third District. — Tunica, Quitman, Coahoma, Bolivar, Sunflower, Wash- 
ington, Leflore, Holmes, Issaquena, Sharkey. 

Fourth District. — Pontotoc, Chickasaw, Calhoun, Yalobusha, Grenada, 
Carroll, Montgomery, Clay, Webster, Choctaw, Attala. 

Fifth District. — WMnston, Leake, Neshoba, Kemper, Lauderdale, New- 
ton, Scott, Smith, Jasper, Clarke. 

Sixth District. — Wayne, Jones, Covington, Simpson, Lawrence, Perry, 
Jackson, Harrison, Pearl River, Hancock, Greene. 

Lamar Forrest, Jefferson Davis, George and Stone were added as cre- 
ated. 

Seventh District. — Claiborne, Copiah, Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Lin 
coin, Pike, Amite, Wilkinson. 

Eighth District. — Warren, Yazoo, Hinds, Rankin, Madison. 

1910. 
No increase in representation under the census of 1910. 



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■. ;-io.l 



COUNTIES OF MISSISSIPPI 



The counties of the State now numbed eighty-one in all, and may 
be conveniently grouped according to the historical order of their 
formation from the Natchez -District, the early Choctow Indian ces- 
sions, the District of Mobile, and the later Choctaw and Chickasaw 
Indian cessions. 

The Natchez District, containing the principal white population of 
the new Territory of Mississippi, was first divided into the counties of 
Adams and Pickering, April 2, 1799, and the dividing line was nearly 
the same as the present boundary between Adams and Jefferson. From 
the area contained in the Natchez District were subsequently erected 
the counties of Wilkinson, Claiborne, Amite, Franklin and Warren, 
named in the order of their creation, being seven counties in all. 

By the Treaty of Mount Dexter, concluded Nov. 16, 1805, the Choc- 
taws ceded to the United States an extensive area in the southern por- 
tion of the Territory, between the Amite and Tombigbee rivers, com- 
prising 5,987,000 acres, and lying north of the thirty-first parallel of 
latitude. From this area, roughly speaking, were formed by the year 
1826, beginning with the county of Wayne, which was established De- 
cember 21, 1809, the counties of Wayne, Greene, Marion, Lawrence, 
Pike, Covington, Perry and Jones, and the new counties of Lincoln, 
Lamar, and Forrest, established 1870, 1904, and 1906, or a total of 
eleven counties. 

The Gulf porliou of the State, comprising the counties of Hancock, 
Harrison, Pearl River and Jackson, was formerly emoraced in the Dis- 
trict of Mobile, and was not annexed to the Territory of Mississippi 
until May 14, 1812, when the legislature promptly organized the new 
acquisition into the counties of Hancock and Jackson, May 14, 1812. 
These counties were divided in 1841 to form Harrison, and in 1890 
Hancock was again divided to form Pearl River county, and Harrison 
to form Jefferson Davis. While these counties are younger, in point 
of establishment, than those of the Natchez District, they were settled 
by the whites at an even earlier date. George and Stone counties were 
from this same section. 






Si} 









**^ - COUNTIES OP MISSISSIPPI 

the TreaT; Tc^t """"'T"^' '""'^"^ ''''' '» ">" "-'«<» states, by 
tne Treaty of Cbickasaw Council Honse, 408.00ft acres lym=- upon the 
eastern tributaries of the upper Tombigbee river ThT^ Z, 
erprfpH infn ti.^ ^ ^^nui^uee river, inis area was 

later, Jan. 30, ISoO, the southern part was taken to form the county 

t^^n^^T :'' ''^^^^^ '''-'''' ^' '''' -^ ^^^ ^^^^~ 

tended 1 '" "' '''''' ''''' ^^^^^^^^ '^'''^ considerably ex- 

tended, so as to mclude a part of those cessions west of the Tombig- 

thf nl'^t' rr? '' ""'^^'^ ^'""'' ^^'- -'' ^^20, the Choctaws ceded to 

New Purchase" north of the Mount Dexter treaty line, and bounded 
on the north by the present northern boundary line of Holmes county, 
and a line running northwesterly, from the Yazoo river, on the west- 
ern boundary of Holmes county, to a point one mile below the mouth 
Of the Arkansas river, on the Mississippi; and on the east by a line 
running a little west of north, from the eastern boundary of Simpson 
county, to the northern boundary of Holmes county. In this cession 
was included a total of 5,447,267 acres. All this area was first erected 
into the county of Hinds, Feb. 12, 1821. Later it was subdivided to 
torm the counties of Yazoo and Copiah in 1823, Simpson (1824) Wasn- 
ington, (1827), Madison and Rankin (1828), Holmes (1833), Issaquena 
(1844), and Sharkey (1876), or ten counties in all. 

The remaining lands of the Choctaws in the middle portion of the 
State were finally ceded by the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, con- 
cluded September 27, 1830. This large area of land was erected into 
sixteen large counties by the act of December 23, 1833, to-wit: Noxu- 
. bee, Kemper, Lauderdale, Clarke, Oktibbeha, Winston, Choctaw, Talla- 
hatchie, Yalobusha, Carrol, Jasper, Neshoba, Smith, Scott, Leake, At- 
tala, Bolivar and Coahoma counties were not erected until the organ- 
ization of the last Chickasaw cession into counties, in 1836, though 
most of their area lies within this Choctaw territorial group. New- 
ton was also established in 1836, from the lower half of Neshoba 
county. No new counties were formed from this area until 1844, when 
Sunflower county was established, and finally, during the years 1870- 
1877, the counties of Grenada, Webster, Leflore and Quitman were cre- 
ated. 

The Treaty of Pontotoc, Oct. 20, 1832, finally extinguished the title 
of the Chickasaws to all their lands east of the Mississippi. This im- 
mense territory, comprising the entire northern portion of the State, 
was divided into twelve counties Feb. 9, 1836, when the following 
counties were formed: Tishomingo, Itawamba, Tippah, Pontotoc, 
Chickasaw, Marshall, Lafayette, DeSoto, Panola, Tiinica, Coahoma and 



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COtTNTlES OF MISSISSIPPI 443 

Bolivar, though the last two should be properly grouped with the 
Choctaw cession of 1830. Calhoun county was formed in 1852, and U 
was not until 1S66, when Lee county was created, that this area was 
further subdivided into counties. Benton, Union, Alcorn and Prentiss 
counties were established in 1870, Clay in 1871, and Tate in 1873. 

It thus appears that all the territory of Mississippi was not organ- 
ized into counties until the year 1836, when the last Indian cession 
was divided by the legislature. It will be noted also, that the earliest 
county organization obtained along the Mississippi river in the south- 
western part of the State, and that the northern section of the State 
was the last to be settled and organized into counties. 



444 



COUNTRIES OF MISSISSIPPI 



COUNTIES OF MISSISSIPPI. 



Names. 



Adams 
Alcorn . 
Amite ,. 
Attala . 
Benton 

Bolivar 

Oalhoun 

Oarroll 



Ohickasaw 

Choctaw 

dalborne 

Clarke 

Clay 

Coahoma 

Copiah , 

Covington 

DeSoto 

Porrest , 

Pranklin , 

Gporge 

Greene , 

Grenada 

Hancoek , 

Harrison 

Hinds 

Holmes , 

Issaquena 

Itawamba 

Jackson 

Jasper 

Jefferson 

Jefferson Davis 

Jones 

Kemper 

Lafayette 

Lamar 

Lauderdale 

Larrrence 

Leake 

Lee 

Leflore 

Lincoln ' 

Lowndes '. . . 

Madison 

Marion 

Marshall 

Monroe 

Monteomery . . . 

NeShoba 

Newton 

NoTiibne 

Oktlhbr-ha 



Established. 



April 2, 1799. 
April 15. 1870. 
Feb. 24, 180^. 
Dec. 23. 1S33. 
July 15, 1870. 

Feb. 9. 1836. 
Mar. 8. 1852. 
Dec. 23. 1833. 

Feb. 9, 1836. 



Origin of Names. 



County Seats. 



Dec. 23. 

Tan. 27. 
Dec. 23. 
May 12, 

Feb. 9. 

Jan. 21, 
Jan. 5, 
Feb. 9. 
Jan. 6, 
Dec. 21, 
Mar. 16. 
Dec. 9. 
May 9. 
Dee. 14. 
Feb. 5. 



1802. 
1833. 

isn. 



1?23. 
1?19. 
18.3^. 
190S. 
1809. 
lf»lu. 
1811. 
1870. 
1812. 
1841. 



Feb. 12. 1821. 



Feb. 19, 
Jan. 23, 
Feb. 9. 
Dec. 14. 
rt?c. 23, 
Jan. 11. 
May 9. 
Jan. 24, 
Dec. 23, 
Feb. 9, 
Mar. l.-?, 
Dec. ii, 

J}nr •><> 

Dsc! 23! 

Oct. 28. 

Mar. 15, 

April 7. 

Jan. 80, 

Jan. 29. 

l>c. 9. 

Feb. 9, 

Ffb. 9, 

May 13, 

Dec. 23, 

Feb. 23. 

Dec. 25, 

D"0. 2Z. 



1S3?. 
1844. 
1836. 
1812. 
1S23. 
1802. 
1906. 
1328. 
1833. 
1836. 
1P<H. 

1*1 1 
i833. 
1S66. 
1871. 
1870. 
1830. 
1828. 
1811. 
18.36. 
18?1. 
1871. 
1??3. 

ia36. 

I8rr>. 



Panola I Feb. 9.1836. 

Pearl Biyer ! Feb. 22.1890. 



John Adams ! Natchez. 

J. L. Alcorn , Corinth. 

Amite River ' Liberty. 

, Indian heroine Kosciusko. 

1 Samuel Benton ' Ashland. 

I (Rosedale. 

j Simon Bolivar i/Cleveland. 

j Jotin C. Calhoun ; Pittsboro. 

iCarrollton. 
j Ci^aiies tarrou Jvaiden. 

' ,. . , ^ ,. ^Houston. 

Chickasaw Indians Okolona. 

; ' M Chester 

I Choctaw Indians .^Ackermkn. 

! W. C. C. Claiborne i Port Gibson. 

: -Joshua G. Clarke Quitman. 

Jltnry Clay West Point. 

■ , ^. jFriars Point. 
j Indian aame Jciarksdale. 

Indian name ' Hazelhurst. 

. Leonard Covington ; Williamsburg. 

Hernanuo Desoto Hernando. 

N. B. Porrest : Hattiesburg. 

Benjamin Pranklin i Meadville. 

■ James Z. George ' Lueedale. 

: Nathaniel Greene .....i Leakesville. 

Grenada, Spain ; Grenada. 

John Hancock ' Bay St. Louis. 

Wm. H. Harrison Gulfport. 

' Thomas Hinds 1ja7k?on.'^' 

David Holmes : Lexington. 

Indian name , Mayersville. 

Indian chief Fulton. 

Andrew Jackson Scranton. 

Sergeant Jasper ' Paulding. 

Thomas Jeilerion Fayette. 

Jefferson Davis Prentiss. 

John Paul Jones Ehisville. 

Reuben Kemper i DeKalb. 

Marquis de Lafayette Oxford. 

L. Q. C. Lamar Purvis. 

.ju.^.c LuciJci 'ui .... ?!'"~:-^:nn. 

James Lawrence Monticello. 

Walter Leake (..^luuge. 

Robert E. Lee '. Tupelo. 

Greenwood Leflore '■ Greenwood. 

Abraham Lincoln Brookhaven. 

William Lowndes ■ Columbus. 

James Madison ! Canton. 

Francis Marion Columbia. 

John Marshall : Holly Springs. 

Jam-:* Monroe Aberdeen. 

Richard Montgomery Winona. 

Indian name Philadelphia. 

Sir Isaac Newton Decatur. 

Indian name Macon. 

iD'lian name ^Starkville. 

Indian name .isai^'isV'''' 

Pearl Biver ..! Poplarvlllc 



''^h:: ::iii:V'.nfL 'iQ ^:-:vrz^f^o':^ 



■"""'B 



COUNTIES OF MISSISSIPPI 



445 



COUNTIES OF MISSISSIPPI.— Continued. 



Names. 



Established 



Origin of Names. 



I County Seats. 



Perry 

Pike 

Pont^jtoc ... 
Prentiss — 
Quitman — 

Rankin 

Seott 

Sharkey — 
Simpson — 

Smith 

Stone 

Sunflower ... 
Tallahatdile 

Tate 

Tippah 

Tishomingo 

Tunica 

Union 

Walthall ... 

Warren 

Washington 

Wayne 

Webster 

Wilkinson . . 
Winston .... 

Yalobusha . 



yazoo Jan. a, 1823 



Feb. 


s. 


1820. 


Feb. 


9. 


1815 


Feb. 


9. 


1SS6 


April 15. 


1S70 


Feb. 


1. 


1877 


Feb. 


4. 


1S28 


Dec. 


'23 


1S33 


Mar. 


29, 


1876 


Jan. 


28. 


IKi 


Dec. 


23, 


1833 


1317. 






Feb. 


15. 


1^44 


Dec. 


23. 


1833 


AprillS. 


1673 


Feb. 


9, 


1S36 


Feb. 


9, 


1836 


Feb. 


9, 


1836 


July 


7. 


1870 


Mar. 


16. 


1910 


Dec. 


22. 


1809 


Jan. 


29. 


1S27 


Dec. 


21, 


1809 


Apri 


(5. 


1874 


Jan. 


80. 


1802 


Dec. 


23. 


1833 


Dec. 


23, 


1833 



rommodore Perry .-Augusta. 

Zebulon Pike , ifagnolia. 

Indian name Pontotoc. 

S. S. Prentiss , Booneville. 

John A. Quitman ; Beien. 

Christopher Rankin Brandon. 

Abram M. Scott Forest. 

William L. Sharkey Rolling Fork. 

Josfah Simpson , Mendenhall. 

David Smith Raleigh. 

John M. Stone , Wiggins. 

Snn flower River ' Indlanola. 

Indian name Charleston. 

T. S. Tate Senatobia. 

Tn<i?an nam° i Ripley. 

Indian name luka. 

Indian name , Tunica. 

The Union .New Albany. 

Genl. E. C. Walthall TylertowTi. 

■Toseph Warren ' Vicksburg 

George Washington Greenville. 

Anthony Wayne Waynesboro. 

Daniel Webster Walthall. 

James Wilkinson Woodville. 

Douis Winston Louisville. 

T„^!„,, or^^ . iCoffeeville. 

Indian name ^ater Valley. 

Indian name Yazoo City. 



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' .•: . ■■. ■.' "■ 



i!}tl' -V 



im)IAX XAMES or MISSISSIPPI 
COUNTIES 



The following statement of the derivation of Indian names of 
counties is condensed from the paper by H. S. Halbert (Department 
Reports, 1896-97): 

Choctaw words frequently occurring are Oka, water, and BoX 
(bogue), creek 

Attala — not an Indian name, merely the invention of Chateaubriand, 
the novelist. 

Chickasaw, from chlkasha, rebellion, probably referring to the sep- 
aration of the nation from the Creeks and Choctaws. 

Choctaw, originally Chahta, the second "h" having a strong, gutteral 
sound. According to best authorities, it means "separation," similarly 
to Chlkasha. 

Coahoma, a rather common name for a man throughout the Musco- 
gee peoples, in Choctaw, Ko-i, (panther), Hom-ma, (red). 

Copiah, from Choctaw Ko-i (panther) and paya (to call out). Prob- 
ably from Koi paya bok, or Calling Panther creek. 

Issaquena, from Issa (deer), and okhina, tha poetical name of river, 
oka hina, (water road), the common name for river being hachcha, 
corrupted to hatchee. 

Itawamba, seems to be a man's name, and Choctaw scholars are un- 
able to discover its meaning. 

Neshoba, (properly Nashoba), means wolf. 

Noxubee, from Oka nakashobi, stinking water, meaning the smell 
from overflows in summer, which present inhabitants are familiar 
with. The etymology given in Claiborne's History is purely fictitious, 
and the legend, an invention. 

Oktibbeha, from the name of a creek now known as the Tibbee. Ok- 
tibbeha Is compounded from okti (ice), and abeha (therein). Ther^ 



INDIAN NAMT:S of MISSISSIPPI COUNTIES 447 

is a tradition that once, long ago, after a severe winter, the river was 
full of floating ice. 

Panola, from ponola ( cotton V 

Pontotoc, from Ponte (name of a weed) and oktah, prairie. 

Tallahatchis. from tali (rock) and hachche (river). 

Tippah, from tana fcuto^). 

Tishomingo, from Chickasaw Tishu (warrior), mingo (chief). 

Tunica, from the name (meaning in their language, the people) -of 
a tribe who emigrated -from Mississippi In 1817. 

Yalobusha, from yaloba (tadpole) asha (is there), or tadpole place. 

Yazoo, from the Yazoo tribe, who were incorporated in the Chicka- 
saw nation in 1S36. There is no evidence whatever that the word sig- 
nifies "river of death." as imaginatively said. The word had no sig- 
nificance in the native speech of the tribe, nor in the Choctaw, though 
the latter had a clan called Yashuokla. or Yazoo people. "The best 
supposition is that the name must be sought in the Uchee tongue, in 
which Yashu signifies leaf. The Uchees claim that they were the most 
ancient inhabitants of the Gulf 5':ates, and thev gave some names to 
streams in Mississippi, that are prehistoric." In all these words, o 
has the long sound, and a the sound of ah. In okhina. abeha, and nak- 
shobi the accent is on the last syllable. The first a in asha has a 
slight nasal sound. 






.:0^-' i^ti;,.' 



POPULAR VOTE FOR GOVERXOR 



1817-1917. 



1817— David Holmes 4,108 

1819 — George Poindexter 2,721 

Thomas Hinds 1 , 702 

Total vote 1819 4,423 

1821— Walter Leake , 4,730 

Charles B. Green 1 , 269 

Total vote 1821 5,999 

1823— Walter Leake 4,730 

David Dickson 2,511 

William Lattimore 1,986 

Total vote 1823 9,227 

1825— David Holmes 7,846 

Cowles Mead 1,499 

Total vote 1825 ' 9,345 

1827— Gerard C. Brandon 5,842 

Daniel Williams 3,392 

Beverly R. Grayson 1 , 861 

A. Williams ,:.. 92 ' 

D. W. Williams 35 

Total vote 1827 .....— 11,222 

1829— Gerard C. Brandon 7,006 

George Winchester 3,764 

Total vote 1829 — — 10,770 

1831— Abram M. Scott 3,958 

Hiram G. Runnels 3 , 711 

Charles Lynch 2,902 

W. P. Harris 1.410 

Adam Gordon 492 

Total vote 1831 12,503 






';.-V-''- 












POPULAR VOTE FOR GOVERNOR 1817-1917 449 

1833— Hiram G. Runnels 6 , 675 

Abram M. Scott 6,117 

Total vote 1833 12,792 

1835— Charles Lynch 9 , 867 

Hiram G. Runnels 9 . 441 

Total vote 1835 ' 19,308 

1837— Alexander G. McNutt 12,936 

J. B. Morgan 9,896 

John A. Grimball 4,974 

Scattering 41 

Total vote 1837 27,839 

1839— Alexander G. McNutt ^ "T 18,900 

Edward Turner 15 , 886 

Total vote 1839 34,786 

1841— Tilghman M. Tucker 19,059 

D. O. Shattuck 16,773 

Total vote 1841 35,832 

1843— Albert G. Brown 21 , 035 

G. R. Clayton 17,322 

Thomas H. Williams 1,343 

Total vote 1843 39,700 

1845— Albert G. Brown 28 ,310 

Thomas Coopwood 12,852 

Isaac N." Davis 1 , 633 

Scatteri,ng 464 

Total- vote 1845 43,259 

1847— Joseph W. Matthews 26,985 

A. B. Bradford .^ 13,997 

Scattering 678 

Total vote 1847 41,760 

1849— John A. Quitman 33,117 

Luke Lea 22,996 

Total vote 1849 — 56,113 

1851--Henry S. Foote 29,358 

Jefferson Davis '. 28 , 359 ~ 

Total vote 1851 57,719 

1853— John J. McRae 32,116 

Francis M. Rogers 27, 279 

Total vote 1853... ,....-... 59,395 

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450 POPULAR VOTE FOR GOVERNOR 1817-1917 

1855— John J. McRae 32 , 666 

Charles D. Fontaine 27,579 

Total vote 1S55 .'... 60,245 

1857— William McWillie 27,376 

Edward M. Yerger 14 , 095 

Total vote 1857 41 , 471 

1859— John J. Pettus 34,^9 , 

Harvey W. Walter 10 , 308 

Scattering 315 

Total vote 1859 44,882 

1861— John J. Pettus :...'..... 30,169 

Jacob Thompson 3 , 556 

Madison McAfee 234 

Scattering 662 

Total vote 1861 34,919 

1863— Charles Clark 16,428 

A. M. West 4,863 

Reuben Davis 2,009 

Total vote 1863 ; — 23,300 

1865 — Benjamin G. Humphreys 17,814 

Ephraim S. FMsher. .• 14.528 

William S. Patton .9,422 

Scattering 116 

Total vote 1865 41,880 

1869 — James L. Alcorn 76 , 687 

Louis Dent 38,067 

Total vote 1869 114,784 

1873— Adelbert Ames 69,870 

James L. Alcorn 50,430 

Scattering 4S7 

Total vote 1873 120,857 

1877— John M. Stone 97,727 

Scattering .' 47 

Total vote 1877....:... 97,774 

1881— Robert Lowrj- 77,501 

Benjamin King 52,009 

Scattering 1 

Total vote 1881..; — - 129,511 



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FOPUI^AR VOTE FOR GOVERNOR 1817—1917 451 

1885 — Robert Lowry 88,783 

Put Darden 824 

Scattering 64 

Total vote 1885 89.671 

1889— John M. Stone 84,929 

Scattering 16 

Total vote 1889 84,945 

1895— A. J. McLaurin 46,873 

Frank Burkitt 17.466 

Total vote 1895 64.339 

1899— A. H. Longino 42,273 

R. K. Prewitt 6,007 

Total vote 1899 48,280 

i903— James K. Vardaman 32,191 

1907— Edmond Favor Noel 29 , 529 

1911 — Earl LeRoy Brewer ■ 40,471 

S. W. Rose Socialist 2,049 

Total vote 1911 42.520 



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PEESIDEXTIAL ELECTIOXS— VOTE OF 
MISSISSIPPI 



1820—1917. 



I 



The first Presidential election in which the State of Mississippi par- 
ticipated was in 1820. Three electors were chosen, one of whom 
died before the election, so that two votes only were cast for James 
Monroe and Daniel D. Tompkins. 

The Act of 1824 provided for the selection of electors by popular vote 
on the first Monday of November. Since that time the vote of Mis- 
sissippi, has been as follows: 

1824 — Andrew Jackson, Tennessee, Democrat. '3,234 

John Quincy Adams Massachusetts, Democrat 1,P*)4 

Wm. H. Crawford, Georgia, Democrat L19 

. Henry Clay Kentucky, Democrat 21 

1828 — Androw Jackson Tennessee, Democrat 6,714 

John Quincy Adams Massachusetts, N. R , 1,674 J 

1832 — Andrew Jackson , Tennessee , Democrat 6 , 110 | 

Henry Clay , Kentucky , N. R 791 ! 

I 
1836— Martin Van Biiren , New York . Democrat 9 . 97S : 

Hugh L. White, Tennessee, Whig 9,688 

1840— William Henry Harrison, Ohio, Whig 19,518 | 

Martin Van Buren, New York, Democrat 16,975 ^ 

1844 — James K. Polk, Ter^nessee, Democrat '. . . 25 ,126 1 

Henry Clay, Kentucky, Whig 19,206 I 

1848— Zachary Taylor , Louisiana , Whig. 25 , 922 4 

Lewis Cass, Michigan, Democrat 26,537 f 

1852 — Franklin Pierce, New Hampshire Democrat 26,876 

Winfield Scott, New Jersey, Whig 17,548 | 






I^l v.-/ 






PRESIDENTIAL. VOTE OF MISSISSIPPI, 1820-1917 453 

1856 — James Buchanan, Pennsylvania, Democrat 35,446 

Millard Fillmore New York, Whig- American. 24,195 

1860 — John C. Breckenridge, Kentucky, Democrat 40,797 

John Bell, Tennessee, Constitutional Union 25,040 

Stephen A. Douglass, Illinois Democrat 3,283 

1864 — No election; Civil War period. 

1868-^No election; Reconstruction period. 

1872 — Ulysses S. Grant, Illinois , Republican 82 , 175 

Horace Greeley Democrat, Liberal Republican 47,288 

Charles O'Connor, Democrat 207 

1876— Samuel J. Tilden, New York, Democrat 112,173 

Rutherford B Hayes, Ohio, Republican 52 , 605 

1880 — Winfield S. Hancock, Pennsylvania, Democrat 75,750 

James A. Garfield, Ohio, Republican 34,750 

James B. Weaver, Iowa, Greenbacker 5,797 

1884 — Grover Cleveland, New York, Democrat 75,510 

James G. Blaine, Maine, Republican 43,509 

1888 — Grover Cleveland , New York . Democrat - 85 , 471 

Benjamin Harrison , ' Indiana , Republican 1 , 406 

Clinton B. Fisk, New Jersey, Prohibition 218 

Andrew J. Streeter, Illinois, Union Labor 222 

1892 — Grover Cleveland, New York, Democrat 40,237 

Benjamin Harrison. Indiana. Republican 1,406 

James B. Weaver, Iowa, People's 10,256 

John Bidwell, Prohibitionist 910 

1896 — William J. Bryan, Nebraska, Democrat; Sewell, Maine 

for Vice-President, ^Democrat; 46 ,283 

Bryan, Democrat; Watson, Georgia, Populist, for Vice- 
President ; : 7,517 

William McKinley, Onio, Repubiican 5,123 

John M. Palmer, Illinois, Gold Democrai 1,017 

Joshua Levering, Maryland, Prohibition 485 

1900— William J. Bryan , Nebraska , Democrat . .'. 51 , 706 

William McKinley , Ohio , Republican 5 , 753 

Wharton Barker, Pennsylvania, Populist 1,644 

1904 — Alton B. Parker, New York, Democrat...' 53,379 

Theodore Roosevelt , New York , Republican 3 , 189 

Thomas Watson, Georgia, Populist 1,425 

Eugene V. Debs, Indiana, Socialist 39S 









.- . -"V.-fX 






454 PRESIDENTIAL VOTE OF MISSISSIPPI, 1820-1917 

1908— William J. Bryan, Democrat 60, 287 

William H. Taft, Republican 4. 432 

Populist 1, 276 

Socialist 978 

191~2— Woodrow Wilson, Democrat 57. 191 

William H. Taft, Republican 1 , 505 

Theodore Roosevelt, Progressive 3. 646 

Socialist 2, 038 

1916 — Woodrow Wilson, Democrat 80, 422 

Charles E. Hughes, Republican 4, 2^3 

Progressive 520 

Socialist 1, 469 



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MISSISSIPPI THE LEADER IX GEEAT 
REFORMS 



Mississippi was the first State in the Union to charter an institution 
of learning for the higher education of young Komen. The Elizabeth 
Female Acadeviij icas chartered hy an Act approved February 17, 1819, 
and was located at Washington, Miss 

Mississippi was the first State in the Union to agitate abolishing ini- 
prisonment for debt, and led the movement in that great reform. 

Imprisonment for debt was abtolished in Mississippi January 23, 
1824. 

Mississippi icas the first State in the Union to apply the principle 
of popular government to the judiciary. The Constitution of 1832 pro- 
vided for the election, by the people, of all judicial officers of the 
State. 

Mississippi was the first State in the Union to remove the common 
law disabilities of married ivomen. The first act in that direction was 
passed Febritary 15, 1839, and the Code of 1880, compiled by Judge 
J. A P, Campbell removed all disabilities. 

Mississippi was the first State in the Unvrjn to establish an institu- 
tion, supported by the State, for the higher education of young women. 
The Industrial Institiite and College teas provided for by an Act ap- 
proved March 12, 1SS4 

Mississippi was the first State in the Union to solve the problem 
of white supremacy in the South by lawful means. The Constitution 
of 1890 disfranchises the ignorant and vicious of both races, and 
places the control of the Slate in tlic hands of its virtuous, inteUigent 
citizens. 



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ELECTION EETUEXS 



GENERAL ELECTION, NOVEMBER 3, 1914. 
FOR CONGRESSMEN— SIXTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

FIRST DISTRICT. 

E. S. Chandler, Jr. 

Alcorn 1,064 

Itawamba 436 

Lee 575 

Lowndes 425 

Monroe 649 

Noxubee 233 

Oktibbeha 952 

Prentiss ^ 577 

Tishomingo 340 

5,271 



SECOND DISTRICT. 

H. D. Stephens 

Benton 316 

DeSoto 520 

Lafayette 399 

Marshall • ., 391 

Panola , • 820 

Tallahatchie 805 

Tate * 518 

Tippah 540 

Union 850 

5,169 



i h\. 






ELECTION RETURNS 



457 



THIRD DISTRICT. 

B, G. Humphreys 

Bolivar , 262 

Coahoma 217 

Holmes 476 

Issaquena 62 

Leflore 282 

Quitman 92 

Sharkey 75 

Sunflower 292 

Washington 4 283 

Tunica 84 



John ilcQuister. 
9 
26 



2,125 



43 



FOURTH DISTRICT. 

T. U. Sisson. 

Attala 539 

Calhoun 461 

Carroll 302 

Chickasaw 431 

Grenada 182 

Montgomery 353 

Pontotoc 598 

Webster 408 

Valobusha 810 

Clay 221 

Choctaw 379 



4.684 



H. A. Harbaugh. 
34 
30 
12 
32 

.7 

8 
17 
27 
30 

5 
13 

215 



FIFTH DISTRICT. 

S. A. Witherspoon. C. W. Smith. 

Clarke 499 34 

Jasper 362 14 • 

Kemper 480 24 

Cauderdake 1,805 263 

Leake 586 28 

Neshoba 563 47 

Newton 916 53 



458 ELECTION RETURNS 

S. A. Witherspoon. C. W. Smith 

Scott 437 15 

Smith 362 7 

Winston 441 15 



6,451 501 



SIXTH DISTRICT. 

B. P„ Harrison. Fred N. Scoti. 

Covington 915 59 

Perry .\ . . 141 g 

Forrest 233 24 

Simpson 386 2 

George 283 35 

Greene 334 5 ' 

Wayne 486 5 

Hancock 148 4 

Harrison '. 745 32 

Jackson 617 8 

Jefferson Davis 323 20 

Jones 597 78 

Lamar 238 10 

Lawrence 280 * - • 3 

Marion 239 ... 

Pearl River 260 ' 4 



6,325 295 



SEVENTH DISTRICT. 

P. E. Quin. 

Adams 207 

Amite 386 

Claiborne 116 

Copiah 542 

Franklin 233 

Jefferson 145 

Lincoln 385 

Pike 772 

Walthall 477 

Wilkinson 438 



3,702 



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ELECTION RETURNS \ 469 

EIGHTH DISTRICT. 

J. W. Collier. L. J. Raymond. 

Hinds 763 17 

Madison 273 25 

Rankin 428 

Warren 403 18 

Yazoo 366 11 

2.233 71 



GENERAL ELECTION, NOVEMBER 3, 1914, FOR CIRCUIT 
JUDGES AND CHANCELLORS. 

FIRST CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— CLAUDE CLAYTON, JUDGE. 

Alcorn 1 , 032 

Itawamba ^ 351 

Lee 600 

Monroe l 640 

Pontotoc 574 

Prentiss 575 

Tishomingo 318 



4,090 



SECOND CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— J. H. NEVILLE, JUDGE. 

George 263 

Hancock , 152 

Harrison 751 

Jackson 572 

1,788 



THIRD CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT~J. L. BATES, JUDGE. 

Benton - 315 

Calhoun 458 

Chickasaw 434 

Lafayette 398 

Marshall 375 

Tippah 549 

Union 771 

3,300 



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460 ^ ELECTION RETURNS 

FOURTH CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— FRANK E. EVERETT, 

JUDGE. 

Holmes 478 

Leflore 278 

Sunflower 289 - 

Washington 272 

FIFTH CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— H. H. ROGERS, JUDGE. 

Carroll 275 

Attala _ 541 

Choctaw 355 

Grenada 170 

Montgomery 325 

Webster 390 

Winston 413 

2,469 

SIXTH CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— R. E. -JACKSON, JUDGE. 

Adams 212 

Amite 389 

Franklin 231 

Jefferson 144 

Wilkinson 433 

1,409 

SEVENTH CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— W. H. POTTER, JUDGE. 

Hinds , 763 

Madison 286 

Yazoo 365 

1,414 

EIGHTH CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— J. D. CARR, JUDGE. 

Leake 589 ' 

Neshoba , 594 

Newton 962 

Rankin 434 

Scott 442 

. \. ' 3,021 



if r% 



ELECTION RETURNS 461 



NINTH CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— E. L. BRIEN, JUDGE. 

Claiborne 116 

Issaquena .' 72 

Sharkey 78 

Warren 406 



666 



TENTH CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— W. W. VENABLE, JUDGE. 

Clarke 526 

Greene 312 

Lauderdale 2 , 041 

Wayne 485 ' 

3,264 

ELEVENTH CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— W. A. ALCORN, JR., 

JUDGE. 

Coahoma 233 

Tunica 83 

Bolivar , 269 

Quitman 99 

. . 684 

TWELFTH CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— PAUL B. JOHNSON, 

-JUDGE. 

Forrest -. 328 

Perry : 152 

Jones 646 

1,126 

THIRTEENTH CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— W. H. HUGHES, 

JUDGE. 

Covington 905 

Jasper 365 

Simpson 371 

Smith 356 

1,997 






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462 ELECTION RETURNS 

FOURTEENTH CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— J. B. HOLDEN, 

JUDGE. 

Walthall 466 

Copiah 529 

Lincoln 381 

Pike 794 

. '2.170 



FIFTEENTH CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— A. E. WEATHERSBY, 

JUDGE. 

JejEferson Davis 315 

Marion 217 

Pearl River 259 

Lawrence 279 

Lamar 227 , 



1,197 



SIXTEENTH CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— T. B. CARROLL, JUDGE. 

Clay ; 222 

Noxubee 235 

Lowndes 423 

Obtibbeha 969 

Kemper 491 

2,340 



SEVENTEENTH CIRCUIT COURT DISTRICT— E. D. DINKINS, 

JUDGE. 

E. D. Dinkins L. F. Rainwater. 

Tallahatchie 612 265 

Yalobusha 580 288 

Panola 286 600 

DeSoto 246 304 

Tate 369 210 

2,093 1,667 



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ELECTION RETURNS • 46S 

FIRST CHANCERY COURT DISTRICT— A. J. M'INTYRE, CHAN- 
CELLOR. 

Alcorn 1 , 072 

Chickasaw 426 

Clay 222 

Itawamba 433 

Lee 603 

Monroe '646 

Oktibbeha 930 

Pontotoc 589 

Prentiss 587 

Tishomingo 322 

Webster 392 

Union 805 



7,027 



X SECOND CHANCERY COURT DISTRICT— G. C. TANN, 

CHANCELLOR. 

I Clarke 535 

I Jasper 364 

I Jones 636 

|V Lauderdale -.1,987 

1"^ - Newton 965 

I Rankin 434 

\. Scott 436 

Smith 357 



I 5,705 

1^ ■■ ^' ■■ ^ - - ■ • ■ ' :. - ■ -.- . 

*■ • THIRD CHANCERY COURT DISTRICT— J. G. MrGOWEN, 

I CHANCELLOR. 

\ Benton • ^^"^ 

I Calhoun 455 

I DeSoto 51^ 

I , Grenada ,. 189 

t' ^ Lafayette 393 

Marshall 389 

Montgomery 340 

\ Panola 809 

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464 ELECTION RETURNS 

Tate 507 

Tippah 543 

Yalobusha 742 



5,198 



FOURTH CHANCERY COURT DISTRICT— R. W. CUTRER, 
CHANCELLOR. 

Adams 175 

Amite , 379 

Claiborne 114 

Franklin 203 

Jefferson 142 

Pike 786 

Walthall 450 

Wilkinson 431 



2,680 



FIFTH CHANCERY COURT DISTRICT— 0. B. TAYLOR, 
CHANCELLOR. 

Copiah , — 549 

Hinds 760 

Lincoln 384 

Madison 284 

Yazoo 366 



2.343 



SIXTH CHANCERY COURT^ DISTRICT— A. Y. WOODWARD, 
CHANCELLOR. 

Attala 561 

Carroll 308 

Choctaw 392 

Holmes 474 

Kemper 505 

Leake 580 

Lowndes 422 

Neshoba 594 

Noxubee 234 

Winston 457 

-r 4,367 



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ELECTION RETURNS 465 

SEVENTH CHANCERY COURT DISTRICT— J. A. MAY, 
CHANCELLOR. 

Bolivar 268 

Coahoma 228 

Leflor 262 

Quitman 98 • 

Tallahatchie 807 

Tunica : 81 



1,744 



EIGHTH CHANCERY COURT DISTRICT— J. M. STEVENS, 
CHANCELLOR. 

Forrest 367 

George 271 

Greene ; 270 

Hancock 133 

Harrison 746 

Jackson 504 

Perry 146 

Wayne 451 

2,888 



NINTH CHANCERY COURT DISTRICT— E. N. THOMAS, 
CHANCELLOR. 

Issaquena 70 

Sharkey 77 

Sunflower 278 

Warren 407 

Washington 275 

. ■ ^ 1,097 



TENTH CHANCERY COURT DISTRICT— D. M. RUSSELL, 
CHANCELLOR. 

Covington 896 

Jefferson Davis 314 

Lamar ? 237 

Lawrence . . . ' 274 



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466 ELECTION RETURNS 

Pearl River 258 

Simpson 385 

Marion 225 



2.589 



PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION. 

Following are the Constitutional Amendments voted on in the gen- 
eral election held on the 3d day of November, 1914: 



NO. 1. 

A Concurrent Resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitu- 
tion requiring the Judges of the Supreme Court to be elected by 
the people. 

Resolved, By the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, two-thirds 
of each House agreeing thereto, that the following amendment to the 
State Constitution be submitted to the qualified eleciors of the State 
for ratification or rejection at an election to be held on the nrsi Tues- 
day, after the first Monday in November, 1914, viz.: 

Amend Section 145 of the Constitution by striking therefrom the 
words, "and the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, shall appoint one judge for and from each district; " and in- 
serting in lieu thereof the words, "and there shall be elected one judge 
for and from each district by the qualified electors thereof at a time 
and in the manner provided by law." The adoption of this amend- 
ment shall not abridge the terms of any of the present incumbents, 
but they shall continue to hold their respective offices until the ex- 
piration of the terms for which they were respectively appointed. 

Passed the Senate on the 5th, 6th and 7th of March, 1914. 

Passed the House of Representatives on the 19th, 20th and 21st of 
March, 1914. 

- 1. 

NO. 2. 

A Concurrent Resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution 
fixing the term of office of the Judges of the Supreme Court. 
Resolved, By the Legislatui'e of the State of Mississippi, tv/o-thirds 
of each House agreeing thereto, that the following amendment to the 
State Constitution be submitted to the qualified electors of tha State 
for ratification or r-^jection at an election to be held on the first Tues- 
day after the first Monday in November, 1914, viz. : 



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ELECTION RETURNS . 467 

In event there" shall be submitted and adopted at this election an 
amendment to the Constitution providing that the Judges of the Su- 
preme Court shall be elected by the people, Section 149 of the Consti- 
tution shall be and is hereby amended so as to read as follows: 

"Section 149. The term of office of the Judges of the Supreme Court 
shall be eight (8) years. The Legislature shall provide, as near as 
can be conveniently done, that the offices of not more than a majority 
of the judges of said court shall become vacant at any one time, and, 
if necessary for the accomplishment of that purpose, it shall have 
power to provide that the terms of office of some of the judges first to 
be elected shall expire in less than eight years. The adoption of this 
amendment shall not abridge the terms of any of the present incum- 
bents of the office of Judge of the Supreme Court; but they shall con- 
tinue to hold their respective offices until the expiration of the terms 
for which they were respectively appointed." 

Passed the Senate on the 5th, 6th and 7th of March, 1914. 

Passed the House of Representatives on the 19th, 20th and 21st of 
March, 1914. 

NO. 3. 

A Concurrent Resolution proposing an Amendment to the Constitution 
by eliminating therefrom Section 151. 

Resolved, By the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, tw^o-thirds 
of each House agreeing thereto, that the following amendment to the 
State Constitution be submitted to the qualified elecors of the State 
for ratification or rejection at an election to be held on the first Tues- 
day after the first Monday in November, 1914, viz. : 

In the event there shall be submitted and adopted at this election 
an amendment to the Constitution requiring that Judges of the Su- 
preme Court shall be elected by the people, Section 151 of the Consti- 
tution shall be and is hereby annulled and eliminated therefrom. 

Passed the Senate on the 5th, 6th and 7th of March, 1914. 

Passed the House of Representatives on the 19th, 20th and 21st of 
March, 1914. 

NO. 4. 

A Concurrent Resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution 
increasing the number of Supreme Court Judges to six. 

Resolved, By the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, two-thirds 
of each House agreeing thereto, that the following amendment to the 
State Constitution be submitted to the qualified electors of the State 
for ratification or rejection at an election to be held on tlie first Tues- 
day after the first Monday in November, 1914, viz: 



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468 • ELECTION RETURNS 

Amend the Constitution by adding an additional section thereto, 
which shall read as follows: 

The Supreme Court shall consist of six judges, that is to say, of 
three Judges in addition to the three provided for by Section 14.j of 
this Constitution, any four of whom when convened shall form a quo- 
rum. The additional judges herein provided for shall be selected one 
for and from each of the Supreme Court districts in the manner pro- 
vided by Section 145 of this Constitution, or any amendment thereto. 
Their terms of office shall be provided by Section 149 of this Constitu- 
tion or any amendment thereto. 

Passed the Senate on the 5th, 6th and 7th of March, 1914. 

Passed the House of Representatives on the 18th, 20th and 21st of 
March. 1914. 

NO. 5. 

A Concurrent Resolution proposing an amendment to -the Constitution, 
eliminating therefrom the provision that "Where either party 
shall desire, the Supreme Court, for the trial of any cause, shall 
be composed of three judges. No judgement or decree shall be 
affirmed by disagreement of two judges constituting a quorum. 

Reso-ved, By the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, two-thirds 
of each House agreeing thereto, that the following amendment to the 
State Constitution be submitted to the qualified electors of the State 
for ratification or rejection at an election to be held on the first Tues- 
day after the first Monday in November, 1914, viz: 

In event there shall be submitted 'and adopted at this election an 
amendment to the Constitution increasing the number of Judges of 
the Supreme Court, Section 165 of the Constitution shall then be 
amended so as to strike therefrom the three (3) and a fraction lines 
thereof, which read as follows: "When either party shall desire, the 
Supreme Court, for the trial of any cause, shall be composed of three 
judges. No judgment or decree shall be affirmed by disagreement of 
two judges constituting a quorum." 

Passed the Senate on the 5th, Gth and 7th of March, 1914. 

Passed the House of Representatives on the 19th, 20, and 21st of 
March, 1914. 

NO. 6. 

A Concurrent Resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution 
providing that the Supreme Court may sit for trial of causes in 
two divisions. 

Resolved, By the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, two-thirds 
of each House agreeing thereto, that the following amendment to the 



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ELECTION RETURNS 469 

State Constitution be submitted to the qualified electors of the State 
for ratification or rejection at an election to be held on the first Tue:5- 
day after the first Monday in November, 1914. viz: 

In event there shall be adopted at this election an amendment to 
the Constitution increasing the number of Judges of the Supreme 
Court, the Constitution shall then be further amended by addinr, 
thereto a new section, which shall read as follows: 

"The Supreme Court shall have power, under such rules and regu- 
lations as it may adopt, to sit in two divisions of three judges ^each, 
any two of whom when convened shall form a quorum; each division 
shall have full power to hear and adjudge all causes that may be as- 
signed to it by the court. In event the judges composing any division 
shall differ as to the judgment to be rendered in any cause, or in 
event any judge of either division, within a time and in a manner to 
be fixed by the rules to be adopted by the court, shall certify that in 
his opinion any decision of any division of the court is in conflict with 
any prior decision of the court or of any division thereof, the cause 
shall then be considered and adjudged by the full court, or a qucrum 
thereof." 

Passed the Senate on the 5th, 6th and 7th of March, 1914. 

Passed the House of Representatives on the 19th, 20th and 21st of 
March, 1914. 



NO. 7. 

A Concurrent Resolution to amend Section 31 of the State Constitu- 
tion so that nine or more jurors in civil suits may agree on the 
verdict and return it as the verdict of the jury. 

Be It Resolved. By the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, two- 
thirds of each Hcus? agreeing thereto, That the following amendment 
to the State Constitution be submitted to the qualified electors of the 
State for ratification or rejection at an election to be held on the first 
Tuesday after the first Monday in November, 1914, viz: 

Ameud SecLioii CI ot the Ccn-ti^.n'iinn ?n thr-.t it will rpad as follows: 

Section 31. The right of trial by jury <h'-\\\ remain inviolate, but 
the Legislature may, by enactmelit, provide that in all ci-vil suits tried 
in the circuit or chancery courts, nine or more jurors may agree on 
the verdict, and return it as the verdict of the jury. 

Passed the House of Representatives on the 10th and 12th of Feb- 
ruary and the Gth of March, 1914. 

Passed the Senate on the 17th, 19th and 20th of March, 1914. 



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470 ELECTION RETURNS 



No. 8. 

A. Concurrent Resolution proposing: an amendment to Section 33 of the 
Constitution of Mississippi, providing for initiative and referen- 
dum. 

Resolved, By the House of Representatives of the Senate of the State 
of Mississipp, two-thirds of the members of each House concurring 
therein, that Section 33 of the State Constitution be amended, so as to 
read as follows: 

Section 33. The legislative authority of the State shall be vested 
in a Legislature which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Repre- 
sentatives, but the people reserve to themselves the power to propose 
legislative measures, laws, resolutions and amendments to the Consti- 
tution, and to enact or reject the same at the polls independent of the 
Legislature; and also reserve the power, at their own option, to ap- 
prove or reject at the polls any act, item, section or any part of any act 
or measure passed by the Legislature. 

1. The first power reserved by the people is the inUiative, and not 
more than seven thousand five hundred (7,500) qualified electors shall 
be required to propose any measure by initiative petition, and every 
such petition shall include the full text of the measure so proposed. 
Initiative petitions shall be filed with the Secretary of State not less 
than three months before the election at which they are to be voted 
upon. 

2. The second power reserved by the people is the referendum, and 
it may be ordered either by a petition signed by the required number 
of qualified voters or by the Legislature, as other bills are enacted. 
Not more than six thousand (6.000) qualified voters may be required 
to sign and make valid referendum petition. The filing of a referen- 
dum petition against any one or more items, sections, or parts of any 
measure shall not delay the remainder from becoming operative. Ref- 
erendum petitions against measures passed by the Legislature shall be 
filed with the Secretary of State not later than ninety (90) days after 
the final adjournment of tho T.peislatnrp at which siT'h mca!5urp« were 
passed, pxcppt wh^n adjournment shall be taken temporarily for a 
longer period, than ninety (90) days, in which case such petition shall 
be filed not later than ninety (90) days after such tempo«^ry adjourn- 
ment. All measures referred to a vote of the people by referendum 
petitions shall remain in abeyance until such vote is taken. 

3. If it shall be necessary for the immediate preservation of the 
public peace, health or safety, then a measure shall become effective 
without delay, such necessity shall be stated in one section and if upon 
a yea and nay vote, three-fourths of those voting in each House shall 
vote in favor of the measure going into immediate operation, such 
measure shall become operative at once. It shall be necessary to 



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ELECTION RETURNS 471 

state in such section the facts constituting such emergency. Provided, 
that an emergency shall not be declared on any franchise or special 
privilege or act creating any vested right or interest, or alienating any 
property of the State. If a referendum petition is filed against such 
emergency measure, such measure shall be a law until it is voted upon 
by the people, and if it is then rejected by a majority of the voters* 
voting thereon, it shall be thereby repealed. 

4. The word "measure" as used herein means any law, bill, resolu- 
tion, constitutional amendment, or any other legislative measure-. All 
elections on general, local and special measures referred to the people 
of the State shall be held at the general State or congressional elec- 
tions, except when the Legislature shall order a special election. Any 
measure submitted to the people as herein provided shall take effect 
and become law w-hen approved by a majority of the votes cast there- 
on, and not otherwise. Such measure shall be in operation on and 
after the 30th day after the election at which it is approved. The 
veto power of the Governor shall not extend to measures initiated by 
or referred to the people. If conflicting measures submitted to the 
peop-le shall be approved by a majority of the votes severally cast for 
and against the same, the one having the higliest number of affirmative 
votes shall thereby become law. No measure enacted by a vote of the 
people shall be amended or repealed by the Legislature except by yea 
and nay votes, upon roll call of three-fourths of the members of each 
House voting thereon. Qualified electors only shall be counted upon 
petitions. Petitions may be circulated and presented in parts, but 
each part of any petition shall have attached thereto the affidavit of 
the person circulating the same that all of the signatures thereon were 
made in the presence of the affiant, and that, to the best of the affiant's 
knowledge and belief, each signature is genuine, and that the person 
signing is a qualified elector, and no other affidavit or verification shall 
be required. The sufficiency of all petitions shall be decided by the 
Secretary of State. In the event that the sufficiency of the petition is 
challenged, the question shall be tried at once in term time or in va- 
cation, and such cause shall be a preference causi; over all other 
causes. If the Secretary of State shall decide any petition to be in- 
sufficient, he shall, without delay, notify the sponsors of the petition 
and permit at least thirty (30) days for correction or amendment. In 
the event of legal proceedings, in any court, to prevent giving effect to 
any petition, upon any grounds, the burden of proof shall be upon the 
person or persons attacking the validity of the petition. This section 
shall not be construed to deprive any member of the Legislature of the 
right to introduce any bill. The style of all of the bills initiated by 
petition shall be, "Be it enacted by the people of the State of Missis- 
sippi." In submitting the measure the Secretary of State and all 
other officials shall be guided by the general election laws until ad- 



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472 ELECTION RETURNS 

ditional legislation may be provided therefor, but no legislation shall 
be enacted tending to impair or hamper the exercise of the rights 
herein reserved to the people. 

Sec. 2. That this amendment be submitted to the qualified electors 
on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, 1914, in 
accordance with the provisions of Section 273 of the State Constitution. 

Passed the House of Representatives on the 6th, 9th and 10th of 
March, 1914. 

Passed the Senate on the 17th, 19th and 20th of March, 1914.- 



NO. 9. 

A Concurrent Resolution proposing an amendment to Section 255 of 
the Constitution re'ating to apportionment of Senators. 

Resolved, By the Legislature of the State of Mississippi, two-thirds 
of each House concurring therein, that the following amendment to 
the State Constitution be submitted to the qualified electors of the 
State for ratification or rejection at an election to be held on the first 
Tuesday after the first Monday in November, 1914, viz: 

Amend Section 255 of the Constitution so as to read as follows: 

First — The County of Harrison shall constitute the first district 
and elect one Senator. 

Second — The Counties of Wayne and Jones, the second district, and 
elect one Senator. 

Third — The Counties of Jasper and Clark the third district, and 
elect one Senator. 

Fourth — The Counties of Simpson and Covington the fourth diztrict, 
and elect one Senator. 

Fifth— The Counties of Rankin and Smith the firth district, and 
elect one Senator. 

Sixth— The Counties of Pike and Franklin the sixth district and 
elect one Senator. 

Seventh — The Counties of Amite and Wilkinson the seventh district, 
and elect one Senator. 

Eighth — The Counties of Lincoln and Lawrence the eighth district, 
and elect one senator. 

Ninth — The County of Adams the ninth district, and elect one 
Senator. 

Tenth— The Counties of Claiborne and Jefferson the tenth district, 
and elect one Senator. 

Eleventh — The County of Copiah the e'eventh district, and elect one 
Senator. 

Twelfth — The Counties of Hinds and Warren the twelith district, 
and elect one Senator each and a Senator between them, to be chosen 
from the counties alternately, beginning with Warren., 



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ELECTION RETURNS 473 

Thirteenth — The Counties of Scott and Newton the thirteenth dis- 
trict, and elect one Senator. 

Fourteenth — The County of Lauderdale the fourteenth district, and 
elect one Senator. 

Fifteenth — The Counties of Kemper and Winston the fifteenth dis- 
trict, and elect one Senator. 

Sixteenth — The County of Noxubee the sixteenth district, and elect 
one Senator. 

Seventeenth — The Counties of Leake and Neshoba the seventeenth 
district, and elect one Senator. 

Eighteenth — The County of :\ladison the eighteenth district, and 
elect one Senator. 

Nineteenth — The County of Yazoo the nineteenth district, and elect 
one Senator. 

Twentieth — The Counties of Sharkey and Issaquena the twentieth 
district, and elect one Senator. 

Twenty-first — The County of Holmes the twenty-first district, and 
elect one Senator. 

Twenty-second — The County of Attala the twenty-second district, 
and elect one Senator. 

Twenty-third— The Counties of Oktibbeha and Choctaw the twenty- 
third district, and elect one Senator. 

Twenty-fourth — The Counties of Clay and Webster the twenty-fourth 
district, and elect one Senator. 

Twenty-fifth— The County of Lowndes the twenty-fifth district, ana 
elect one Senator. 

Twenty-sixth — The Counties of Carroll and Montgomery the twenty- 
sixth district, and elect one Senator. 

Twenty-seventh — The Counties of Leflore and Tallahatchie the 
twenty-seventh district, and elect one Senator. 

Twenty-eighth — The counties of Yalobusha and Grenada the twenty- 
eighth district, and elect one Senator. 

Twenty-ninth — The Counties of Washington and Sunfiow^jr the twen- 
ty-ninth district, the County oi 'vVasuingtou ihall elect one Senator 
and the Counties of Washington and Sumlower elect a Senator between 
them. 

Thirtieth — The County of Bolivar the thirtieth district, and elect one 
Senator. 

Thirty-first— The Counties of Chickasaw, Calhoun and Pontotoc the 
thirty-first district, and elect tw^ Senators. Both Senators shall at no 
time be chosen from the same county. 

Thirty-second — The County of Lafayette the thirty-second distirct, 
and elect one Senator. 

Thirty-third — The County of Panola the thirty-third district, and 
elect one Senator. 



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474 ELECTION RETURNS 

Thirty-fourth— The Counties of Coahoma, Tunica and Quitman the 
thirty-fourth district, and elect one Senator. 

Thirty-fifth— The County of DeSoto the thirty-fifth district, and 
elect one Senator. 

Thirty-sixth — The Counties of Union. Tippah, Benton, Marshall and 
Tate the thirty-sixth district, and elect three Senators. The Counties 
of Tate and Benton shall be entitled to one, the Counues of Union and 
Tippah one, and the County of Marshall one. 

Thirty-seventh — The Counties of Tishomingo, Alcorn and Prentiss 
the thirty-seventh district, and elect one Senator. 

Thirty-eighth — The Counties of Monroe, Lee and Ittawamba the thir- 
ty-eighth district, and elect two Senators, one of whom shall be a resi- 
dent of the County oi Monroe, and the other a resident of Lea or Ita- 
wamba Counties. 

Thirty-ninth— The Counties of Jefferson Davis, Marion and Walthall 
the thirty-ninth district, and elect one Senator. 

Fortieth — The Counties of Lamar, Pearl River and Hancock the 
fortieth district, and elect one Senator. 

Forty-first — The Counties of George, Greene and Jackson the forty- 
first district, and elect one Senator, 

Forty-second — The counties of Forrest and Perry the forty-second 
district, and elect one Senator. 

Passed the Senate on the 17th, 19th and 20th of March, 1914. 
• Passed the House of Representatives on the 25th, 26th and 27th of 
March. 

In explanation of the tabulated vote on Constitutional Amendments^ 
herewith submitted, I call attention to the following statement cf facts: 

As the returns were being received from the various counties we be- 
gan to tabulate them, taking the "high" vote, or the "highest vote" 
shown on the face of the returns, to make up the total vote cast in 
the State. Later we noted that in two or three instances the County 
Commissioners had included with their returns a separate certificate, 
certifying to the "total number of votes cast" in the county. These 
figures showed ua lLa.t ihe total nuuibtr of vuttrs polled in iLe L0untic-:3 
exceeded the highest vote shown on the returns. There were on the 
ballots voted nine constitutional amendments, a Judge, a Chancellor, 
Congressman and frequently one or more county ofiicers, and a propo- 
sition for "tick eradication" all to be voted for. The voter voted for all 
or as few of these as he saw fit. Th|s, if 100 men went to the polls 
and 40 voted only for the amendments and 60 only for Congressman, 
the Congressman would show on the returns' as having received the 
highest vote, yet there would, in reality, be 40 more votes in the box 
than he received; nor would there be any way to determine tLis fact 
from the face of the returns. 



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ELECTION RETURNS 475 

Being aware of the fact that our Supreme Court has held that a 

Constitutional amendment is not carried at the polls unless it receives 
a majority of "all the votes cast at the election," whether they are 
voted for the amendment or some other proposition, I felt that we 
should ascertain the total vote cast in each county, and I therefore 
prepared and sent to each county returning board a certificate blank, 
requesting them to certify back to me the total number of votes polled 
in the county, as their returns seemed to me to be incomplete without 
this. All of the county boards complied with this request and certified 
in these total votes, excepting the Counties of Bolivar, Carroll, DeSoto, 
Holmes, Issaquena and Lafayette. 

In making up the table of the vote, which follows, it will be noted 
that I have made up two separate totals — one showing the "high vote" 
in each county, as taken from the face of the returns, and the other 
showing the "total vote," or total number of ballots cast, as taken from 
the supplemental certificates sent in by the county boards. In this lat- 
ter result I have included the "high vote" only from the six counties 
which failed to certify their total vote. The first of these totals gives 
37,583; the second gives us 40,070. 

If we accept the high vote total, all of the amendments have car- 
ried; but since this is obviously not the total number of votes cast in 
the election, can it be arbitrarily accepted in the face of the Supreme 
Court's decision- 

If, on the other hand, we accept the total vote as shown by the cer- 
tificates, which would meet the decision of the Supreme Court, would 
we not have to leave out the high vote of the six counties which failed 
to certify in their totals? 

If neither of these results can be accepted, has the election failed 
for want of a proper return? 

I submit the facts as they are for the consideration of the Legis- 
lature. Report of Secretary of State, 1916. 

At a meeting of the State Democratic Executive Committee, held in 
the Senate Chamber, in the City of Jackson, on the 21st day of July, 
1915, the following were declared the nominees of the Democratic 
party for the offices to which they aspired, th<^y having no opposition on 
that date: 

For Secretary of State — Joseph W. Power. 

For Superintendent Education — W. H. Smith. 

For Attorney General — Ross A. Collins. 

For Commissioner of Agriculture — H. E. Blakeslee. 

For Bank Examiner, First District — E. F. Anderson. 

For Bank Examiner, Third District—S. S. Harris. 



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: iC 35 13 3: — re re ?.j r- 3: 3. — Li ^1 «; r~ o — re — 11 LI — « 
:LiirM>-r-c--!3>ii-3<rO'»r;^i-ro03C "^t— t— ee-f^;S35 



joi-fi'-x 



1 3;oo-Hi— reosceot^— . — ict— t— re35 3-. 3ciir>>'Ot— ^CM3: 

] re — o — t— iit---r-^35=3-^ — L'^ — ■«-^•35fe-rL1^c3Dc^cc— 
! set— 03CLi-^--3c — 3;-!-^3;t— rewi35Li3:--3rereLiii — 35 



re 35 3-. 3C 1 1 ;>■' o t— ^ CM 35 Sir S3 ic 35 oo t— 3-. in— ao 

— ■«f35fe-rLi3C3Dca:c— t— es — -fer. .^rsoce'rrce 
t-re«35Li3:--3rereLiii — 35t— 35-t — re-ri- — cm 



aosu.W 



ce Li 35 — r Li LI ; 



Sf-L— 3CS3Lirerere-^ot— ac rv!3:=>cM-r<=)3:-^ 



mfoas 



'13- S3— 3;Ol13Ci1C— 35300r^J— ;3;SCC:^7^035--3^^C;CI— OCl1re3'33C^I 

oe =3 re ^ 3C L1 -^ 1 - re t— 3C re 11 oo Li — < t— c^3 -r 2C LI C5 ;3 ^ 1 — r^ J LI 3C 30 35 •-T -^ 30 ce 3C 

)-i-3;«3rere:ore-Ti3c— i-cv.t-'^re- loao 



I 3C -^ re r-; 11 3c>D r^i -^ -r 35 c— CO • 



i 

CD 


1 


35Sr}Ll3i>0aC — — — 35— I-35^iLl3;re— 350 — (=03C3:— 35t-t— t— LlC=Ot-35 
tS O ^ CM I^ 3- 3C — ce re 1 1 t- — CM t— t— — 3C I- >1 35 LI LI t- 30 — 3C CM CVJ -5C CM ^ — C5 eb 

t— 30 1- — cMLiooc— ^isre^f— t-035:3cet— -rretore-rcsao jcacaca-oe — «3a5 


3 


Iiassna 


-•»itf!occM-T©eLiie;»— cijac-Ti— c3<33t— -r35 3-. -rcet33c:3re— ICM30-*— fotooocrs 





[[BAOiji 


t-Tii-i;^^;^:^; — -^iSr-jaCLiooi— -roe^=5LH-t-L1re=^o<5535t-^cce-J•^c^c-^> 
l-o-^-r>:^cce-r.. ret— ift«3::^i3;reLl c>j-!j« — rtres: LiCMcesscMcesso 


AII^X 


* ecoo — 2r'^«^ — '~^=^>-^ = — L1l1oc-rc^Jre -^r— -r — re3:se • cm t— t— 05 li oo ss — < 
OeoS5 — roLi-roci— — L130 — — re^iic^i-Tr-o-^oo'^ro -oot— lic^icvj — u^^^j. 




uamf) 


rvit— oosesssiorM — 350^'rse53-r:vir-c>i3;^c>iLioc^io:«i=3c^jo — LI — 50,-i 

•^eOMSCS C^l — CCt- CMt-TCM-T — — LIC^JLIOCVl-T- '-COlI- — — COLITOCMli? 


948 
617 
505 
.592 
340 
630 
315 

Si? 

,558 
329 
531 
544 
587 
. 755 
517 
493 
280 
612 
254 
li)3 
490 
480 

1,239 
710 
80 
7.55 
010 
557 
301 
2.39 

1.309 
505 
833 




oqna 


^55^^g5^g§s^^s|,2^s;^i2ffi^§22^ogsggg;H_rip^^ 



** '' J rf = ^ 3—* rf rf ^ ■a 



««'. 



l—SOesrtJS^-; — 



2 :3 



<e ^ : 






:.fr;';T<! fj' v, 






ELECTION RETURNS 479 






• I « 

■ . ! CI 



■— ' 3C <= ac o • 
;s :» ^ 1--S C. ; 



iTiCO — — ^:cos:x:r^ox:OffCi 






i-H ir; '3" ^3 r~ — ' 3C C-; :^j i"? >: lt ^r -r ^- — :£ ?c — < t^ r- :m c«j re l-: cm a;; .-^i o lI t^ ;vi »t sC :vj O ut cm I t~- 

" '3 \ 



1 L.-5 ^J — — 1.-5 . 

': 1-* 

rcKj~5cU?5 I — ^ — irj. — ; 






rj< fo r^i i_-5 3C CM • :^i .-^j -r -r ^ r^: Lt 3C —H !£ ?ci_'; rrs u-^ jvt t-- i."; •* r-j i^ ac re :^J sc sr: ;» 3C — iirj :vi :c -r ivi wr jy; — I sc 



-r_^ i 



'•■^ !:t ^ 12 5; '"~ i;; IT ^ ';; '.- ? ~ '-7 2 '-^ f^ b-JT '.2 JS ^ ' "^ '^ ^ ^ ' "^ "~ ^ i-~ t^ _i£ i ~ :»: = .-^i ^ =^ f^ 2 i2 '.I ■:^ ~ 2 ^ I ^' 

Cvl M 1-J ^ — i*— ' — — —T ™ I l.-^ 



l^^^^ll^l-^':^ — -f~i-TO>:-i3C~r3C3C-r3cr:c-5;cM~-.^rs=:ci— '30-^=:r-. ^c-^l-T^»'^c^:o-r=^vr-?•3C^•l i tri 



fO:^-^<s!':ii v^ ~. ^'tt^x Si T^ r~ T'iC'-^t^ ci :^'i-~ Si i^-r ■^.-' --i^ :"■''— :x: \ t- 



'_ ^ ' t^ 



i t-- — — . — -r ic i"^ ^ ic iC 



l=r i 



3C30— 't— ^i-M.'7> — .-^int-ooi-^'C; ^ S5 ^. -r c^-T r-r t:r ^=: — :^j r:r-. r-:;r ^^ ic^ = cci-'T- 
••^-Hrctr'i-rr'_)t--r2icc;o?c;si- — r^iic^— f'Tiocsc— 'icc—rrc; — <^-^;c:=— — — L-r- 






•S'-H''' C3 oc -rt— -.s -»■»'? lO Si 3: c :«i 3; r— — f 3«D -T i."? iS ;c i~ I— r^iT re ;£;£ rs 3C c^ ::: ^- s>r^ CM C5 3: — ^ C5 1~ — -^ I ro 
ac»-<5©rcr^i-ri=3CL.-cs:o — t-~-ri--:-ra:s; = -r:Mcr — :>it^ r-oi — -^u-act^;^^; — — >.c>ivtcv — s-ir-ic;— Ice 

-1< -^ <o~i^-xiz » -.^1=1 S 1^1 3; O C5 1^ ac s: 

ffl ^ r^j s; 3: Lt — L.-; c^i -y »:«■ t-~ ?^ t-^ ac t-- ui 



( — :vj c^i 



lO CM e: -5C r- 1 

CM0335<iOOS-" — . --_ __--_ , 



. c 



: : ^ 



^o ::: — : — :c 



<0 csS 05 C^ ^ 0*' -.-« O ** •* " *^ "i www ..^ oi v i* — • O -* -^ ^ *j _^ ^ 2 ^ ^ ^ -" *"■ "* J~ *-r-. •■^fc. •^fc. "-^ "^ "-^ *-^ ."* . 



n'j'-'t^m -^^ici'rm.ii 



480 



ELECTION RETURNS 






a. 

Oh 



EH 

O 

o 





sm3d 


2 : 


ii: 








g2 : 

— T • 


• c? re J .-M ^ -i ~ 


•CC30 








• W OS 38 -^ 




aAOT i ; 


• • 






: :'5!5 : 


.-0 • 3c t^ 1.-: ua 


•»t^ 








• •» « ?^» 




i ! 


• 30 


. .ao 


• SCOOO 
•t^C3 » CM 

•00t^M-«S" 




:i* : :1 




-00 





















Pi 


i 3"O^S 




• •« 


• :m M pC 




:S^ : :i 




:— 






















AVBqsaaj^ 






'■ j5 


•cca-eoec 




• src • •=> 

:;;S : :^ 




:2 






















SAvaqj^l^ 




• en 




iiiii 




•MO • • -5- 














S 










c :, * 


j XjauioSiaoj^ "^ 

1 




IN 






:i 


sS: 


gs :iiias 


2S 

■>*30 












1 2 : 
j saoiBqx ^ : 


■0 • • 

-'i ; • 






1; 


IS; 




5CW 








r-05«ut»- 
:m 


z9i 


1 




:ip 




i 




























££5 


j Xi9tiios;aoi^ 






•t^ t^ 




; 






; ; ; 










i 


s 








-\- 






aaJOH 


S 


• -=5 

• •JM 


•T IJ? M ^1 




SI : ii 




30 










§ 

t^ 








uosHAV 


S 


i -o 


35— C2SS 

:?g2§ 




^^ : :'- 

XUl • -30 




i 










1 










0* tl^ 

2=- 


unsnv 


~:1 


Mi 






iii: 




ec5 








3C 30 so C- 




»— 1 CM 


p.iBaci9n5 ^ ':'' 


■H • • 








P :iSI5 


«30 








--0 -^ -» cS- 

to — '♦irt^ 


© 

Hi 


.YaiAioJO ' 




:g :| 








i : : i : : 








i«" 












1 : 
liaMoaoit j 

i 




•30 .-» 








:::::: 








00—1 












6 


spjBMpa 1 : 




:12 :kl 








i i i i i i ! 








p- 












lis 






513 


1 ^22?^^S2S5?§rJSS2::^2S;S-gS?3g^SgS2£^^ 


m 




1 

! 

i 

S 

i 




c 
<< 




a 
3 


Co 




£ i 

u 


• ; 

• 
6u 


• r • 


c ~ « 


5 


-is 


J 


jj 


1 




.a 


5 

^ 


2 


1 

■;'■ 


j2 

D 


"> 



ELECTION RETURNS 



481 





e<4 -1— I 






i 




CO 
CM 
















2£S 














~ 


30 














-co 

•CVJ 






i 




CM 








i 

1 "^ 




its 


: 


3C 




05 
















iii 






-- 


-' 


m 

-HCM 












•o 

•C3 




3 






il 


:S 








e<5 
CO 




Sii 






L-SlO 






CM=L-5 








CM CVJ .-M — CM 








S 
O 




o 


;= 


'To 








^ 


- 


SM t— CM 






SIS 






§5^ 












^ 3C t^ IT c: i-r 

ii? [^ S S '^' s 








§ 






' t-^ 


:~ 






gg 


i 




CM-«<ro 












5|2 












coco — T^ 








cc 




s 


1 o 

1 ^ 


i« 






0§ 


«5 










SI 






sg2 












to LO r- =5 re O 

SCI" :v> o-T r- 
«c» s; ^ ^J LO 








ac 

5 




Sc 


a 




SiS 






! 




g 








































:g 




3 


i 






oo 




i:i 






S5 




i 
















III 












t^CM 












.« 




CM 


CM 

5 






oo 


i 




CM 










05 








co-r — 
















wm 




- 


















oc 


2 a 


i 




:■ 


so 








i 








SiS 
















ip 




i 












ii 






i 




:g§ 






^2 


s 




Gsi 












t-L'St.'S 

§52 




















oe 




i 


IS 






is 


ii 






2i 


i 




lis 






IS 










- 








C^ ao 35 CC 1-1 •-< 








o 

30 




!- 


:ii 




S:! 






2 




:i 
















iii 












sgi 










;0 




••§ 


i 






i i 




i:E 






































-11 












• S 




'•?J 


ec 






: IS 

• 1 en 


S 




i 


«0 








^ 








.-ICM 
















S|[2S 




;3C 

• 53 












si 






s 








•i 


i 








§ 








Em 




















■^ 












MSB 






• CO 
•o 


i '" 


i 




is 

•CSl 


•CM 
































:S2* 
















•eocc 






• o 


■:§JS 


5:s 




Ji? 


c: 


X 


b 


y 




?^ 




. or 


a: 




.l 


■HC 


" ^ 


53 




? 




.5 


.= 
?' 




5- 




ii 


5C 


5 > 


[H 


^c 


3 » 




5> 


• c 


rs 




■0 


let 


2 ^ 


!S 


ii 


il 


|a 


ii 


l|i 






E^5c--»«c-raD-r3035i-.CM-Ti^«o-^-ri.'; — «C'»'c:c=it~:^Jt--t^CMo: — o;aoaccMtc:v, .^tccct^O'<*Tccacc^i ; tc 



^•2 









^»c 






o 



at e4 d Gd «! 



' -a i- o o 






31— m 



[T' I 'LIH 



482 



ELECTION RETURNS 



fa 3 



(■OOg) 

•J3UIJB j[ song 



.^ ooeooQeo L^t-^p-^i—co, 



ou90»eoi»»:* 'O 



O oao 



-Ha5-j?j:»cncvji,-3iox; — oc«»cMCJO;i.':kOi.-5rc:Mi^i»-"'3'^i' t-CMi—CM" 



C^S) 



3« 

.9S 



I '-rp8au83 



'A\ 



L-S t-» •>» -rj" ;:^^ i-; « l5 so tc r— lO re 3C 'T O T ! 



1 O 3C t^ CC — irS ^1 Lf 30 t-- — 



(•raaa) 



(•rasa) 



S30sca3cc:viu-5trS3C'^S!cj^3CO'»j-5CuTrofvicvj.-<^r3;u.-; 3e^^l^-.pJ^M■^o; 



suinoo -y ssoH 



sca5»CTt3c:>jrr?3Ct.oi--(39SS — OL':OC'»rc«o30r^o> — ■^OjL.-OM^CiOt^Ot^- 
1— iOiSr^^cr5:NjL.'?ifloc-^0>«S>CMSSwirt«CL.tJfjC>JC^ii— i"ra»'rr >Et<tf«c>J«<s"eoC9t 






(•30S) 

j9[niM -J -a 



•-HeMl.-^^o^oc^^o^-.en?o«o^r5:Mlflc^^4S03::^^t--r»•^^"l'?S53;rv>^0"»ecoe^?-»Ol-'; 






(•oos) 
•smBTinAi 



(tnaa) 
•uosnA.V 

•a -iqoa 






(•SOS) 
2 -jaJ^aTL'A 






(•raaa) 

U8M0d "Ai'SOf 



fa 3 



o I "naAvxBi\[ 






cvjss«seMeosccML.'Zirt3C>— ^S"»rvjacoi/s«©L:5c»«eNj«vji— (■^'39^ 3cersr»CJ»r«Oi 



S Ctnaa) 

-- I -iiassna 



lOOOt^LOO-T-aCOOT^ni 






OS 
fa > 

o 



(•OOg) 



(•raao) 
•oqilH 



O 3: 3C — CC W 35 



-- er: 3c -r t>. r- — -r >: -=5 t~ ic -T — L- — — ~ T -ic 3C -^ — r- O I— 1^ J^ cvl cc »-« — 1^ 



s- 



Sjr^rt^—tajw^^ 



= 3 C •CO • b-if 



. • - • _ t. S . w S r- 

2 P s «* S ts ?^ "^ «• 3 

"i^^^li;^ ^^^-^- 5 § c I o £ J £ C « «;= o « - ^ ^^^ 5 ©5 



!■; )' 



:„.!i 3- 



1- 


'x, 








^^■- 


!l 








ELECTION RETURNS 



483 



te>^t*^toa»«ei»'«»'i,-5«ooooc»5csr^-ro350aoO(W^vSM->w.-Ma>->*r^os5t~ -ooseo — (Cfu'S'roo 
ev»<»,-t«'9> ■>* — H (O -< CM -H CO uT ^ CM « — , — , rg rr 30 ^ « -, -» jc fi ^ -^ -^ :m • •.? -^ -h co cc o -"^ eo cm -^ 


p5 


527 

1,436 

477 

1,285 

I.. 329 

181 

759 

488 

295 

.551 

636 

816 

493 

1.507 

1,112 

325 

666 

611 

451 

194 

488 

1.000 

960 

112 

573 

754 

273 

1.066 

1,157 

474 

1,238 
462 
138 
883 
442 
292 
246 
680 
810 
415 
995 
.571 
756 


CO 

o 

LA 


^U500'*r>.<»--«£>t-.l.'?35MO—-0-«-3C«=0«30t-.CSl.'?3eC>30-»3SS»r-.L'J--ce;C — •«»•--«---? — oo 
€0^ iatO ■«<^— «.-vJM:MOL-a — ,-Mt^.-M^0rS.«.C5 .-VJ -, -N t^ 30 -^ « — •^ « O M CM — CS tj- ."M •»». rCl 55 


§ 


527 
1,429 
489 
1.293 
1,341 
182 
804 
478 
294 
562 
617 
825 
500 
1,526 
1,127 
340 
675 
604 
453 
190 
483 
987 
960 
109 
572 
760 
270 
1.073 
1.192 
331 
565 
471 
1,244 
467 
1.35 
875 
445 
316 
225 
683 
854 
414 
973 
578 
76*2 


s 

in 


562 

1,450 

488 

1,312 

1,328 

171 

817 

! 467 

296 

,598 

615 

855 

501 

1.565 

1,135 

331 

687 

601 

459 

200 

508 

1,009 

999 

113 

567 

757 

273 

1.101 

1,239 

333 

582 

476 

1,269 

45:5 

135 

887 

450 

301 

256 

692 

850 

414 

960 

567 

726 


i 


irtoe«r.3i.ooc^-r;r^«t-30'»r — ooot— ■»><i_-3C5««Jc:orvi-*S5L-5 0t^er5;M — i-s-rrMcvjOiO-. 3c:vj=50« 


CM 
CM 


»rte>JeMaok/5^3craM'«i>'«>:viu'5c«r-.CMM — cc— .'T co^J « :m rj« ce ^ cc .-m ?e cm rr p^ rvj cc ut s; r^j l-: m «c 


-•I 




t2 



^gS§!5'^SSJS?;5SgS^§2i2S2C;*SS|"S3.^2S£S2SJ:;£5 = -^i?:'SI33^^S^S^?^ 


CM 


519 

1.420 

480 

1,296 

l,34ti 

171 

779 

477 

283 

578 

620 

833 

481 

1,511 

1,099 

326 

670 

606 

479 

199 

497 

1,004 

977 

no 

566 
761 
256 
1,0(52 
1,184 
315 
573 
470 
1,260 
474 
135 
879 
451 
300 
255 
677 
866 
409 
976 
5-8 
743 


U3 


eM-«»««»^-m^Tj''i»c— r-cMr»«-.3000CMc>.0JOc»e0Tj>— <-^0«accMsC'^irs — oo — ?j(35"^— H-s-eicMOooLrt 
^00i-i-<9'-* "^cc — CMCM0OeM3C-T-<rvi — < CMCMt^ c^i t^t>- — — ecc^J cc F-i.-tersccr-JT — -H 


oo 

ci? 


542 

1,350 

'481 

1,312 

1,375 

172 

807 

296 
577 
585 
833 
485 
1,520 
1,117 

666 
612 
470 
196 
509 

1,025 
985 
HI 
558 
284 
76 

1,092 

1,199 
332 
574 
470 

1,250 
472 
133 
913 
4.)5 
324 
258 
687 
872 
421 
980 
576 
763 


re 



>o»'*oo»--'^OLtt~t~«eacirtCMC;«:sscMer5t^Oi.-:!OC-T«spti2?t2S'^°" 
>?aiA^CM-HCML3'9"i,Q!r:<ocMmrMi_oc^j:Mi--eO"9>SM «»3i— ir<4t-#flCM5CeOL.c«3" 



(or^CMCiS'^aesrsr-Teo la 



t^tM«o.-^cv,i.-cet:Su-3C3C— »i.-^i=.-vi;=rtw5C^r-<=c-c;-ri/t-.ifes:r-..-ecMi.-^3C^-'^u-^OM3ciKO£C-»cvi 



»Or><^»itoe»> 



1 Lt ce IS 1-^ 3C x; — » ltj ic ."^1 ;= cc cs 5C ^ t-- <= =^ i^ -1^ '^- — «^i >— '^ -^ -^ 1-- ^^ ^- ~T l- 
)w*t~'9:^S>i.'ioo-^'V'-'f^iSL.-i'^reo-;TCiai c^r— :m.-«»— cMirt'»»>cM'*»-oc'3' 



eccMccae-rai.'Oc^ 



*us«ocMLn«c^«cvr.— •-■»»• — t-»05-ri!C 30 c^icM-r-^--; 



: -T -rr t— LI ;c -.S — : 
■--:,-HCMcoeccJ3Ct 



00Lns0Oi--5u':!-^L0-^e0-o-T>irt»Ot^cv4i-0C-->«scM2^OCM-rc:5g«o«2— •«. 
lfleM^scM»^r-'^CM«oir30CTcc — c^isd.f^cM'S'OiO-^-ot^cMOCMrOL.c-rcvj" 



-^t:^ 



95^ 



>5 

_ S eJ J __ 

j'^'c '3 c «2 2:; 2, -2 ^^3 a-- 



:^ 



-'^ 



_ o 
-■ r 5 O 3 



Illltf-S |5^ J « S|^ o5 gi sif if § 



f4Hij^H4Hj»-i^<i#^;^;^;s<<s;^i<^pc-p-Si-cup^a.gr« -oq* ~ -^r&^?-^J^!^?^r^^^?=^r>^^ *< 



484 



ELECTION RETURNS 



&3 

> 
O 

"A 

O 
fa 

O 

H 
H 

< 

o 
o 

H 

< 

ta 



O eS 

c 

n 



(•raaa) 
•sijJBH s 'S 



-6 nsiQ 



(•raaci) I 
uosjdpuy 



(■raaa) 
•aaois-C) "T 
•g -asra 



lOco •os-r.oi-^ 



^r» :^J • • s: 



(■raaa) 
■samisqj^ 

'I -^isia 



(•oiaa) I 
•AMamo3 

•I nsta 



5Ct^ o-r 



o; O re r^ i-T 






CVJ tOJM«»£-. 



(•DOS) 



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(^sacaCLtL-tac-r^TOaoo 



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ELECTION RETURNS 



485 



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486 ELECTION RfiTXJRNS 

OFFICIAL VOTE OF THE DEMOCRAT PRIMARY OF MISSISSIPPI, 
HELD ON THE 24TH DAY CF AUGUST, 1915 





Land 
Commissioner 


Revenue , 
Affent i 


R. R. Commls- i 
sioner 1st Dist. i 


Prison Trustee 
3rd Dist. 


Counties. 


M. A. 
Brown 


H. C. 

Woods 


Stokes ! 

V. ' 
"Rober- \ 

son 1 


! 

Chas. J.! 
Moore 

1 


Geo. R, 

Ed- 
wards 


Jas A.I 
Mc- ! 
Dowell 


P. E. 
Mat- 
thews 


L. Q. 

Stone 




296 
1,171 1 

888 1 
1,564 1 

450 1 

568 ' 
1.295 j 

741 1 

933 1 

730 1 

401 1 
1.147 

408 

507 
1.162 
1.172 

638 t 
1.052 1 

689 1 

442 

440 

914 

497 

883 

861 

653 

51 

1.512 

419 
1,215 

435 

571 
1,887 

763 
1,226 

702 
1.8.34 

49.3 
1,026 
1.660 

461 
1.594 

580 

626 

-^^ 

1,199 

781 

611 

1,105 

121 

680 ■ 

1.107 

835 

516 

1.279 

1.002 

1.255 

98 

i 935 

1 585 

312 

1,143 

1,010 


362 
1.322 

698 

1.148 

359 

.587 

914 

922 

797 

1,009 

306 

670 

882 

356 

776 i 

532 

605 

920 

552 

277 

341 

680 

358 

1.086 

1,306 

828 

20 

890 

682 

623 

218 

336 

1.219 

1,141 

921 

480 

2.094 

569 

1,067 

1.502 

482 

939 

814 

i 61« 

j 557 

784 

1,-579 

701 

2.02? 

1,188 

! 951 

i 804 

1 839 

1 533 

270 

832 

1.749 

i 8^3 

170 

C'J4 

; 1.2t30 

125 

633 

1 1,241 


465 
1.737 

1,064 

1,383 
450 
519 

1.239 
825 

1.089 

1.074 
334 

1.182 
431 
445 

1,978 

1,195 
683 

1,637 
681 
506 
534 
421 
560 
995 

1,404 

429 

41 

1.316 
617 

1.040 
371 

68: 

1.845 

942 
1.285 

929 
1.842 

598 
1,070 
1.893 

539 
1,378 

749 
1 706 
, 874 

1,299 

669 

1.096 

1,470 

433 

882 

1.052 

1.061 

640 

1,205 

1.8«H 

\ 1.147 

229 

753 

; 1.177 

1 216 

1 738 


3«! 

813 

616 
1.331 

382 

707 
1.112 1 

835 

775 ' 

675 

407 ' 

736 ! 

919 , 

483 , 

896 ; 

.570 ' 

586 ' 

445 

583 

248 : 

298 

594 

356 : 
1.066 
1,748 ! 
1,173 
31 
1.159 ' 

506 ' 

819 

293 1 

304 
1.451 , 

979 

921 

353 ' 
2,203 

494 

1,031 

1 1,.384 

414 
1,251 

737 
1 .554 

1 22^ 

' 1.500 

i 884 

1 1.661 

1 833 

1 626 

1 606 

911 

i 401 

! 215 

1 972 

1 946 

1 1,077 

: 241 

776 

565 

220 

1 Ml 




1 


' 




Alcorn 






1.104 


1,484 


Amite 








Attala 


1,819 


905 








456 


396 


Bolivar 


938 


503 




Calhoun 


1,273 

862 
883 
804 


1.164 


Carroll . ... 






815 








997 


Choctaw 




, 


974 


Claiborne 




1 




Clarke . 










Clay 






641 

655 


697 


Coahoma . . . 






326 










Coving"ton 














784 


504 










Franklin 




















Oreene 










GrenaQa 






726 


280 


FTn n»»nolr 


















Hinds 


1.219 

762 

27 


1,970 

849 

49 












Issaquena 






383 


2.157 


Jackson 






......... 













Jefferson 

Jefferson Davis. 

Jones 

Kemper 

Lafayette 

Lamar 
























1.267 


684 






1,704 


657 








Lauderdale 

Lawrence 

Leake 


2,309 


1.992 






1,258 


916 






Lee 


1 456 
, 734 


2.983 








208 


Lincoln , 





1 




Lowndes 

>]adi=on 


'.504' " 


■*"747" 


741 


768 






Mar.shall 







i 1,017 
! 900 


?«9 
1.86S 


Montffom«^ry . . . 

Neshoba 

Newton 






706 


1.458 

1,447 

3-55 


' 1,372 
I 953 
i 731 




1 








Oktibbeha 


4.56 
1,204 


1,075 






788 


Pearl River ... 




1 






1 






Pike 


!"••;■"* 


! 


1 




i 


1 


i 1,315 

782 
! 288 


l.fi45 


Prentiss 

Quitman 

R a n k ' n 


'■■"fii' 

1.175 
! 225 

1 


1 

""sir 

711 
222 


1.590 
195 
i 


j^cott 

Sharkey 

8impson 

Smith 






1 




i " * 


) 1,292 ,u^ 


1::::;::: 






1 



1' .>?'- 



1 • , ' WsA 



Election returns 



487 



OFFICIAL VOTE OF THE DEMOCRAT PRIMARY OF MISSISSIPPI, 
HELD ON THE 24TH DAY OF AUGUST, 1915— Continued 





Land 
Commiiisioner 


Revenue 
Agrent 


R. R. Commis- 
sioner 1st Diat. 


Prison Trustee 
3rd Dir,t. 


Counties. 


M. A. 
Brown 


n. c. 

Woods 


Stokes 

V. 
Rober- 

son 


Chas, J. 
Moore 


Geo. R. 

Ed- 
1 wards 


Jas. A. 

Mc- 
Dowell 


P. E. 

Mat- 
thews 


L. 0. 

Stone 




499 
837 
916 

1,122 

1,072 
153 

1,321 
646 
771 
525 
995 

1,058 
404 
440 
814 

1,325 


821 

858 
626 

1.117 
543 
142 

1,450 
582 
908 
632 
681 
708 
275 

1,706 
746 
759 


428 
935 
944 

1.586 
901 
218 

1,345 
764 
839 
421 

1,121 

1.142 
336 

1.135 
825 

1,075 


877 
784 
672 
707 

'IP 

851 
821 
569 
684 
373 
945 
950 
994 


557 


792 






Tallahatchie ... 


i.642' 
874 

1.164 
507 
234 

1.907 


693 


Xate 






752 


Tippah 






1.166 


Tishomingro .... 






1.261 








76 


Union 






960 


Walthall 










967 
540 


929 
741 






Washington ... 
Wayne 










Webster 







) 676 


916 


W- ilkinson 








Winston 


1.35Z 


799 


1 






; 1,254 


569 


Yazoo 


1.038 


1,060 







: 




Total 


66.959 


63.487 


73.023 


61,680 


19.928 


17.842 


! 27.320 


29.064 



m^ 



'.rx'WH- v^o'vyjijH 



'.y,r~' r-^. r^rr^fy, ^f .•_;-,; r^jj^^.,, 






488 ELECTION RETURNS 



GENERAL ELECTION NOVEMBER 7. 1916. 

Democratic Presidential Electors. 

W. A. Henry 80,422 

J. D. Jones 80,112 

E. C. Sharp 80,363 

S. Joe Owen $0,226 

Roger Montgomery 80,058 

Hugh M. Badley 80,172 

J. L. Byrd 80,354 

J. D. Donald 80,168 

James McClure. '. 80,294 

Jas. R. McDowell 80,194 



RepiiNican Presidential Electors. 

S. S. Matthews 4,253 

J. A. Toler 4,224 

H. E. Fitts 4,196 

Lamar Callicott. 4,158 

C. H. Thomas 4,187 

S. T. Walls 4,146 

L. R. Collins 4,197 

Percy A. Matthews 4,199 

J. Jay White 4,151 



Progressive Presidential Electors. 

B. F. Fridge " 498 

J. H. Cook •:i20 

P. C. Lewis 478 

A. V. Hiler • 451 

M. S. McLean 480 

J. M. Wingo 474 

S. S. Coleman 479 

T. W. Collins 502 

G. H. Sager 437 

J. M. Moore 485 



iH-^i^XSi:^!'. 'V:m"r'y:fU)' 



'" .'■"■l . r '■■• ' I '■' " '■.'P 



'ygrr\ ■^.:^^-^.u^. -.^ 






u. .H .1 



ELECTION RETURNS 489 



Socialist Presidential Electors. 

D. R. Hearne ..: 1,469 

A. H. Lampe 1,440 

J. B. Praytor 1,428 

R. B. Edwards 1,456 

J. C. Shankle 1,424 

G. W. Powell 1;484 

V. L. Egger 1,419 

E. E. Champion 1,426 

W. C. Kennedy 1,452 

E. F. Millar 1,482 



JUDICIAL ELECTION NOV. 7, 1916. 

First Supreme Court District — Judges. 

Geo. H. Sidney 

Ethridge Smith 

Attala 1242 1228 

Bolivar 

Hinds 2235 2228 

Holmes 1013 1023 

Issaquena 78 78 

Kemper ' 924 836 

Lauderdale 2712 2421 

Leake .'. 1394 1359 

Madison 705 710 

Neshoba 1412 1323 

Newton 1299 ' 1227 

Noxubee 626 611 

Rankin 904 . 891 

Sharkey 210 217 

Scott 1044 1024 

Sunflower 764 769 

Warren 1001 912 

Washington 658 699 

Winston 1124 1077 

Yazoo ... , ..•••• •1<^77 1052 



' If .A 



■b:i :: 



490 EL.ECTION RETURNS 

Second Supreme Court District — Judge. 

. J. B. Holden 

Adams , 448 

Amite 926 

Claiborne 355 

Clarke 937 

Copiah 1370 

Covington -754 

Forrest 1036 

Franklin 613 

George 311 

Greene 308 

Hancock ^ 450 

Harrison 1031 

Jackson 576 

Jasper 953 

Jefferson 404 

Jones 1496 

Lamar 707 

Lawrence 566 

Lincoln 1205 

Marion , 676 

Pearl River 425 

Perry 315 

Pike '. 1341 

Simpson 837 

Smith 1082 

Stone 359 

Walthall 217 

1. In the judicial primary Judge Ethridge defeated Judge C. D. 
Potter serving by appointment. 

2. Judge Smith defeated ex-Gov. A. H. Longeno in the primary. 

Wayne 666 

Wilkinson 413 

Jefferson Davis 519 



Third Supreme Court District — Judge E. 0. Sykes. 

Alcorn 1289 

Benton * ■•• 658 

Calhoun 1086 

Carroll ► • • • 861 

Chickasaw ................... .1141 



rQ>7l '/-ryrr'j.-lj.. 






n\k 



.ELECTION RETURNS 491 

Choctaw 764 

Clay 815 

Coahoma 621 

DeSoto 839 

Grenada 617 

Itawamba 1311 

Laf eyette 1245 

Lee 1628 

Leflore 841 

Lowndes 924 

Marshall 958 

Monroe 1643 

Montgomery ; 846 

Oktibbeha 868 

Panola 1183 

Pontotoc 1239 

Prentiss 1264 

Quitman 241 

Tallahatchie 983 

Tate 906 

Tippah 1443 

Tishomingo 1011 

Tunica 168 

Union 1594 

Webster 847 

Yalobusha 1036 



■'M \:snrr]i.jm 



'JH 



r'V- 



492 



ELECTION RETURNS 



GENERAL ELECTION. NOVEMBER 7. 1916. FOR PRESIDENT AND 
UNITED STATES SENATOR 



Counties, 


President. 1916 


United States 
Senator 


(81) j 


Wilson, 
Dem.